Table 1: The antibacterial activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of miswak against 10 MDR pathogenic organisms.

MDR bacterial isolatesThe diameter of inhibition zones (mm)
⁢Aqueous extract (mg/mL)⁢Methanol extract (mg/mL)Positive control
4002001005040020010050VAN (30 µg)TOB (10 µg)

Streptococcus pyogenes6.
E. faecalis6.
E. coli12.
K. pneumonia11.
P. aeruginosa10.
S. marcescens12.
A. baumannii8.
S. maltophilia8.

MRSA: methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, MRSE: methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis.
VAN: vancomycin, TOB: tobramycin, and NT: Not tested.
The CLSI zone diameter interpretive criteria for vancomycin (VAN): ≥15 mm: susceptible, 13-14 mm: intermediate, and ≤12 mm: resistant [21].
The CLSI zone diameter interpretive criteria for tobramycin (TOB): ≥17 mm: susceptible, 15-16 mm: intermediate, and ≤14 mm: resistant [21].