Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 5895184, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5895184
Research Article

The Rhizome Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptis chinensis Attenuates Mesalazine-Resistant Colitis in Mice

1Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Pharmacy, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea
2DongWha Pharm Research Institute, 35-71 Topsil-ro, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Shi, Gyeonggi 446-902, Republic of Korea

Received 22 June 2016; Revised 18 August 2016; Accepted 18 August 2016

Academic Editor: Man Hee Rhee

Copyright © 2016 Su-Min Lim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We investigated the effect of DWac on the gut microbiota composition in mice with 2,3,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Treatment with DWac restored TNBS-disturbed gut microbiota composition and attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined the effect of DWac in mice with mesalazine-resistant colitis (MRC). Intrarectal injection of TNBS in MRC mice caused severe colitis, as well as colon shortening, edema, and increased myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with mesalazine (30 mg/kg) did not attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in MRC mice, whereas treatment with DWac (30 mg/kg) significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, treatment with the mixture of mesalazine (15 mg/kg) and DWac (15 mg/kg) additively attenuated colitis in MRC mice. Treatment with DWac and its mixture with mesalazine inhibited TNBS-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of M1 macrophage markers but increased TNBS-suppressed expression of M2 macrophage markers. Furthermore, these inhibited TNBS-induced T-bet, RORγt, TNF-α, and IL-17 expression but increased TNBS-suppressed Foxp3 and IL-10 expression. However, Th2 cell differentiation and GATA3 and IL-5 expression were not affected. These findings suggest that DWac can ameliorate MRC by increasing the polarization of M2 macrophage and correcting the disturbance of gut microbiota and Th1/Th17/Treg, as well as additively attenuating MRC along with mesalazine.