Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2017 / Article / Tab 7

Review Article

Commercial Essential Oils as Potential Antimicrobials to Treat Skin Diseases

Table 7

Essential oils demonstrating noteworthy antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans.

Essential Species Main Reference

Abies balsamea (fir) MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mL-Pinene (31.00%), bornyl acetate (14.90%), -3-carene (14.20%)[99]
Abies holophylla (Manchurian fir)C. albicans (B02630)DMSO>2.20 mg/mLBicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ol (28.05%), -3-carene (13.85%), -pinene (11.68%), camphene (10.41%) [111]
Abies koreana (Korean fir)Bornyl ester (41.79%), camphene (15.31%), α-pinene (11.19%)

Achillea millefolium subsp. millefolium (yarrow)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10239)Tween 804.50 mg/mLEucalyptol (24.60%), camphor (16.70%), -terpineol (10.20%)[112]
Achillea setacea (bristly yarrow)1.12 mg/mLSabinene (10.80%), eucalyptol (18.50%)[113]

Angelica archangelica (angelica) rootMICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mLα-Phellandrene (18.50%), α-pinene (13.70%), -phellandrene (12.60%), -3-carene (12.10%) [99]
Angelica archangelica (angelica) seed-Phellandrene (59.20%)

Anthemis nobilis (chamomile)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone3.00 mg/mL2-Methylbutyl-2-methyl propanoic acid (31.50%), limonene (18.30%), 3-methylpentyl-2-butenoic acid (16.70%), isobutyl isobutyrate (10.00%)[99]

Apium graveolens (celery)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 801.00% v/vNCR[236]
Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon)MICAcetone2.00 mg/mLEstragole (82.60%)[99]

Boswellia carteri (frankincense)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 801.00% v/vNCR[236]
Boswellia carteri (frankincense) (9 samples) MIC Acetone5.30–12.00 mg/mL-Pinene (4.80–40.40%), myrcene (1.60–52.40%), limonene (1.90–20.40%), -thujene (0.30–52.40%), -cymene (2.70–16.90%), -pinene (0.30–13.10%) [116]
Boswellia frereana (frankincense) (3 samples)6.00–12.00 mg/mL-Pinene (2.00–64.70%), -thujene (0.00–33.10%), -cymene (5.40–16.90%)
Boswellia neglecta (frankincense)1.80 mg/mLNCR[117]
6.60 mg/mL-Pinene (43.40%), -pinene (13.10%)[116]
Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense)1.40 mg/mLNCR [117]
Boswellia rivae (frankincense)4.00 mg/mL
Boswellia sacra (frankincense) (2 samples)8.00 mg/mL-Pinene (18.30–28.00%), -thujene (3.90–11.20%), limonene (11.20–13.10%) [116]
Boswellia spp. (frankincense) (4 samples)6.00–8.00 mg/mL-Pinene (18.80–24.20%), limonene (11.70–19.00%)
Boswellia thurifera (frankincense)6.00 mg/mL-Pinene (28.00%), limonene (14.60%)

Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 801.00% v/vNCR[236]
MICAcetone2.00 mg/mLBicyclosesquiphellandrene (19.50%), -farnesene (13.90%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 200.25–0.50%NCR[237]
Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang) headsMICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mLBenzyl acetate (31.90%), linalool (27.00%), methyl benzoate (10.40%)[99]

Canarium luzonicum (elemi)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone3.00 mg/mLLimonene (41.90%), elemol (21.60%), -phellandrene (11.40%)[99]

Carum carvi (caraway)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mLLimonene (27.60%), carvone (67.50%)[99]

Carum carvi (caraway)MICC. albicansDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLDL-Limonene (53.35%), -selinene (11.08%), -elemene (10.09%)[118]

Cedrus atlantica (cedar wood)ADM90C. albicansTween 802.00% v/vNCR[236]

Cinnamomum camphora (camphor)ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 200.50%NCR[237]

Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon)MAC80C. albicans (ATCC90029)n.m.0.17 μL/mLtrans-Cinnamaldehyde (92.20%)[238]

Cinnamomum cassia (cinnamon)MICC. albicansDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLtrans-Caryophyllene (17.18%), eugenol (14.67%), linalool L (14.52%), trans-cinnamyl acetate (13.85%), cymol (11.79%), cinnamaldehyde (11.25%)[118]

Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon)ADMC. albicansDMSO0.08 μL/mLNCR[232]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mLEugenol (80.00%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 200.01%NCR[237]

Citrus aurantium (petitgrain)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.25% v/vNCR[236]
MICAcetone2.00 mg/mLLinalyl acetate (54.90%), linalool (21.10%)[99]

Citrus bergamia (bergamot)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 801.00% v/v NCR[236]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 201.00–2.00%[237]

Citrus grandis (grapefruit)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mLLimonene (74.80%)[99]

Citrus medica limonum (lemon)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 802.00% v/v NCR[236]
ADMC. albicansDMSO2.50 μL/mL[232]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mL[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 200.50–1.00%[237]

Citrus limon (lemon), aromatic artMACC. albicans (clinical strain C31)Tween 800.03%Limonene (22.42%), isopropyl myristate (42.78%) [239]
Citrus limon (lemon), Avicenna0.60%Limonene (42.03%), -pinene (15.15%)
Citrus limon (lemon) -Vera NordLimonene (23.39%), trans-citral (15.52%), cis-citral (19.41%)

Citrus sinensis (orange)MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231)0.1% ethanol3.75 mg/LNCR[121]
MICAcetone2.00 mg/mLLimonene (93.20%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 201.00%NCR[237]

Commiphora guidotti (myrrh)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mL( )--Ocimene (52.60%), -santalene (11.10%), ()-bisabolene (16.00%) [117]
Commiphora myrrha (myrrh)1.50 mg/mLFuranogermacrene (15.90%), furanoeudesma-1,3-diene (44.30%)
4.00 mg/mLFuranoeudesma-1,3-diene (57.70%), lindestrene (16.30%)[99]

Coriandrum sativum (coriander)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.25% v/vNCR[236]
MICC. albicans (CBS 562 and 4 clinical isolates)n.m.0.02–0.06 mg/mLDecanal (10.97%), 1-decanol (15.30%), 2-dodecenol (11.26%)[240]

Cupressus sempervirens (cypress)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone4.00 mg/mLα-Pinene (41.20%), -3-carene (23.70%)[99]

Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.12% v/vNCR[236]
ADMC. albicans (SP-14)Sodium taurocholate5.00 μL/mLCitral (72.80%)[125, 126]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mLGeranial (44.80%)[99]
MICC. albicansDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLGeranial (47.34%), -myrcene (16.53%), Z-citral (8.36%)[118]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 200.06%NCR[237]

Cymbopogon martinii (palmarosa)MICC. albicans (CBS 562 and 4 clinical isolates)n.m.0.06–0.25 mg/mLNCR[240]
ADMC. albicans (SP-14)Sodium taurocholate2.00 μL/mLGeraniol (61.60%)[125, 126]
C. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates) Tween 200.12–0.15% NCR[237]
C. albicans (clinical samples)0.08%[75]

Cymbopogon nardus (citronella)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC10231)Tween 800.25% v/vNCR[236]
MICAcetone0.75 mg/mLCitronellal (38.30%), geraniol (20.70%), citronellol (18.80%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 200.50–1.00%NCR[237]

Cymbopogon winterianus (citronella grass)MICC. albicans (CBS 562 and 4 clinical isolates)n.m.0.50–1.00 mg/mLNCR[240]

Daucus carota (carrot seed)MICC. albicans (ATCC10231)Acetone3.00 mg/mLCarotol (44.40%)[99]
MAC 2% DSMO1.25–2.50 μL/mLSabinene (28.30–33.80%), limonene (6.50–11.80%), elemicin (6.20–26.00%)[241]
20.00 μL/mL (v/v)-Bisabolene (17.6%), carotol (25.1), 11H-himachal-4-en-1-ol (21.6%) [242]
5.00–10.00 μL/mL (v/v)-Bisabolene (51.00%), ()-methyl isoeugenol (10.00%)
-Pinene (37.9%), geranyl acetate (15%)
20.00 μL/mL (v/v)Geranyl acetate (65.00%)

Eucalyptus camaldulensis (eucalyptus)ADMC. albicansDMSO5.00 μL/mLNCR[232]

Eucalyptus fruticetorum (eucalyptus)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC10231)Tween 801.00% v/vNCR[236]

Eucalyptus globulus (eucalyptus)ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 200.05%NCR[75]
MIC90C. albicans (ATCC 90028)Tween 8010.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineol (81.93%)[128]
ADMC. albicans (SP-14)Sodium taurocholate5.00 μL/mLCineole (23.20%)[125, 126]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone1.50 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (58.00%), -terpineol (13.20%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 201.50%NCR[237]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone1.00 mg/mLNCR[130]

Eucalyptus radiata (eucalyptus) MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231) Acetone1.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole , -terpineol [130]
Eucalyptus camaldulensis (eucalyptus)0.50 mg/mLNCR
Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)1.00 mg/mL
Eucalyptus smithii (eucalyptus)
Eucalyptus dives (eucalyptus)

Eucalyptus intertexta (eucalyptus)MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231)10% DSMO7.80 μg/mLNCR [131]
Eucalyptus largiflorens (eucalyptus)125.00 μg/mLNCR

Eugenia caryophyllus (clove)ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 200.33%NCR[75]
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel)MICC. albicansDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLtrans-Anethole (33.3%), DL-limonene (19.66%), carvone (12.03%)[118]
Foeniculum dulce (fennel)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mL-Anethole (79.10%)[99]

Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone1.00 mg/mLIsopinocamphone (48.70%), pinocamphone (15.50%)[99]

Geranium dissectum (geranium)MICC. albicansDMSO≤1.00 μg/mL-Citronellol (25.45%), geraniol (13.83%)[118]

Jasminum nudiflorum (jasmine) ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 20>3.00%NCR[75]
Juniperi aetheroleum (juniper)MAC80C. albicans (MFBF)n.m.1.00% v/v-Pinene (29.17%), -pinene (17.84%), sabinene (13.55%)[135]
Juniperus chinensis (Chinese juniper)ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 202.00%NCR[75]
Juniperus communis (juniper berry)MIC90C. albicans (ATCC 90028)Tween 8020.00 mg/mL-Pinene (39.76%)[128]
Juniperus communis (juniper)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC10231)2.00% v/vNCR[236]
Juniperus communis ssp. alpina (juniper), berries MACC. albicans (clinical strain D5) 2% DMSO1.25–2.50 μL/mL-Pinene (77.40%) [243]
Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (juniper)C. albicans (ATCC 10231)5.00–10.00 μL/mL
2.50 μL/mLSabinene (26.20%), -pinene (12.90%), limonene (10.40%)[244]
Juniperus virginiana (juniper) MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231) Acetone1.50 mg/mLThujopsene (29.80%), cedrol (14.90%), -cedrene (12.40%) [99]
Juniperus virginiana (juniper), berries2.00 mg/mL-Pinene (20.50%), myrcene (13.70%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (10.70%)
Juniperus virginiana (juniper)ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 203.00%NCR[237]
Juniperus turbinata (juniper), berries MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231) 2% DMSO10.00–20.00 μL/mL-Pinene (66.70%) [243]
C. albicans (clinical strain D5)5.00 μL/mL
Juniperus turbinata (juniper), leafC. albicans (ATCC 10231)2% DMSO5.00 μL/mL-Pinene (48.20%), -phellandrene (23.10%)
C. albicans (clinical strain D5)1.25 μL/mL
Juniperus oxycedrus (cade juniper)ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 20NINCR[75]

Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (cade), leaf MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231)2% DMSO1.25–25.00 μL/mL-Pinene (65.50%) [243]
C. albicans (clinical strain D5)0.32–0.64 μL/mL
Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (cade), berriesC. albicans (ATCC 10231)2% DMSO10.00–20.00 μL/mL-Pinene (54.70)%, myrcene (17.80%), germacrene D (10.40%)
C. albicans (clinical strain D5)5.00 μL/mL

Kunzea ericoides (Kānuka)MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 80>2.00% v/v-Pinene (61.60%)[137]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone4.00 mg/mL-Pinene (26.20–46.70%), p-cymene (5.80–19.10%)[138]
Laurus nobilis (bay)0.75 mg/mLEugenol (57.20%), myrcene (14.30%), chavicol (12.70%)[99]

Lavandula angustifolia (lavender)ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 20>3.00%NCR[75]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone5.70 mg/mLLinalool (30.80%), linalyl acetate (31.30%)[140]
3.00 mg/mLLinalyl acetate (36.70%), linalool (31.40%), terpinen-4-ol (14.90%)[99]
ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.50% v/vNCR [236]
0.25% v/v

Lavandula officinalis (lavender)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)DMSO≤1.00 μg/mL-3-Carene (17.14%), -fenchene (16.79%), diethyl phthalate (13.84%)[118]

Lavandula pedunculata (French lavender)MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231)2% DMSO2.50 μL/mL1,8-Cineole (2.40–55.50%), fenchone (1.30–59.70%), camphor (3.60–48.00%)[245]
Lavandula stoechas (French lavender)Fenchone (37.00%) and camphor (27.30%)[246]
Lavandula viridis (yellow lavender)1,8-Cineole (34.50%–42.2%), camphor (13.40%)[247]

Leptospermum scoparium (manuka)MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 80>2.00% v/v(−)-()-Calamenene (14.50%), leptospermone (17.60%)[137]
MICAcetone8.00 mg/mLEudesma-4(14),11-diene (6.2–14.5%), α-selinene (5.90–13.5%), ()-methyl cinnamate (9.2–19.5%)[138]

Litsea cubeba (May Chang)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone6.00 mg/mLGeranial (45.60%), nerol (31.20%)[99]

Matricaria chamomilla (German chamomile)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone0.50 mg/mLBisabolene oxide A (46.90%), -farnesene (19.20%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 20NINCR[75]

Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree)ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 200.73%NCR[75]
MICC. albicans (KEM H5)n.m.0.13% (v/v)Terpinen-4-ol (39.80%), -terpinene (17.80%)[149, 150]
ADM90C. albicans (ATCC10231)Tween 800.25% v/vNCR[236]
ADM0.20% v/vTerpinen-4-ol (42.80%), -terpinene (18.20%)[115]
MICC. albicans (NCYC 854)n.m.0.25% v/vNCR[145]
C. albicans (fluconazole- and itraconazole-susceptible isolates) Tween 800.06–0.50% v/v Terpinen-4-ol (42.35%), -terpinene (20.65%) [248]
C. albicans (fluconazole- and/or itraconazole-resistant isolates; six isolates were cross-resistant)0.25–0.50% v/v
ADMC. albicans (NRRL y-12983) n.m. 3.50 mg/mL NCR [249]
C. albicans (ATCC 14053)
C. albicans (NRRL y-869)
C. albicans (NRRL y-22077)1.75 mg/mL
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)3.50 mg/mL
MICC. albicans (NRRL 12983) 4.73 mg/mL-Terpinene (16.30%), terpinen-4-ol (30.30%) [61]
C. albicans (ATCC 14053)
C. albicans (ATCC 90028)
C. albicans (NRRL 22077)2.30 mg/mL
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)4.73 mg/mL
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone3.70 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (38.60%), -terpinene (21.60%)[140]
MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.30% v/v-Terpinene (11.40%), -terpinene (22.50%), terpinen-4-ol (35.20%)[137]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone1.50 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (49.30%), -terpinene (16.90%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 200.12–0.25%NCR[237]

Melaleuca cajuputi (cajuput)MIC90C. albicans (ATCC 90028)Tween 802.50 mg/mL1,8-Cineol (67.60%)[128]
MACC. albicans (ATCC10231)0.40% v/v1,8-Cineole (55.50%)[137]

Melaleuca quinquenervia (niaouli)MACC. albicans (ATCC10231)Tween 800.40% v/v1,8-Cineole (61.20%)[137]

Melaleuca viridiflora (niaouli)MICC. albicans (ATCC10231)Acetone1.75 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (45.90%), α-terpinene (21.00%)[99]

Mentha piperita (peppermint)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC10231)Tween 800.50% v/vNCR[236]
MIC90C. albicans (ATCC 90028)0.30 mg/mL1,8-Cineol (12.06%), menthone (22.24%), menthol (47.29%)[128]
ADMC. albicans (SP-14)Sodium taurocholate5.00 μL/mLMenthol (36.40%)[125, 126]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.40 mg/mLMenthone (18.20%), menthol (42.90%)[140]
ADMC. albicans (clinical isolate)Tween 200.08%NCR[75]
MICC. albicans (clinical isolate) DMSO0.31–0.63 mg/mLMenthol (27.50–42.30%), menthone (18.40–27.90%)[155]
C. albicans≤1.00 μg/mLMenthone (40.82%), carvone (24.16%)[118]
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mLMenthol (47.50%), menthone (18.60%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 200.25–0.30%NCR[237]
Mentha pulegium (peppermint) MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)10% DMSO1.00 μL/mLPiperitone (38.00%), piperitenone (33.00%)[250]
Mentha rotundifolia (peppermint), BejaC. albicansTween 800.80% v/vβ-Caryophyllene (26.67%), germacrene D (12.31%) [50]
Mentha rotundifolia (peppermint), BizertePulegone (32.09%), piperitenone oxide (17.28%), 5-acetyl thiazole (11.26%)

Mentha spicata (spearmint)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.12% v/vNCR[236]

Myrtus communis (myrtle)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone1.50 mg/mLMyrtenyl acetate (28.20%), 1,8-cineole (25.60%), α-pinene (12.50%)[99]
Myrtus nivellei (Sahara myrtle)MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231)2% DMSO1.25–2.50 μg/mL1,8-Cineole (37.50%), limonene (25.00%)[251]

Ocimum basilicum var. minimum (basil)MICC. albicans (ATCC 11006)DMSONILinalool (440%), 1,8-cineole (15.50%) [252]
Ocimum americanum (basil)5000.00 μg/mL1,8-Cineole (25.90%), (Z)-methyl cinnamate (29.40%)
Ocimum basilicum var. purpurascens (basil)Linalool (41.50%), α-muurolol (11.80%)
Ocimum micranthum (basil)625.00 μg/mLEugenol (64.11%), β-caryophyllene (14.30%)
Ocimum selloi1250.00 μg/mLLinalool (16.8%), anethole (52.2%)

Ocimum basilicum (basil)MICC. albicansn.m.30.00 μg/μLEstragole (45.80%), linalool (24.20%)[253]
ADM90C. albicans (ATCC10231)Tween 800.50% v/vNCR[236]
ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 201.50%[75]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone1.00 mg/mLLinalool (54.10%)[99]
MIC90n.m.95.00 μg/mLMethyl chavicol (46.90%), geranial (19.10%), neral (15.15%)[159]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 201.00%NCR[237]

Ocimum gratissimum (African basil)MICC. albicans (clinical isolate)n.m.750.00 μg/mLEugenol (67.00%)[254]

Ocimum sanctum (holy basil) MIC90C. albicans (37 clinical isolates (5 resistant to fluconazole)) 10% DMSO0.10–0.24 μL/mL Methyl chavicol (44.63%), linalool (21.84%) [255]
C. albicans (ATCC 90028)0.25 μL/mL
C. albicans (ATCC 10261)0.20 μL/mL
C. albicans (ATCC 44829)
ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 200.48%NCR[75]

Origanum majorana (marjoram)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (46.00%), linalool (26.10%)[99]

Origanum acutidens (Turkey oregano)MICC. albicans (A117)10% DMSO125.00 μg/mLCarvacrol (72.00%)[161]

Origanum microphyllum (oregano)MICC. albicansTween 803.23 mg/mLTerpinen-4-ol (24.86%), -terpinene (13.83%), linalool (10.81%)[162]

Origanum vulgare (oregano)MICC. albicansn.m.2.00 μg/μLCarvacrol (61.30%), thymol (13.90%)[253]
ADM90C. albicans (ATCC10231)Tween 800.12% v/vNCR[236]
ADMC. albicans (NRRL y-12983) n.m. 0.70 mg/mL NCR [249]
C. albicans (ATCC 14053)
C. albicans (NRRL y-869)
C. albicans (NRRL y-22077)
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)
MICC. albicans (NRRL 12983)Cymene (25.00%), cymenol (58.6.00%) [61]
C. albicans (ATCC 14053)
C. albicans (ATCC 90028)
C. albicans (NRRL 22077)
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)

Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Greek oregano)MACC. albicans (ATCC 10239)10% DMSO + Tween 8085.30 μg/mLLinalool (96.31%) [165]
Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare (oregano)128.00 μg/mLThymol (58.31%), carvacrol (16.11%), -cymene (13.45%)

Pelargonium graveolens (geranium) ADMC. albicans (NRRL y-12983) n.m.0.70 mg/mLNCR [249]
C. albicans (ATCC 14053)
C. albicans (NRRL y-869)
C. albicans (NRRL y-22077)
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)
MICC. albicans (NRRL 12983) n.m. 0.12 mg/mLCitronellol (47.30%) [61]
C. albicans (ATCC 14053)
C. albicans (ATCC 90028)
C. albicans (NRRL 22077)
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)n.m.0.06 mg/mL
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone0.75 mg/mLCitronellol (34.20%), geraniol (15.70%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 200.12%NCR[237]

Perovskia abrotanoides (Russian sage)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)10% DMSO8.00 μL/mLCamphor (23.00%), 1,8-cineole (22.00%), α-pinene 12.00%[167]

Pimenta racemosa (West Indian bay)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.12% v/vNCR[236]

Pimpinella anisum (anise)MAC83C. albicansn.m.1.00% v/vAnethole, anisaldehyde, linalool[256]
MICDMSO≤1.00 μg/mLAnethole (64.82%)[118]

Pinus sylvestris (pine)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone1.50 mg/mLBornyl acetate (42.30%), camphene (11.80%), -pinene (11.00%)[99]

Piper nigrum (black pepper)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mLβ-Caryophyllene (33.80%), limonene (16.40%)[99]

Pogostemon patchouli (patchouli)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone1.50 mg/mLPatchouli alcohol (37.30%), α-bulnesene (14.60%), -guaiene (12.50%)[99]

Ricinus officinalis (rose)ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 20>3.00%NCR[75]

Rosa gallica (rose)ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 201.00–2.00%NCR[237]

Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.25% v/v1,8-Cineole (27.23%), -pinene (19.43%), camphor (14.26%), camphene (11.52%)[169]
0.10% v/v1,8-Cineole (26.54%), -pinene (20.14%), camphene (11.38%), camphor (12.88%)[170]
C. albicans (MTCC 1637)n.m.5.50 mg/mLNCR [171]
C. albicans (10 antifungal-resistant isolates)2.75–5.50 mg/mL
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone5.70 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (41.40%), -pinene (13.30%), camphor (12.40%)[140]
2.00 mg/mL1,8-Cineole (48.00%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 201.00%NCR[237]

Salvia eremophila (sage)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)10% DMSO13.00 μg/mLBorneol (21.83%), -pinene (18.80%), bornyl acetate (18.68%)[174]
Salvia officinalis (sage)ADM90Tween 800.50% v/vNCR[236]

Salvia ringens (sage)MICC. albicansn.m.0.75 mg/mL-Pinene (12.85%), 1,8-cineole (46.42%)[177]

Salvia rosifolia (sage) (3 samples)MICC. albicans20% DMSO500.00 μg/mL-Pinene (15.70–34.80%), 1,8-cineole (16.60–25.10%), -pinene (6.70–13.50%)[178]

Salvia sclarea (clary sage) MICC. albicans (13 clinical isolates and 1 reference strain ATCC 10231)1% DMSO128.00–256.00 μg/mLLinalyl acetate (56.88%), linalool (20.75%)[257]
C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone0.88 mg/mLLinalyl acetate (72.90%), linalool (11.90%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 202.00%NCR[237]

Santalum album (sandalwood)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.06% v/vNCR[236]
MICAcetone2.00 mg/mL-Santalol (32.10%)[99]

Santolina chamaecyparissus (santolina)MICC. albicans (CBS 562 and 4 clinical isolates)n.m.0.25–>1.00 mg/mLNCR[240]

Styrax benzoin (benzoin)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.00 mg/mLCinnamyl alcohol (44.80%), benzene propanol (21.70%)[99]

Syzygium aromaticum (clove)ADM90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.12% v/vNCR[236]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 800.13% v/vEugenol (68.52%), β-caryophyllene (19.00%), 2-methoxy-4-[2-propenyl]phenol acetate (10.15%)[169]
DMSO≤1.00 μg/mLEugenol (84.07%), isoeugenol (10.39%)[118]
MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231)DMSO0.64 μg/mLEugenol (85.30%) [258]
C. albicans (clinical isolate D5)
C. albicans (clinical isolate D1)
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone0.50 mg/mLEugenol (82.20%), eugenol acetate (13.20%)[99]
ADMC. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)Tween 200.12%NCR[237]

Tagetes minuta (Mexican marigold)MIC90C. albicans (ATCC 10231)n.m.115.00 μg/mLDihydrotagetone (33.90%), -ocimene (19.90%), tagetone (16.10%)[159]
Tagetes patula (French marigold)MICAcetone2.00 mg/mL( )--Ocimene (41.30%), -tagetone (11.20%), verbenone (10.90%)[99]

Thymus broussonetii (thyme)MACC. albicans (CCMM L4)n.m.0.25 mg/mLThymol (39.64%), carvacrol (21.31%), borneol (20.13%)[259]

Thymus capitatus (thyme)MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 80450.00 μg/mL-Cymene (26.40%), thymol (29.30%), carvacrol (10.80%) [181]
Thymus capitatus (thyme), commercial-Pinene (25.20%), linalool (10.30%), thymol (46.10%)

Thymus herba-barona (thyme)MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231)2% DMSO0.32 μL/mLCarvacrol (54.00%), thymol (30.20%)[246]

Thymus herba-barona (thyme), Limbara MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Tween 80450.00 μg/mL-Cymene (27.60%), thymol (50.30%) [181]
Thymus herba-barona (thyme), Gennargentu225.00 μg/mLThymol (46.90%), carvacrol (20.60%)
Thymus magnus (thyme)C. albicans (KCCM 11282)Ethanol and Tween 800.39 mg/mLThymol (39.80%)[260]

Thymus maroccanus (thyme)MACC. albicans (CCMM L4)n.m.0.25 mg/mLCarvacrol (89.15%)[259]
Thymus mastichina subsp. mastichina (thyme)C. albicans (ATCC 10231, H37, M1)n.m.1.25–2.50 μL/mL1,8-Cineole (67.40%)[261]

Thymus quinquecostatus (thyme)MICC. albicans (KCCM 11282)Ethanol and Tween 800.39 mg/mLThymol (41.70%), -terpinene (16.00%)[260]

Thymus schimperi (thyme)ADMC. albicansDMSO0.16 μL/mLNCR[232]

Thymus vulgaris (thyme)MICC. albicans n.m.4.00 μg/μLThymol (47.90%)[253]
MACC. albicans (ATCC 10231, H37, M1)0.16–0.32 μL/mLCarvacrol (70.30%), -cymene (11.70%)[261]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone2.40 mg/mLThymol (47.20%), -cymene (22.10%)[140]
1.00 mg/mL-Cymene (39.90%), thymol (20.70%)[99]

Thymus x viciosoi (thyme) MACC. albicans (clinical isolates M1, D5), C. albicans (ATCC 10231)1% DMSO0.04–0.64 μL/mLCarvacrol (30.00%), thymol (18.00%), -cymene (19.00%)[262]
Thymus zygis subsp. sylvestris (thyme)C. albicans (ATCC 10231)2% DMSO0.32–1.25 μL/mL -Cymene (11.00–17.00%), γ-terpinene (3.80–11.50%), linalool (3.50–30.00%), geraniol (0.10–19.80%), thymol (5.20–23.80%), carvacrol (1.30–25.00%), geranyl acetate (0.50–20.80%)[263]
Thymus zygis subsp. zygis (thyme)C. albicans (ATCC 10231, H37, M1)n.m.NIThymol (39.60%), -cymene (21.20%)[261]

Vetiveria zizanioides/Andropogon muricatus (vetiver)ADMC. albicans (clinical samples)Tween 20NINCR[75]
MICC. albicans (ATCC 10231)Acetone1.75 mg/mLZizanol (13.60%), -vetirenene (7.20%)[99]

Zingiber officinalis (ginger) ADMC. albicans (clinical samples) Tween 20 3.00% NCR[75]
C. albicans (ATCC 10231 and 3 clinical isolates)[237]

name (common name), part of plant (if applicable).
: microdilution method; MAC: macrodilution method; ADM: agar dilution method, CTA: contact time assay.
Type Culture Collection, Rockville, USA (ATCC); Colección Espanõla de Cultivos Tipo (CECT); collection of microorganisms of the Department of Microbiology (MFBF); culture collection of antibiotics-resistant microbes (CCRM); Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine, clinical isolate (OGU); Laboratorio de Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina (LM); Microbial Type Culture Collection (MTCC); Mycology Laboratory (LM); National Center of Industrial Microorganisms (NCIM); National Collection of Type Cultures, London, Great Britain (NCTC); Spanish Collection of Type Cultures (STCC).
concentration was not included; n.m.: not mentioned.
: no inhibition.
: no composition results reported.