Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 1851459, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1851459
Research Article

Preparation of Galla Chinensis Oral Solution as well as Its Stability, Safety, and Antidiarrheal Activity Evaluation

1Natural Medicine Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
2College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China
3College of Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya’an 625014, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Zhongqiong Yin; moc.361@qgnohzniy

Received 15 April 2017; Accepted 19 June 2017; Published 25 July 2017

Academic Editor: Onesmo B. Balemba

Copyright © 2017 Yi Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Wardlaw, P. Salama, C. Brocklehurst, M. Chopra, and E. Mason, “Diarrhoea: why children are still dying and what can be done,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9718, pp. 870–872, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Shen, Y. Chen, Z. Wang et al., “Coated zinc oxide improves intestinal immunity function and regulates microbiota composition in weaned piglets,” British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 111, no. 12, pp. 2123–2134, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. B. Nagy and P. Z. Fekete, “Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in veterinary medicine,” International Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 295, no. 6-7, pp. 443–454, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. I. R. P. de Sales, F. D. F. Machado, A. F. Marinho, A. S. S. C. Lúcio, J. M. B. Filho, and L. M. Batista, “Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. (Menispermaceae), a medicinal plant, presents antimotility and antidiarrheal activity in vivo,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 15, no. 1, article 253, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Velázquez, F. Calzada, B. Esquivel, E. Barbosa, and S. Calzada, “Antisecretory activity from the flowers of Chiranthodendron pentadactylon and its flavonoids on intestinal fluid accumulation induced by Vibrio cholerae toxin in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 455–458, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. T. Tadesse, E. Hailu, E. Gurmu, and F. Mechesso, “Experimental assessment of antidiarrheal and antisecretory activity of 80% methanolic leaf extract of Zehneria scabra in mice,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, article 460, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. M. Billah, R. Islam, H. Khatun et al., “Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, pp. 654–658, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. S. Umer, A. Tekewe, and N. Kebede, “Antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial activity of Calpurnia aurea leaf extract,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, article 21, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. H. Palla, N. A. Khan, S. Bashir, N. Ur-Rehman, J. Iqbal, and A.-H. Gilani, “Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Linum usitatissimum (Flaxseed) in infectious and non-infectious diarrhea,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 160, pp. 61–68, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Wang, Y. Zhao, J. Zhang et al., “Antidiarrheal effect of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (Zingiberaceae) in experimental mice and its possible mechanism of action,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 168, pp. 182–190, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. P. Mazzolin, L. R. De Almeida Kiguti, E. O. Da Maia et al., “Antidiarrheal and intestinal antiinflammatory activities of a methanolic extract of Qualea parviflora Mart. in experimental models,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 1016–1023, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. V. Shukla and Z. Bhathena, “Sustained release of a purified tannin component of Terminalia chebula from a titanium implant surface prevents biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 175, no. 7, pp. 3542–3556, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. Wongsamitkul, L. Sirianant, C. Muanprasat, and V. Chatsudthipong, “A plant-derived hydrolysable tannin inhibits CFTR chloride channel: a potential treatment of diarrhea,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 490–497, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. A. Palombo, “Phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants used in the treatment of diarrhoea: modes of action and effects on intestinal function,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 717–724, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. H. Loeb, Y. Vandenplas, P. Würsch, and P. Guesry, “Tannin-Rich carob pod for the treatment of acute-onset diarrhea,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 480–485, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Liu, Y. Zheng, W. Xu, H. Wang, and N. Lin, “Rhubarb tannins extract inhibits the expression of aquaporins 2 and 3 in magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea model,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2014, Article ID 619465, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C.-N. Cha, E.-A. Yu, E.-K. Park, S. Kim, and H.-J. Lee, “Effects of dietary supplementation with Galla Rhois on growth performance and diarrhea incidence in postweaning piglets,” Journal of Veterinary Clinics, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 353–358, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. R. Preedy, Nuts and Seeds in Health and Disease Prevention, Elsevier LTD, Oxford, UK, 2011.
  19. S. M. Lee, D. W. Lee, J. D. Park, and J. I. Kim, “Study on formation and development of Schlechtendalia chinensis gall in Rhus javanica,” Korean Journal of Applied Entomology, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  20. F. Tian, B. Li, B. Ji et al., “Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of consecutive extracts from Galla chinensis:The polarity affects the bioactivities,” Food Chemistry, vol. 113, no. 1, pp. 173–179, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. O. Djakpo and W. Yao, “Rhus chinensis and Galla Chinensis - Folklore to modern evidence: Review,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 1739–1747, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. O. Deveoglu, E. Torgan, and R. Karadag, “Identification by rp-hplc-dad of natural dyestuffs from lake pigments prepared with a mixture of weld and dyer's oak dye plants,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 331–342, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Tong, M. Fu, X. Cao et al., “Lipid raft stationary phase chromatography for screening anti-tumor components from Galla chinensis,” Chromatographia, vol. 77, no. 5-6, pp. 419–429, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Q. Zhang, D.-H. Xu, and P. H. Klesius, “Evaluation of an antiparasitic compound extracted from Galla chinensis against fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis,” Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 198, no. 1-2, pp. 45–53, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Committee for the Pharmacopoeia of China, Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, China Medical Science Press, Beijing, China, 2015.
  26. J.-C. Chen, T.-Y. Ho, Y.-S. Chang, S.-L. Wu, and C.-Y. Hsiang, “Anti-diarrheal effect of Galla Chinensis on the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and ganglioside interaction,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 385–391, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Versari, W. Du Toit, and G. P. Parpinello, “Oenological tannins: A review,” Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Dorso, E. Bigot-Corbel, J. Abadie et al., “Long-term toxicity of 213Bi-labelled BSA in mice,” PLoS ONE, vol. 11, no. 3, Article ID e0151330, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. Chinese Ministry of Agriculture veterinary Accreditation Center, Compilation of Technical Guidance for Veterinary Drug Research, Chemical Industry Press, Beijing, China, 2012.
  30. F. Xiang, L. Peng, Z. Yin et al., “Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as evaluation of safety pharmacology of Galla chinensis solution,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 162, pp. 181–190, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. W. S. Stokes, “Humane endpoints for laboratory animals used in regulatory testing,” ILAR Journal, vol. 43, pp. S31–S38, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Wirtz, C. Neufert, B. Weigmann, and M. F. Neurath, “Chemically induced mouse models of intestinal inflammation,” Nature Protocols, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 541–546, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. K. Mukherjee, K. Saha, T. Murugesan, S. C. Mandal, M. Pal, and B. P. Saha, “Screening of anti-diarrhoeal profile of some plant extracts of a specific region of West Bengal, India,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 85–89, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. H. Mehmood, N. Aziz, M. N. Ghayur, and A.-H. Gilani, “Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of psyllium husk (Ispaghula) in constipation and diarrhea,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 1460–1471, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. Nansunga, A. Barasa, J. Abimana, P. E. Alele, and J. Kasolo, “Safety and antidiarrheal activity of Priva adhaerens aqueous leaf extract in a murine model,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 157, pp. 251–256, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Tuominen and T. Sundman, “Stability and oxidation products of hydrolysable tannins in basic conditions detected by HPLC/DAD-ESI/QTOF/MS,” Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 424–435, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. S. Verkman and L. J. Galietta, “Chloride channels as drug targets,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 8, pp. 153–171, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. B. P. Kota, A. W. Teoh, B. D. Roufogalis et al., “Pharmacology of traditional herbal medicines and their active principles used in the treatment of peptic ulcer,” Diarrhoea and Inflammatory Bowel Disease, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  39. A. H. Gilani, A.-U. Khan, T. Ali, and S. Ajmal, “Mechanisms underlying the antispasmodic and bronchodilatory properties of Terminalia bellerica fruit,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 528–538, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. J. Shah, S. Begum, S. I. Hassan, S. N. Ali, B. S. Siddiqui, and A.-H. Gilani, “Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Psidium guajava leave in hyperactive gut disorders,” Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 100–105, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. Pérez-Gutiérrez, D. Zavala-Mendoza, A. Hernández-Munive, Á. Mendoza-Martínez, C. Pérez-González, and E. Sánchez-Mendoza, “Antidiarrheal activity of 19-deoxyicetexone isolated from Salvia ballotiflora benth in mice and rats,” Molecules, vol. 18, no. 8, pp. 8895–8905, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus