Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1725246, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1725246
Research Article

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Herbal Formula SC-E3 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages

College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, Goyang 10326, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Ju-Hee Lee; rk.ca.kuggnod@8451hj and Sun-Dong Park; rk.ca.kuggnod@gnodnus

Received 28 May 2017; Revised 10 August 2017; Accepted 21 August 2017; Published 15 October 2017

Academic Editor: Shao-Hsuan Kao

Copyright © 2017 Soo Chil Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Z. Durackova, “Some current insights into oxidative stress,” Physiological Research, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 459–469, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Mittal, M. R. Siddiqui, K. Tran, S. P. Reddy, and A. B. Malik, “Reactive oxygen species in inflammation and tissue injury,” Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1126–1167, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. S. Becker, S. Mundandhara, R. B. Devlin, and M. Madden, “Regulation of cytokine production in human alveolar macrophages and airway epithelial cells in response to ambient air pollution particles: further mechanistic studies,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. S269–S275, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. N. Fujiwara and K. Kobayashi, “Macrophages in inflammation,” Current Drug Targets—Inflammation & Allergy, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 281–286, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. A. Heller, M. Schena, A. Chai et al., “Discovery and analysis of inflammatory disease-related genes using cDNA microarrays,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 2150–2155, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Bognar, Z. Sarszegi, A. Szabo et al., “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in RAW264.7 macrophages of malvidin, a major red wine polyphenol,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 6, Article ID e65355, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. H. Kim and H. J. Kim, “Literature review on sovereign, minister, assistant and courier theory, the basic principle of oriental medicine formula,” The Journal of East-West Medicines, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 5–21, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  8. D. Y. Choi, Comment on the Shang Han Lun, Daesung Publishing Company, Seoul, Korea, 1995.
  9. D. Y. Choi, J. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lyeom, Jin Gui Yao Lue, Dongguk university Press, Seoul, Korea, 2004.
  10. M. A. Gyamfi, M. Yonamine, and Y. Aniya, “Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: Thonningia sanguinea on experimentally-induced liver injuries,” General Pharmacology, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 661–667, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. F. Liu, V. E. C. Ooi, and S. T. Chang, “Free radical scavenging activities of mushroom polysaccharide extracts,” Life Sciences, vol. 60, no. 10, pp. 763–771, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. A. Ainsworth and K. M. Gillespie, “Estimation of total phenolic content and other oxidation substrates in plant tissues using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent,” Nature Protocols, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 875–877, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Zhishen, T. Mengcheng, and W. Jianming, “The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals,” Food Chemistry, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 555–559, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. P. Tak and G. S. Firestein, “NF-κB: a key role in inflammatory diseases,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 7–11, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. A. Tabish, “Complementary and alternative healthcare: is it evidence-based?” International Journal of Health Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. V–IX, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  16. K.-H. Leem and H.-K. Park, “Traditional Korean medicine: now and the future,” Neurological Research, vol. 29, supplement 1, pp. 3-4, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Kumar, S.-Y. Song, S. V. More et al., “Traditional Korean east asian medicines and herbal formulations for cognitive impairment,” Molecules, vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 14670–14693, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. H. U. Kim, J. Y. Ryu, J. O. Lee, and S. Y. Lee, “A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 264–268, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. F. Ikegami, M. Sumino, Y. Fujii, T. Akiba, and T. Satoh, “Pharmacology and toxicology of Bupleurum root-containing Kampo medicines in clinical use,” Human and Experimental Toxicology, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 481–494, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. M. C. Guerra, E. Speroni, M. Broccoli et al., “Comparison between Chinese medical herb Pueraria lobata crude extract and its main isoflavone puerarin: antioxidant properties and effects on rat liver CYP-catalysed drug metabolism,” Life Sciences, vol. 67, no. 24, pp. 2997–3006, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. W. Lim, C. Lee, I.-H. Kim, and Y. T. Kim, “Anti-inflammatory effects of total isoflavones from Pueraria lobata on cerebral ischemia in rats,” Molecules, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 10404–10412, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Remppis, F. Bea, H. J. Greten et al., “Rhizoma coptidis inhibits LPS-induced MCP-1/CCL2 production in murine macrophages via an AP-1 and NFκB-dependent pathway,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2010, Article ID 194896, 8 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Cha and E. Lim, “Effects of gardeniae fructus on cytokines in mouse macrophage,” The Journal of Oriental Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. M. S. Cheon, T. Yoon, G. Choi et al., “Comparative study of extracts from rhubarb on inflammatory activity in raw 264.7 cells,” Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 109–114, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  25. O. J. Kwon, M. Y. Kim, S. H. Shin et al., “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rhei rhizoma and coptidis rhizoma mixture on reflux esophagitis in rats,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2016, Article ID 2052180, 13 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. Y. Yang, S. Li, Q. Yang et al., “Resveratrol reduces the proinflammatory effects and lipopolysaccharide—induced expression of HMGB1 and TLR4 in RAW264.7 cells,” Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1283–1292, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. R. Maurya, S. Gupta, X. Li et al., “Analysis of inflammatory and lipid metabolic networks across RAW264.7 and thioglycolate-elicited macrophages,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 2525–2542, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S.-L. Liu, J.-S. Deng, C.-S. Chiu et al., “Involvement of heme oxygenase-1 participates in anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus taiwanensis,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 132859, 13 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. M. Kyriakis and J. Avruch, “Mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways activated by stress and inflammation,” Physiological Reviews, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 807–869, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. T. Lawrence, “The nuclear factor NF-κB pathway in inflammation,” Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology, vol. 1, no. 6, Article ID a001651, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Q. Ma, “Role of Nrf2 in oxidative stress and toxicity,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 53, pp. 401–426, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. D. Willis, A. R. Moore, R. Frederick, and D. A. Willoughby, “Heme oxygenase: a novel target for the modulation of the inflammatory response,” Nature Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 87–90, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Itoh, M. Mochizuki, Y. Ishii et al., “Transcription factor Nrf2 regulates inflammation by mediating the effect of 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2,” Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 36–45, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Y. Shinkai, I. Yamanaka, H. H. T. Duong, N. T. Quynh, Y. Kanaho, and Y. Kumagai, “Garcinia vilersiana bark extract activates the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells,” Journal of Toxicological Sciences, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 875–878, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. O. J. Kwon, B. K. Choo, J. Y. Lee et al., “Protective effect of Rhei Rhizoma on reflux esophagitis in rats via Nrf2-mediated inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, article 7, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. Y. H. Jeong, Y.-C. Oh, W.-K. Cho, N.-H. Yim, and J. Y. Ma, “Anti-inflammatory effect of rhapontici radix ethanol extract via inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK and induction of HO-1 in macrophages,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2016, Article ID 7216912, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. Q. Shi, J. Cao, L. Fang et al., “Geniposide suppresses LPS-induced nitric oxide, PGE2 and inflammatory cytokine by downregulating NF-κB, MAPK and AP-1 signaling pathways in macrophages,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 298–306, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. X. Song, W. Zhang, T. Wang et al., “Geniposide plays an anti-inflammatory role via regulating TLR4 and downstream signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice,” Inflammation, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1588–1598, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Wang, Y. Zhang, R. Liu, X. Li, Y. Cui, and L. Qu, “Geniposide protects against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice via up-regulating the expression of the main antioxidant enzymes,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 261–267, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. Ren and S. H. Chung, “Anti-inflammatory effect of α-linolenic acid and its mode of action through the inhibition of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression via NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 55, no. 13, pp. 5073–5080, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Anand and G. Kaithwas, “Anti-inflammatory potential of alpha-linolenic acid mediated through selective COX inhibition: computational and experimental data,” Inflammation, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 1297–1306, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. N. Xie, W. Zhang, J. Li et al., “α-linolenic acid intake attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects in diabetic but not normal rats,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 171–181, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. Y. P. Hwang, C. Y. Choi, Y. C. Chung, S. S. Jeon, and H. G. Jeong, “Protective effects of Puerarin on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 30, no. 10, pp. 1309–1317, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S.-Y. Wei, Y. Chen, and X.-Y. Xu, “Progress on the pharmacological research of puerarin: a review,” Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 407–414, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Kumar and A. K. Pandey, “Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2013, Article ID 162750, 16 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. J. Dai and R. J. Mumper, “Plant phenolics: extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties,” Molecules, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 7313–7352, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. H. K. Biesalski, “Polyphenols and inflammation: basic interactions,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 724–728, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. S. Cimino, G. Sortino, V. Favilla et al., “Polyphenols: key issues involved in chemoprevention of prostate cancer,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2012, Article ID 632959, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus