Table 6: Botanicals with effects on muscle atrophy.

PaperBotanicalCompoundModelPhysiology Main results

In vitro

Lee et al., 2013 [45]Cichorium intybus (Cii)C2C12 myoblast5, 10, 25, and 50 µg/mLPrevention of cell viability loss.

Hirasaka et al., 2013 [11]Glycine maxIsoflavone (genistein and daidzein)C2C12 myotubes100 µMApproximately 2-fold increase of SIRT1 mRNA expression.

Mirza et al., 2014 [25]Camellia sinensisEpigallocatechin-3-gallateC2C12 myotubes10–150 μMReduction of the expression of proteasome 19S and 20S subunits. Reduction of the expression of MuRF-1 and MAFbx.

Frati et al., 2014 [29]Chestnuts flourChestnuts flour extract polyphenols or tocopherols or SL-sC2C12 myotube cellsPolyphenols (100 nM) or tocopherols (100 nM)Counterbalance of cell atrophy. Γ-Tocopherol and sphingolipids positively affect skeletal muscle cell atrophy.

Animals

Vitadello et al., 2014 [43]Curcuma longaCurcuminsWistar rats (n = 130)20–40 μg kg−1 of curcumin About twofold increase of Grp 94 in muscles of ambulatory rats (). Counteracted loss of soleus mass and myofiber cross-sectional area by 30% ().

Nakashima et al., 2014 [47]ChlorellaTransgenic mice1% Chlorella-supplemented diet (CSD group)Improvement of skeletal muscle atrophy and cytochrome C oxidase activity. Recovery of body weight, enhancement of oxidative stress, and increase of CPK.

Humans

Choquette et al., 2013 [57]Glycine max Isoflavones (daidzein, glycitein, and genistein)70 womenIsoflavones (70 mg/day) and exercise No effects.