Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2016, Article ID 7279361, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7279361
Review Article

Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

Department of Clinical Research, Tasly Pharmaceuticals Inc., 9400 Key West Avenue, Rockville, MD 20850, USA

Received 19 August 2015; Revised 5 January 2016; Accepted 16 February 2016

Academic Editor: Avni Sali

Copyright © 2016 Xuefeng Su et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. D. Yi and I. M. Chang, “An overview of traditional Chinese herbal formulae and a proposal of a new code system for expressing the formula titles,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 125–132, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. N. J. Sucher, “The application of Chinese medicine to novel drug discovery,” Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 21–34, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Xutian, J. Zhang, and W. Louise, “New exploration and understanding of traditional Chinese medicine,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 411–426, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. X. Zhang, T. Wu, J. Zhang, Q. Yan, L. Xie, and G. J. Liu, “Chinese medicinal herbs for the common cold,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD004782, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. L. Zhang, G. Wang, W. Hou, P. Li, A. Dulin, and H. L. Bonkovsky, “Contemporary clinical research of traditional Chinese medicines for chronic hepatitis B in china: an analytical review,” Hepatology, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 690–698, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Chen, Y. Wan, C. Wang et al., “Mechanisms and effects of Abelmoschus manihot preparations in treating chronic kidney disease,” Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, vol. 37, no. 15, pp. 2252–2256, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. X. Xu, L. Guo, and G. Tian, “Diabetes cognitive impairments and the effect of traditional Chinese herbs,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 649396, 10 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. T. Wu, X. Yang, X. Zeng, and G. D. Eslick, “Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs in the treatment of patients with esophageal cancer, a systematic review,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 153–167, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Y. Jia, F. Huang, S. Zhang, and S.-W. Leung, “Is danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) dripping pill more effective than isosorbide dinitrate in treating angina pectoris? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 157, no. 3, pp. 330–340, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. CDC and NCHS, “Underlying Cause of Death 1999–2013 on CDC WONDER Online Database,” August 2015, http://wonder.cdc.gov/ucd-icd10.html.
  11. Z. Sun, “Atherosclerosis and atheroma plaque rupture: normal anatomy of vasa vasorum and their role associated with atherosclerosis,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2014, Article ID 285058, 6 pages, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Rafieian-Kopaei, M. Setorki, M. Doudi, A. Baradaran, and H. Nasri, “Atherosclerosis: process, indicators, risk factors and new hopes,” International Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 927–946, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Libby, “Inflammation in atherosclerosis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 2045–2051, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Gupta and D. A. Smith, “The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines on treating blood cholesterol and assessing cardiovascular risk: a busy practitioner's guide,” Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 869–892, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. D. K. Arnett, R. A. Goodman, J. L. Halperin, J. L. Anderson, A. K. Parekh, and W. A. Zoghbi, “AHA/ACC/HHS strategies to enhance application of clinical practice guidelines in patients with cardiovascular disease and comorbid conditions: from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and US Department of Health and Human Services,” Circulation, vol. 130, no. 18, pp. 1662–1667, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. J. R. N. Nansseu and J. J. N. Noubiap, “Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease,” Thrombosis Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, article 38, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. G. L. Jennings, “A new guideline on treatment of hypertension in those with coronary artery disease: scientific statement from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Society of Hypertension about treatment of hypertension in patients with coronary artery disease,” Heart, Lung & Circulation, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1037–1040, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  18. Y. Liu, N. Ai, J. Liao, and X. Fan, “Transcriptomics: a sword to cut the Gordian knot of traditional Chinese medicine,” Biomarkers in Medicine, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 1201–1213, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. S. Li, “Network systems underlying traditional Chinese medicine syndrome and herb formula,” Current Bioinformatics, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 188–196, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Z. Ma and M. Liang, “Review of reducing toxicity and increasing beneficial effects of TCM,” Journal of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, no. 6, pp. 187–190, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  21. J. Qiu, “Traditional medicine: a culture in the balance,” Nature, vol. 448, no. 7150, pp. 126–128, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Xutian, D. Cao, J. Wozniak, J. Junion, and J. Boisvert, “Comprehension of the unique characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 231–244, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. Y. C. Liu, The Essential Book of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Vol. 1: Theory, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1988.
  24. Z. X. Zhou and X. Q. Ke, “Discussion of the seven features of compatibility of Chinese herb medicine,” Journal of Hubei Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 17, no. 118, pp. 24–25, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  25. D. Bensky, S. Clavey, and E. Stoger, Chinese Herbal Medicine Materia Medica, Eastland Press, Seattle, Wash, USA, 3rd edition, 2004.
  26. Y. Chen, F. Lin, X. Liang, and R. Tan, “Application of Du Shen Tang, powder of Panax notoginseng, and cold compress in treatment of 30 cases of postpartum hemorrhage,” Journal of Emergency in Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 20, pp. 1523–1524, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  27. X. Gong, “Thrombolytic therapy along with Du Shen Tang in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction,” Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine in Intensive and Critical Care, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 126–127, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  28. Z. Zhao, G. Cai, S. Xie, X. Zhou, and X. Hu, “Naval compression with root of Kansui plus intake of Du Shen Tang in treatment of cirrhosis with ascites,” Journal of Emergency in Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 388–389, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  29. W. Yang, “Effect of treating 67 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with Du Shen Tang,” Gansu Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 9–10, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  30. D. Qin, “Si Ni Tang combining Du Shen Tang in treatment of 30 cases of congestive heart failure,” Henan Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, no. 8, pp. 1510–1511, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  31. Y. Mao and G. Zhou, “Effects of compatibility of Rhubarb and Glauber on anthraquinone glycosides content in different proportions,” Journal of Jiangxi TCM, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 60–61, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  32. L. Wan, Z. Z. Lin, W. Liu, and Z. Liu, “Pharmacokinetic study on berberine in the extract of rhizoma coptidis-radix aucklandiae drug-pair in rats,” Chinese Journal of Modern Applied Pharmacy, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 443–446, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  33. M. Shong, J. Yu, and Z. Bao, “Compatibility of traditional Chinese medicine to reduce the toxicity and modern research progress,” Pharmacy and Clinics of Chinese Materia Medica, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 51–53, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  34. W. Long, X.-D. Zhang, H.-Y. Wu et al., “Study on incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicine: evidence from formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 352145, 8 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. J. Zhang, X. S. Fan, H. Yang, C. X. Jiang, Y. Li, and Z. H. Qi, “Review of eighteen incompatibility pairs of Veratrum nigrum and its drug incompatibility in TCM,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 2870–2873, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  36. J. Dong and Y. Fan, “Compatibility of Chinese herb medicine and its connection with effects and toxicity,” Chinese Medical Pharmacy Journal, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 618–619, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  37. L. Wang, G.-B. Zhou, P. Liu et al., “Dissection of mechanisms of Chinese medicinal formula Realgar-Indigo naturalis as an effective treatment for promyelocytic leukemia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 12, pp. 4826–4831, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. X.-J. Lai, L. Z. Zhang, J.-S. Li et al., “Comparative pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies of three salvianolic acids after the administration of Salviae miltiorrhizae alone or with synthetical borneol in rats,” Fitoterapia, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 883–888, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Li, Y. Z. Zhang, W. Wang et al., “Influence of borneol when combined with salvianolic acid B and saponins of panax notoginseng on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in brain tissue of rats with cerebral ischemia/reperfusion,” Chinese Journal of TCM WM Critical Care, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 263–266, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  40. C. Z. Liang, “Focus on the theory of precaution of disease in Tradition Chinese Medicine from the function of compound Danshen dripping pill to the heart and blood vessel's illness,” Chinese Archives of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 26, no. 3, Article ID 643644, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  41. Q. Zheng, C. C. Peng, M. L. Shen, and M. Yang, “Study on compatibility of Radix et Rhizoma Salviae miltiorrhizae and Radix et Rhizoma Notoginseng,” Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 83–86, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  42. T. O. Cheng, “Cardiovascular effects of Danshen,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 9–22, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y.-K. Li and L.-D. Li, “Urgency and necessity of standardisation of Chinese medicine with confusions of compound Danshen preparations,” Chinese Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 349–352, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. L. Zhou, Z. Zuo, and M. S. S. Chow, “Danshen: an overview of its chemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical use,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1345–1359, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. H.-C. Ho and C.-Y. Hong, “Salvianolic acids: small compounds with multiple mechanisms for cardiovascular protection,” Journal of Biomedical Science, vol. 18, article 30, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. C.-S. Zheng, X.-J. Xu, H.-Z. Ye et al., “Computational pharmacological comparison of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax notoginseng used in the therapy of cardiovascular diseases,” Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1163–1168, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. X. D. Song, W. L. Zhu, R. An, Y. Li, and Z. Du, “Protective effect of Daming capsule against chronic cerebral ischemia,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, article 149, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. K. K.-K. Wong, M. T.-W. Ho, H. Q. Lin et al., “Cryptotanshinone, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor from salvia miltiorrhiza, ameliorates scopolamine-induced amnesia in morris water maze task,” Planta Medica, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 228–234, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Zhou, X.-D. Qu, Z.-Y. Li et al., “Salvianolic acid B attenuates toxin-induced neuronal damage via Nrf2-dependent glial cells-mediated protective activity in Parkinson's disease models,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 7, Article ID e101668, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. X. H. Tian, W. J. Xue, and X. M. Ding, “Application of Danshen injection on early stage of renal transplantation,” Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 404–407, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  51. L. Gao, K. Yan, Y. Cui, G. Fan, and Y. Wang, “Protective effect of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius extract against lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 30, pp. 9079–9092, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  52. Y. Zhang, P. X. Jiang, M. Ye, S.-H. Kim, C. Jiang, and J. X. Lü, “Tanshinones: sources, pharmacokinetics and anti-cancer activities,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 13, no. 10, pp. 13621–13666, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. V. Nicolin, F. Dal Piaz, S. L. Nori, P. Narducci, and N. de Tommasi, “Inhibition of bone resorption by Tanshinone VI isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge,” European Journal of Histochemistry, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 104–106, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Gao, Z. Liu, H. Li, P. J. Little, P. Liu, and S. Xu, “Cardiovascular actions and therapeutic potential of tanshinone IIA,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 220, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Xu, P. Huang, Z. Yu, D. H. Xing, S. Ouyang, and G. Xing, “Efficacy and safety of panax notoginseng saponin therapy for acute intracerebral hemorrhage, meta-analysis, and mini review of potential mechanisms of action,” Frontiers in Neurology, vol. 5, article 274, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. Q. H. Shang, H. Xu, Z. L. Liu, K. Chen, and J. P. Liu, “Oral Panax notoginseng preparation for coronary heart disease: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 940125, 12 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. T. B. Ng, “Pharmacological activity of sanchi ginseng (Panax notoginseng),” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 1007–1019, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. J. Q. Cao, P. Fu, and Y. Q. Zhao, “Isolation and identification of a new compound from acid hydrolysate of saponinin stems and leaves of Panax notoginseng,” Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 137–140, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  59. Z. Cai, S. Hou, Y. Li et al., “Effect of borneol on the distribution of gastrodin to the brain in mice via oral administration,” Journal of Drug Targeting, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 178–184, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J.-P. Dai, J. Chen, Y.-F. Bei, B.-X. Han, and S. Wang, “Influence of borneol on primary mice oral fibroblasts: a penetration enhancer may be used in oral submucous fibrosis,” Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 276–281, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. Y.-Y. Xiao, Q.-N. Ping, and Z.-P. Chen, “The enhancing effect of synthetical borneol on the absorption of tetramethylpyrazine phosphate in mouse,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 337, no. 1-2, pp. 74–79, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Z. Jiang, Y. Wang, X. Gao, H. Shang, and X. Wang, “The pharmacological actions of danshen ThemeD formulas,” in Dan Shen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) in Medicine, X. Yan, Ed., chapter 2, pp. 19–47, Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. M. Nichols, N. Townsend, P. Scarborough, and M. Rayner, “Cardiovascular disease in Europe 2014: epidemiological update,” European Heart Journal, vol. 35, no. 42, pp. 2950–2959, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Y. Yao, Y. Feng, and L. Wang, “Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing compound danshen dripping pills and isosorbide dinitrate in treating angina pectoris,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 182, pp. 46–47, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  65. Q.-X. Yue, F.-B. Xie, X.-Y. Song et al., “Proteomic studies on protective effects of salvianolic acids, notoginsengnosides and combination of salvianolic acids and notoginsengnosides against cardiac ischemic-reperfusion injury,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 659–667, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. X.-Y. Yang, N. Zhao, Y.-Y. Liu et al., “Inhibition of NADPH oxidase mediates protective effect of cardiotonic pills against rat heart ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2013, Article ID 728020, 15 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. H.-Y. Fan, F.-H. Fu, M.-Y. Yang, H. Xu, A.-H. Zhang, and K. Liu, “Antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of salvianolic acid A,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. e17–e22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. F. Maione, V. De Feo, E. Caiazzo, L. De Martino, C. Cicala, and N. Mascolo, “Tanshinone IIA, a major component of Salvia milthorriza Bunge, inhibits platelet activation via Erk-2 signaling pathway,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 1236–1242, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. F. F. Y. Lam, S. Y. Deng, E. S. K. Ng et al., “Mechanisms of the relaxant effect of a Danshen and Gegen formulation on rat isolated cerebral basilar artery,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 186–192, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. M. Koon, K. S. woo, P. C. Leung, and K. P. Fung, “Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix and Puerariae Lobatae Radi herb formula mediate anti-arthrosclerosis by modulating key atherogenic events both in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cell,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 175–183, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  71. G. Liu, B. Wang, J. Zhang, H. Jiang, and F. Liu, “Total panax notoginsenosides prevent atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice: role of downregulation of CD40 and MMP-9 expression,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 350–354, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. L. Xue, Z. Wu, X.-P. Ji, X.-Q. Gao, and Y.-H. Guo, “Effect and mechanism of salvianolic acid B on the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 280–284, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. L. Ma, X. Zhang, H. Guo, and Y. Gan, “Determination of four water-soluble compounds in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge by high-performance liquid chromatography with a coulometric electrode array system,” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 833, no. 2, pp. 260–263, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. P. Li, S.-P. Li, F.-Q. Yang, and Y.-T. Wang, “Simultaneous determination of four tanshinones in Salvia miltiorrhiza by pressurized liquid extraction and capillary electrochromatography,” Journal of Separation Science, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 900–905, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. P. Li, G. Xu, S.-P. Li et al., “Optimizing ultraperformance liquid chromatographic analysis of 10 diterpenoid compounds in Salvia miltiorrhiza using central composite design,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1164–1171, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J.-B. Wan, P. Li, S. Li, Y. Wang, T. T.-X. Dong, and K. W.-K. Tsim, “Simultaneous determination of 11 saponins in Panax notoginseng using HPLC-ELSD and pressurized liquid extraction,” Journal of Separation Science, vol. 29, no. 14, pp. 2190–2196, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. G. F. Zeng, Q. Xu, H. B. Xiao, and X. M. Liang, “Influence of compatibility ratio of Fufang Danshen on the dissolution of Danshen compositions,” Chinese Journal of Chromatography, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 141–143, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. S. H. Li, K. L. Xu, and Y. Z. Xu, “The study on the interaction between Danshen and Sanqi in Compound Danshen formula,” Progress in Natural Sciences, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 186–189, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  79. W. Long, S.-C. Zhang, L. Wen, L. Mu, F. Yang, and G. Chen, “In vivo distribution and pharmacokinetics of multiple active components from Danshen and Sanqi and their combination via inner ear administration,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 156, pp. 199–208, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. S.-Y. Zhang, M. Song, J.-G. Lu, and T.-J. Hang, “Effects of combination of Salvia miltiorrhiza and Panax notoginseng on the pharmacokinetics of their major bioactive components in Beagle dog,” Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 1433–1439, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. H. C. Shang, B. L. Zhang, and X. M. Gao, “Characteristics of compatibility Danshen and Sanqi and new drug design accordingly,” Herald of Technology, vol. 5, no. 24, pp. 25–27, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  82. X. Wang, Y. Wang, M. Jiang et al., “Differential cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid and tanshinone on acute myocardial infarction are mediated by unique signaling pathways,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 662–671, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. Y. Deng, T. Zhang, F. Teng et al., “Ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1, in combination with salvianolic acid B, play different roles in myocardial infarction in rats,” Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 114–120, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. Y. L. Lu, X. Liu, X. Liang, L. Xiang, and W. Zhang, “Metabolomic strategy to study therapeutic and synergistic effects of tanshinone IIA, salvianolic acid B and ginsenoside Rb1 in myocardial ischemia rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 134, no. 1, pp. 45–49, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. G. F. Zeng, X. Jian, P. Li, S. P. Fu, H. B. Xiao, and X. M. Liang, “Protective effects of different ratios of danshen to sanqi on hypoxia and reoxygenation-induced HUVECs injury,” Fine Chemicals, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 126–129, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  86. T. Liu, C. L. Qin, and B. L. Zhang, “Effects of combinatory usage of Danshen and Sanqi on platelet adhesion and aggregation,” Journal of Chinese Herbal Medicines, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 609–611, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  87. Y. Yao, W.-Y. Wu, A.-H. Liu et al., “Interaction of salvianolic acids and notoginsengnosides in inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 313–328, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. Wang, W. Zang, X. Zhao et al., “Effects of borneol on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of notoginsenoside R1 and ginsenosides Rg1 and Re in Panax notoginseng in rabbits,” Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry, vol. 2013, Article ID 706723, 11 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. P. Liu, H. Yang, F. Long et al., “Bioactive equivalence of combinatorial components identified in screening of an herbal medicine,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 1788–1800, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. Bent, “Herbal medicine in the United States: review of efficacy, safety, and regulation: grand rounds at University of California, San Francisco Medical Center,” Journal of General Internal Medicine, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 854–859, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. L. Chavez, M. A. Jordan, and P. I. Chavez, “Evidence-based drug-herbal interactions,” Life Sciences, vol. 78, no. 18, pp. 2146–2157, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M.-Z. Liu, Y.-L. Zhang, M.-Z. Zeng et al., “Pharmacogenomics and herb-drug interactions: merge of future and tradition,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2015, Article ID 321091, 8 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  93. S. J. Brantley, A. A. Argikar, Y. S. Lin, S. Nagar, and M. F. Paine, “Herb-drug interactions: challenges and opportunities for improved predictions,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 301–317, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. Y. Chu, L. Zhang, X.-Y. Wang, J.-H. Guo, Z.-X. Guo, and X.-H. Ma, “The effect of Compound Danshen Dripping Pills, a Chinese herb medicine, on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 1457–1461, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. P. Wang, H. Sun, L. Yang et al., “Absence of an effect of t89 on the steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy volunteers,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 234–239, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus