Table 3: Summary of findings in this systematic review.

Herbal medicines compared to controls for metabolic syndrome

Patient or population: metabolic syndrome
Setting: outpatient and inpatient
Intervention: herbal medicines
Comparison: no treatment, placebo, and western medicines

Outcomes⁢Anticipated absolute effects (95% CI) Relative effect (95% CI) Number of participants (studies) Quality of the evidence (grade) Comments
Risk with controlRisk with intervention

Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) The mean FPG ranged across control groups from 87 to 260 mg/dLThe mean FPG in the intervention groups was 1.37 mg/dL lower (3.12 lower to 0.39 higher)980 (10 RCTs)
Low
Lower score indicates less risk of diabetes mellitus.
Triglycerides (TG) The mean TG ranged across control groups from 135 to 291 mg/dLThe mean TG in the intervention groups was 22.54 mg/dL lower (27.81 lower to 17.27 lower)980 (10 RCTs)
Moderate
Lower score indicates less risk of dyslipidemia.
Systolic blood pressure (SBP) The mean SBP ranged across control groups from 122 to 150 mmHgThe mean SBP in the intervention groups was 6.76 mmHg lower (7.72 lower to 5.81 lower)1080 (11 RCTs)
Moderate
Lower score indicates less risk of hypertension.
Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) The mean DBP ranged across control groups from 72 to 95 mmHgThe mean DBP in the intervention groups was 5.23 mmHg lower (4.77 lower to 4.68 lower)1080 (11 RCTs)
Moderate
Lower score indicates less risk of hypertension.
Waist circumference (WC) See comment726 (7 RCTs)
Low
Only 2 studies showed WC separated by sex, so risk could not be calculated.
High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) See comment860 (9 RCTs)
Low
No study showed HDL-C separated by sex, so risk could not be calculated.

The risk in the intervention group (and its 95% confidence interval) is based on the assumed risk in the comparison group and the relative effect of the intervention (and its 95% CI).
CI: confidence interval; MD: mean difference.
Heterogeneity and possible publication bias downgraded quality of the evidence.
Sparse data downgraded quality of the evidence.
Heterogeneity downgraded quality of the evidence.