Table 4: Botanicals with counterbalancing muscle damage effects.

PaperBotanicalCompoundModelPhysiologyMain results

In vitro

Hernández-Santana et al., 2014 [44]Rhodiola roseaRR extracts: rosavins and salidroside Murine skeletal muscle cells 1–100 µg/mL and othersUpregulation of HSP70 mRNA levels and enhancement of the expression by exposure to H2O2 (). Maintenance of HSP70 protein levels in pretreated cell cultures compared to controls (−50%).

Dargelos et al., 2010 [46]Pinus pinasterPolyphenolsCultured human skeletal muscle satellite cells Oligopin (0.05 mg/mL)Restoration of cell viability (55.2 ± 3.2% versus 42.3 ± 4.8% in H2O2 treated cells). Abolishment of H2O2 induced apoptotic cell death.

Animals

Haramizu et al., 2013 [20]Camellia sinensisCatechins: epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, epicatechin, gallocatechin, and gallocatechin gallateMice0.5% w/w in diet for 3 weeks after downhill runningMitigation of the running-induced decrease in voluntary wheel-running activity by 35%. Maintenance of endurance running capacity (214 ± 9 versus 189 ± 10 min, ).

Kawanishi et al., 2013 [49]Curcuma longaCurcuminMale C57BL/6 mice3 mgDecrease of hydrogen peroxide concentration and NADPH-oxidase mRNA expression ().

Rodriguez et al., 2014 [50]Camellia sinensis Green tea extracts Twelve-week-old female C57BL/6J mice Green tea extract (0.5% w/vol)Decrease of BiP, ATF4, XBP1u, and XBP1s mRNA. No activity on CHOP mRNA.

Humans

Shanely et al., 2014 [56]Rhodiola rosea Rosavin, salidroside, syringin, triandrin, and tyrosol55 subjects (48 completing all aspects of the study)600 mg/day for 30 days prior to, on the day of, and after 7 days of the marathonNo effects on DOMS increased ().

Pumpa et al., 2013 [55]Panax notoginsengSaponins (ginsenosides)Twenty well-trained male volunteers4000 mg of P. notoginseng capsulesLower IL-6 concentrations 24 h after the downhill run in the placebo group.

Matsumura et al., 2015 [34]Zingiber officinale RoscoeGingerols and shogaols20 non-weight trained participants 4 g of ginger once a day for 5 days Acceleration in the recovery of muscle strength following intense exercise.