Table 1: The antibacterial activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of miswak against 10 MDR pathogenic organisms.

MDR bacterial isolatesThe diameter of inhibition zones (mm)
⁢Aqueous extract (mg/mL)⁢Methanol extract (mg/mL)Positive control
4002001005040020010050VAN (30 µg)TOB (10 µg)

MRSA6.25.13.83.08.35.13.42.018NT
MRSE6.04.83.22.77.65.83.11.819NT
Streptococcus pyogenes6.44.53.52.67.45.43.02.221NT
E. faecalis6.15.24.03.27.86.15.02.919NT
E. coli12.39.77.25.313.69.26.54.8NT21
K. pneumonia11.88.57.04.312.78.75.84.6NT20
P. aeruginosa10.58.05.94.010.28.86.24.2NT17
S. marcescens12.09.25.64.812.58.15.04.5NT18
A. baumannii8.57.34.63.29.88.05.23.5NT16
S. maltophilia8.27.04.83.09.57.64.93.3NT16

MRSA: methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, MRSE: methicillin-resistant staphylococcus epidermidis.
VAN: vancomycin, TOB: tobramycin, and NT: Not tested.
The CLSI zone diameter interpretive criteria for vancomycin (VAN): ≥15 mm: susceptible, 13-14 mm: intermediate, and ≤12 mm: resistant [21].
The CLSI zone diameter interpretive criteria for tobramycin (TOB): ≥17 mm: susceptible, 15-16 mm: intermediate, and ≤14 mm: resistant [21].