Table 1: Neuronal beneficial properties of jujube.

FindingsModelTreatmentReference

Jujube induced neurite outgrowth and neurofilament expression via cAMP-PKA-CREB signalingCultured PC12 cells; neuronal differentiationJujube extract compared with forskolin and control[13]
The mature jujube possessed better effect in inducing neurofilament expression than that of the immature oneCultured PC12 cells; neurofilament expressionMature jujube extract compared with immature jujube extract[19]
Jujube stimulated the expressions of neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymesCultured astrocytes; mRNA expressionJujube at various concentrations (0–3 mg/ml)[16]
Jujube protected neuronal cells against oxidation injury via activation of transcriptional activity of ARECultured PC12 cells; tBHP induced oxidative stressJujube extract compared with Vit.C, , and negative control[20]
Jujube protected neurons from ischemic damageIschemic damage in gerbil hippocampusOral administration of jujube extract for 10 days[21]
Jujube increased pentobarbital-induced sleep time and reduce free movement on miceKunming mice, behavior and sleeping studiesJujube at 8 g/kg was administered orally[22]
Jujube promoted learning and memory in ovariectomized rat modelSD rats, Morris water maze testOvariectomized rats in 6 groups: jujube groups, positive, model, and sham surgery groups[23]
Hydroalcoholic extract of jujube ameliorates seizures, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in epilepsy rat modelRat, experimental seizure modelsHydroalcoholic extract of jujube (100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) was administered orally[24]
Jujube had repairing effects on memory and behavioral disorders produced by NBM lesion in ratsWistar male rats; Morris water maze testRats in 7 groups: normal, AD, AD/normal + jujubes at two doses, and sham[25]
Methanolic jujube extract activated ChAT. Oleamide from jujube reversed the memory and/or cognitive impairment in mice modelCultured MC-IXC cells, miceOleamide at 0.4–2.4 mM on activity; mice were treated with oleamide for 4 weeks[26]
Jujube increased the cAMP content in plasma and hippocampus of animalsICR male mice, cAMP level in hippocampus and serumi.g. administration of jujube at 0.35 g/kg[27]
A polypeptide Snakin-Z from jujube possessed cholinesterase inhibitory activityCholinesterase inhibitory activitySnakin-Z at 1.5 mg/mL has 80% inhibitory activity[28]

ChAT, choline acetyltransferase. tBHQ, tert-butyl hydroquinone.