Figure 5: Kidney-replenishing herb promoted SOCS-3 protein expression in human first-trimester trophoblasts. Primary human trophoblasts were incubated for 4 h with 10% to 20% Kidney-replenishing herb. As shown in (a), (b) there is also an increase of SOCS-3 protein expression (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h). Control cells were treated with serum in the same way without herb and detected a trace SOCS-3 expression at 2 h (c). The levels of GAPDH were examined as an internal control (d). The experiments were performed at least three times and representative result was presented.