Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 3647801, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3647801
Research Article

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Babassu Oil and Development of a Microemulsion System for Topical Delivery

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Rua Juvêncio Arruda S/N, Bairro Universitário, 58429-600 Campina Grande, PB, Brazil
2Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, No. 1235, Cidade Universitária, 50670-901 Recife, PE, Brazil
3Departamento de Bioquímica, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, No. 1235, Cidade Universitária, 50670-901 Recife, PE, Brazil
4Departamento de Química Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, No. 1235, Cidade Universitária, 50670-901 Recife, PE, Brazil
5Programas de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia e Ciência dos Materiais e Ciências da Saúde, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas, No. 1130, Petrópolis, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil
6Departamento de Antibióticos, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego, No. 1235, Cidade Universitária, 50670-901 Recife, PE, Brazil
7Faculdade Boa Viagem, DeVry, Av. Jean Emile Favre, No. 422, Imbiribeira, 61200-060 Recife, PE, Brazil
8Laboratório de Microscopia e Microanálise, Centro de Tecnologias Estratégicas do Nordeste, Av. Prof. Luís Freire, No. 1, Cidade Universitária, 50740-540 Recife, PE, Brazil
9Núcleo de Plataformas Tecnológicas, Instituto Aggeu Magalhães, FIOCRUZ, Av. Prof. Moraes Rego S/N, Cidade Universitária, 50740-465 Recife, PE, Brazil

Correspondence should be addressed to Rafael M. Ximenes; rb.epfu@senemix.leafar

Received 18 September 2017; Revised 20 November 2017; Accepted 29 November 2017; Published 21 December 2017

Academic Editor: Rocío De la Puerta

Copyright © 2017 Mysrayn Y. F. A. Reis et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. M. A. de Almeida, M. A. Ramos, E. L. Araújo, C. Baldauf, and U. P. Albuquerque, “Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil),” AMBIO, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 458–467, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. N. Porro, I. Veiga, and D. Mota, “Traditional communities in the Brazilian Amazon and the emergence of new political identities: The struggle of the quebradeiras de coco babaçu-babassu breaker women,” Journal of Cultural Geography, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 123–146, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. H. S. L. Souza, C. A. Monteiro, P. M. S. Figueredo, F. R. F. Nascimento, and R. N. M. Guerra, “Ethnopharmacological use of babassu (Orbignya phalerata Mart) in communities of babassu nut breakers in Maranhão, Brazil,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. F. R. Araújo, S. E. González-Pérez, M. A. Lopes, and I. D. J. M. Viégas, “Ethnobotany of babassu palm (Attalea speciosa Mart.) in the Tucuruí Lake Protected Areas Mosaic - Eastern Amazon,” Acta Botanica Brasilica, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 193–204, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. L. Almeida Campos, T. L. L. da Silva, U. P. Albuquerque, N. Peroni, and E. Lima Araújo, “Knowledge, Use, and Management of the Babassu Palm (Attalea speciosa Mart. ex Spreng) in the Araripe Region (Northeastern Brazil),” Economic Botany, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 240–250, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. Mors, C. T Rizzini, and N. A. Pereira, Medicinal Plants of Brazil, Mich, USA, 1st edition, 2000.
  7. I. G. C. Bieski, M. Leonti, J. T. Arnason et al., “Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants by population of Valley of Juruena Region, Legal Amazon, Mato Grosso, Brazil,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 173, pp. 383–423, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. A. Miles, P. Zoubouli, and P. C. Calder, “Differential anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from extra virgin olive oil identified in human whole blood cultures,” Nutrition Journal , vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 389–394, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Cicerale, L. J. Lucas, and R. S. J. Keast, “Antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phenolic activities in extra virgin olive oil,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 129–135, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S.-J. Wu, P.-L. Liu, and L.-T. Ng, “Tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil exhibits anti-inflammatory property by suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators in human monocytic cells,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 52, no. 8, pp. 921–929, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Intahphuak, P. Khonsung, and A. Panthong, “Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. V. P. de Sousa, J. Crean, V. R. D. A. Borges et al., “Nanostructured systems containing babassu (Orbignya speciosa) oil as a potential alternative therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 3129–3139, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. S. Pessoa, E. L. França, E. B. Ribeiro et al., “Microemulsion of babassu oil as a natural product to improve human immune system function,” Drug Design, Development and Therapy, vol. 9, pp. 21–31, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. J. Lawrence and G. D. Rees, “Microemulsion-based media as novel drug delivery systems,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 64, pp. 175–193, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Fanun, “Microemulsions as delivery systems,” Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science , vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 306–313, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. Naoui, M.-A. Bolzinger, B. Fenet et al., “Microemulsion microstructure influences the skin delivery of an hydrophilic drug,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1683–1695, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. F. H. Xavier-Junior, C. Vauthier, A. R. V. Morais, E. N. Alencar, and E. S. T. Egito, “Microemulsion systems containing bioactive natural oils: an overview on the state of the art,” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 700–714, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Mezni, A. Maaroufi, M. Msallem, and et al, “Fatty acid composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Pistacia lentiscus L. fruit oils,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 6, no. 39, pp. 5266–5271, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. American Oil Chemists’ Society, Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists, A.O.C.S., Champaign, Ill, USA, 4th edition, 1990.
  20. L. D. Metcalfe, J. R. Pelka, and A. A. Schmitz, “Rapid preparation of fatty acid esters from lipids for gas chromatographic analysis,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 514-515, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. C. Milinsk, M. Matsushita, J. V. Visentainer, C. C. De Oliveira, and N. E. De Souza, “Comparative analysis of eight esterification methods in the quantitative determination of vegetable oil fatty acid methyl esters (FAME),” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1475–1483, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. Tubaro, P. Dri, G. Delbello, C. Zilli, and R. D. Loggia, “The Croton oil ear test revisited,” Agents and Actions Supplements, vol. 17, no. 3-4, pp. 347–349, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. P. Carlson, L. O'Neill-Davis, J. Chang, and A. J. Lewis, “Modulation of mouse ear edema by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors and other pharmacologic agents,” Agents and Actions Supplements, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 197–204, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Brattsand, A. Thalén, K. Roempke, L. Källström, and E. Gruvstad, “Influence of 16α,17α-acetal substitution and steroid nucleus fluorination on the topical to systemic activity ratio of glucocorticoids,” The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 779–786, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Gábor and Z. Rázga, “Development and inhibition of mouse ear oedema induced with capsaicin,” Agents and Actions Supplements, vol. 36, no. 1-2, pp. 83–86, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. W. C. Griffin, “Classification of Surface Active Agents by HLB,” Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 311–326, 1949. View at Google Scholar
  27. L. O. Orafidiya and F. A. Oladimeji, “Determination of the required HLB values of some essential oils,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 237, no. 1-2, pp. 241–249, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. S. Mahdi, M. H. Sakeena, M. F. Abdulkarim, G. Z. Abdullah, M. A. Sattar, and A. M. Noor, “Effect of surfactant and surfactant blends on pseudoternary phase diagram behavior of newly synthesized palm kernel oil esters,” Drug Design, Development and Therapy, vol. 5, pp. 311–323, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. A. Ferrari and M. P. Soler, “Obtention and characterization of coconut babassu derivatives,” Scientia Agricola, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 291–296, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. L. Jackson and H. E. Longenecker, “The fatty acids and glycerides of babassu oil,” Oil & Soap, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 73–75, 1944. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. B. S. Ferreira, L. P. Faza, and M. Le Hyaric, “A comparison of the physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of indaiá (Attalea dubia) and Babassu (Orbignya phalerata) oils,” The Scientific World Journal, vol. 2012, Article ID 532374, 4 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Barison, C. W. P. da Silva, F. R. Campos, F. Simonelli, C. A. Lenz, and A. G. Ferreira, “A simple methodology for the determination of fatty acid composition in edible oils through 1H NMR spectroscopy,” Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 642–650, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. F. D. Gunstone, Advances in Lipid Methodology, Oily Press, Dundee, Scotland, 2nd edition, 1993.
  34. G. Knothe and J. A. Kenar, “Determination of the fatty acid profile by 1H-NMR spectroscopy,” European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 88–96, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. A. Rosa, A. Rescigno, A. Piras et al., “Chemical composition and effect on intestinal Caco-2 cell viability and lipid profile of fixed oil from Cynomorium coccineum L.,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 3799–3807, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. R. Sacchi, F. Addeo, I. Giudicianni et al., “Analysis of the positional distribution of fatty acids in olive oil triacylglycerols by high resolution 13C-NMR of the carnonyl region,” Italian Journal of Food Science, vol. 4, pp. 117–123, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  37. R. Medeiros, M. F. Otuki, M. C. W. Avellar, and J. B. Calixto, “Mechanisms underlying the inhibitory actions of the pentacyclic triterpene α-amyrin in the mouse skin inflammation induced by phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 559, no. 2-3, pp. 227–235, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Murakawa, K. Yamaoka, Y. Tanaka, and Y. Fukuda, “Involvement of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced skin edema in mice,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 71, no. 9, pp. 1331–1336, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. H. Shin, S.-H. Yoon, E.-Y. Choe et al., “PMA-induced up-regulation of MMP-9 is regulated by a PKCa-NF-?B cascade in human lung epithelial cells,” Experimental Molecular Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 97–105, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  40. I. A. B. S. Alves, S. M. Santos, R. F. V. Mendes et al., “Chemical composition, antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory activities of Croton cordiifolius Baill. (Euphorbiaceae),” Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 22–33, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  41. E. E. Bralley, P. Greenspan, J. L. Hargrove, L. Wicker, and D. K. Hartle, “Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Polygonum cuspidatum extract in the TPA model of mouse ear inflammation,” Journal of Inflammation, vol. 5, article 1, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. T. S. Rao, J. L. Currie, A. F. Shaffer, and P. C. Isakson, “Comparative evaluation of arachidonic acid (AA)- and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced dermal inflammation,” Inflammation, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 723–741, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. L. Fischer, D. R. Blanchette, K. A. Brogden et al., “The roles of cutaneous lipids in host defense,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, vol. 1841, no. 3, pp. 319–322, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Nakatsuji, M. C. Kao, J.-Y. Fang et al., “Antimicrobial property of lauric acid against propionibacterium acnes: Its therapeutic potential for inflammatory acne vulgaris,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 129, no. 10, pp. 2480–2488, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Yang, D. Pornpattananangkul, T. Nakatsuji et al., “The antimicrobial activity of liposomal lauric acids against Propionibacterium acnes,” Biomaterials, vol. 30, no. 30, pp. 6035–6040, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. W.-C. Huang, T.-H. Tsai, L.-T. Chuang, Y.-Y. Li, C. C. Zouboulis, and P.-J. Tsai, “Anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of capric acid against Propionibacterium acnes: A comparative study with lauric acid,” Journal of Dermatological Science, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 232–240, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. Kezutyte, N. Desbenoit, A. Brunelle, and V. Briedis, “Studying the penetration of fatty acids into human skin by ex vivo TOF-SIMS imaging,” Biointerphases, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. Crummey, G. P. Harper, E. A. Boyle, and F. R. Mangan, “Inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced ear oedema as a model for assessing topical anti-inflammatory compounds,” Agents and Actions Supplements, vol. 20, no. 1-2, pp. 69–76, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. E. E. Opas, R. J. Bonney, and J. L. Humes, “Prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis in mouse ears inflamed by arachidonic acid,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 253–256, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. L. Humes, E. E. Opas, M. Galavage, D. Soderman, and R. J. Bonney, “Regulation of macrophage eicosanoid production by hydroperoxy- and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 233, no. 1, pp. 199–206, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. G. E. Henry, R. A. Momin, M. G. Nair, and D. L. Dewitt, “Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase activities of fatty acids found in food,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 50, no. 8, pp. 2231–2234, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. D. C. L. Barbosa, E. Bouskela, F. Z. Cyrino et al., “Effects of babassu nut oil on ischemia/reperfusion-induced leukocyte adhesion and macromolecular leakage in the microcirculation: Observation in the hamster cheek pouch,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 11, article no. 158, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. E. Patrick, A. Burkhalter, and H. I. Maibach, “Recent Investigations of Mechanisms of Chemically Induced Skin Irritation in Laboratory Mice.,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 88, no. s3, pp. 24s–31s, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. H. Lim, H. Park, and H. P. Kim, “Inhibition of contact dermatitis in animal models and suppression of proinflammatory gene expression by topically applied flavonoid, wogonin,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 442–448, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. R. Murray, E. Kisin, V. Castranova, C. Kommineni, M. R. Gunther, and A. A. Shvedova, “Phenol-induced in vivo oxidative stress in skin: Evidence for enhanced free radical generation, thiol oxidation, and antioxidant depletion,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 1769–1777, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. J. L. Wilmer, F. G. Burleson, F. Kayama, J. Kanno, and M. I. Luster, “Cytokine induction in human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to contact irritants and its relation to chemical-induced inflammation in mouse skin,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 102, no. 6, pp. 915–922, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. Gábor, Mouse Ear Inflammation Models and their Pharmacological Applications, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapeste, Hungary, 2000.
  58. B. Zegarska, A. Leliñska, and T. Tyrakowsk, “Clinical and experimental aspects of cutaneous neurogenic inflammation,” Pharmacological Reports, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  59. P. Szumała, “Structure of Microemulsion Formulated with Monoacylglycerols in the Presence of Polyols and Ethanol,” Journal of Surfactants and Detergents, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 97–106, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. A. Kogan, D. E. Shalev, U. Raviv, A. Aserin, and N. Garti, “Formation and characterization of ordered bicontinuous microemulsions,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 113, no. 31, pp. 10669–10678, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. E. Giannakas, T. C. Vaimakis, A. K. Ladavos, P. N. Trikalitis, and P. J. Pomonis, “Variation of surface properties and textural features of spinel ZnAl2O4 and perovskite LaMnO3 nanoparticles prepared via CTAB-butanol-octane-nitrate salt microemulsions in the reverse and bicontinuous states,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 259, no. 2, pp. 244–253, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. D. G. Hayes, J. A. Gomez Del Rio, R. Ye, V. S. Urban, S. V. Pingali, and H. M. O'Neill, “Effect of protein incorporation on the nanostructure of the bicontinuous microemulsion phase of winsor-III systems: A small-angle neutron scattering study,” Langmuir, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1901–1910, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. O. Bianchi, L. G. Barbosa, G. MacHado, L. B. Canto, R. S. Mauler, and R. V. B. Oliveira, “Reactive melt blending of PS-POSS hybrid nanocomposites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 811–827, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. A. A. R. Mota, C. C. Gatto, G. Machado et al., “Structural organization and supramolecular interactions of the task-specific ionic liquid 1-methyl-3-carboxymethylimidazolium chloride: Solid, solution, and gas phase structures,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 118, no. 31, pp. 17878–17889, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. J. K. Percus and G. J. Yevick, “Analysis of Classical Statistical Mechanics by Means of Collective Coordinates,” Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 1958. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. O. Glatter and O. Kratky, Small Angle X-Ray Scattering, first., Ed., Academic Press Inc., London, UK, 1982.
  67. D. I. Svergun, Structure Analysis by Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1st edition, 1987.
  68. P. Atkins and J. Paula, Elements of Physical Chemistry, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 6th edition, 2012.
  69. R. T. Nassu and L. A. G. Gonçalves, “Determination of melting point of vegetable oils and fats by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique,” Grasas y Aceites, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 16–22, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. D. O'Brien, Fats and Oils: Formulating and Processing for Applications, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, USA, 3rd edition, 2008.
  71. T. Wang and J. L. Briggs, “Rheological and thermal properties of soybean oils with modified FA compositions,” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, vol. 79, no. 8, pp. 831–836, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. N. Garti, A. Aserin, I. Tiunova, and M. Fanun, “A DSC study of water behavior in water-in-oil microemulsions stabilized by sucrose esters and butanol,” Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. F. Podlogar, M. Gašperlin, M. Tomšič, A. Jamnik, and M. B. Rogač, “Structural characterisation of water-Tween 40/Imwitor 308-isopropyl myristate microemulsions using different experimental methods,” International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 276, no. 1-2, pp. 115–128, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. F. Sardari and A. Jouyban, “Solubility of nifedipine in ethanol + water and propylene glycol + water mixtures at 293.2 to 313.2 K,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 52, no. 40, pp. 14353–14358, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. P. Boonme, K. Krauel, A. Graf, T. Rades, and V. B. Junyaprasert, “Characterization of microemulsion structures in the pseudoternary phase diagram of isopropyl palmitate/water/Brij 97:1-butanol,” AAPS PharmSciTech, vol. 7, no. 2, article E45, pp. 1–6, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. Fisher, E. J. Wachtel, A. Aserin, and N. Garti, “Solubilization of simvastatin and phytosterols in a dilutable microemulsion system,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 107, pp. 35–42, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. M. Hathout, T. J. Woodman, S. Mansour, N. D. Mortada, A. S. Geneidi, and R. H. Guy, “Microemulsion formulations for the transdermal delivery of testosterone,” European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 188–196, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. Note, J. Koetz, and S. Kosmella, “Structural changes in poly(ethyleneimine) modified microemulsion,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 302, no. 2, pp. 662–668, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. H. A. Barnes, J. F. Hutton, and K. Walters, An Introduction to Rheology, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1st edition, 1989.
  80. C. W. Macosko, Rheology: principles, measurements, and applications, Wiley-VCH, New York, NY, USA, 1st edition, 1994.
  81. A. Mouri, O. Diat, A. El Ghzaoui et al., “Phase behavior of reverse microemulsions based on Peceol®,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 416, pp. 139–146, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. N. Barakat, E. Fouad, and A. Elmedany, “Enhancement of skin permeation and anti-inflammatory effect of indomethacin using microemulsion,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 141–149, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. K. G. H. Desai, “Enhanced skin permeation of rofecoxib using topical microemulsion gel,” Drug Development Research, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. B. Subramanian, F. Kuo, E. Ada et al., “Enhancement of anti-inflammatory property of aspirin in mice by a nano-emulsion preparation,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 1533–1539, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus