Table 3: Botanicals with anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle.

PaperBotanicalCompoundModelPhysiologyMain results

In vitro

Kim et al., 2012 [7]Korean Citrus aurantium L.Flavonoids (hesperidin, nobiletin, and naringin) Rat skeletal muscle cellsFlavonoids 10, 50, 75, and 100 µg/mLDecrease in the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-, and IL-6.

Kim et al., 2013 [24]Korean Citrus aurantium L.Flavonoids (naringin, hesperidin, poncirin, isosinnesetin, and hexamethoxyflavone)Rat skeletal muscle cells100 µgProtection of cell-structure related proteins and decrease in level of cleaved caspase-3.

Leite et al., 2014 [12]Eugenia punicifoliaPentacyclic triterpenes (barbinervic acid)Mouse myoblastoma cells (C2C12)Ep-CM
100 µg/mL
Reduction of C2C12 cell density and proliferation. Increase of metalloproteases activity: MMP-9 (128 ± 14%, ) and MMP-2 (110 ± 18%, ).

Wang et al., 2014 [16]
Vitis viniferaResveratrol (3,5,40-trihydroxystilbene)Mouse C2C12 cellsResveratrol
100 μM
Counteraction of TNF-α induced muscle protein loss and reversion of declining expression of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and FoX01.

Guo et al., 2014 [19]CoffeeChlorogenic acid, anhydrous caffeine, and polyphenolsMouse myosatellite cellsCoffee solution
10, 30, 50, and 100 µg/mL
Increase in cell proliferation rate, enhancement of the DNA synthesis of the proliferating satellite cells, and increase of the activation level of Akt.

Animals

Yu et al., 2014 [10]Panax ginsengDammarane steroids (DS) RatsDS
20, 60, and 120 mg/kg
Anti-inflammatory effects on skeletal muscle following muscle-damaging exercise.

Kishida et al., 2015 [28]Go-sha-jinki-Gan (GJG)Paeoniflorin, loganin, and total alkaloidsMale SAMP8, SAMR1 mice GJG
4% (w/w)
Reduction of the loss of skeletal muscle mass and amelioration of the increase in slow skeletal muscle fibers.

Guo et al., 2014 [19]CoffeeCoffee bean, chlorogenic acid, anhydrous caffeine, and polyphenolsC57BL/6 mice The same amount of drink in control and coffee group for 4 weeksImprovement in grip strength; faster regeneration of injured skeletal muscles. Decrease in the levels of interleukins.

Leite et al., 2010 [8]Eugenia punicifoliaDichloromethane fraction Male mdx dystrophic miceEp-CM
2 mg/mL
Reduction of MMP-9 (62 ± 12%, ) and MMP-2 (58 ± 10%, ) activities. Reduction of TNF- production (42 ± 9%, ) and NF-B expression (%, ).

Leite et al., 2014 [12]Eugenia punicifoliaPentacyclic triterpenes (barbinervic acid)C57BL/10 miceEp-CM
2 mg/mL
Reduction of MMP-9 activity (%, ) but difference concerning MMP-2 activity in the muscular lesion; reduction of the inflammatory lesion area.

Boz et al., 2014 [31]CurcuminCurcuminMale Wistar rats200 mg/kg/dayDecrease of CK activity () and significant decrease of myoglobin levels ().

Humans

Díaz-Castro et al., 2012 [18]Phlebodium decumanumPolyphenols, terpenoids, and xavonoidsAmateur athletes ()5 capsules of 400 mg (250 mg of leaf extract and 150 mg of rhizome extract)Reduction of oxidative stress (). Reduction in the inflammatory response. Decrease of TNF-α before and after the high-intensity exercise. Increase in sTNF-RII.

Hou et al., 2015 [17]Panax notoginsengGinsenosides Rg1 Healthy young men ()5 mg of Rg1Increase in exercise time to exhaustion (Rg1 38.3 ± 6.7 min versus placebo 31.8 ± 5.0 min).
Improvement in meal tolerance during recovery ().

Black et al., 2010 [54]Zingiber officinale RoscoeGingerols and shogaolsIndividuals ()2 g of ginger after exercise Postexercise reduction in arm pain the following day (13%; −5.9 ± 8 mm).

Black et al., 2010 [54]Zingiber officinale RoscoeGingerols and shogaols34 participants in study 1
40 participants in study 2
2 g for 11 consecutive days after exerciseDecrease in pain-intensity ratings 24 hours after eccentric exercise in both studies ().

Pumpa et al., 2013 [55]Panax notoginsengSaponins (ginsenosides)Well-trained male volunteers ()4 g of P. notoginsengDecrease in IL-6 24 h after the downhill run (placebo). Decrease in TNF-α 24 h after the downhill run (placebo).

Drobnic et al., 2014 [23]CurcuminPhytosome delivery system (Meriva)Healthy, moderately active male ()1 g twice daily (corresponding to 200 mg curcumin twice a day)Significant decrease in pain intensity for the right and left anterior thigh (4.4 ± 2.5 and 4.4 ± 2.4, ).
Lower increase in hsPCR levels at 24 hours (116.2%). Lower increase of IL-8 levels at 2 hours (196.8 ± 66.1 pg/mL, ).

Nicol et al., 2015 [22]CurcuminCurcuminoidsMen () 2.5 g twice dailyModerate-to-large reduction in pain during single-leg squat (VAS scale −1.4 to −1.7; 90% CL: ±1.0), gluteal stretch (−1.0 to −1.9; ±0.9), and squat jump (−1.5 to −1.1; ±1.2) and reduction in creatine kinase activity (−22–29%; ±21-22%). Increase in IL-6 concentrations at 0 h (31%; ±29%) and 48 h (32%; ±29%), but decrease in IL-6 at 24 h relative to postexercise period (−20%; ±18%).

Tanabe et al., 2015 [30]CurcuminCurcuminoids (Theracurmin)Untrained young men () 150 mg before and 12 h after each eccentric exerciseFaster recovery of maximum voluntary contraction torque (e.g., 4 days after exercise: −31 ± 13% versus −15 ± 15%), lower peak serum CK activity (peak: 7684 ± 8959 IU/L versus 3398 ± 3562 IU/L, ). No significant changes in IL-6 and TNF-α after exercise.