Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2017 / Article / Tab 4

Review Article

Extraoral Taste Receptor Discovery: New Light on Ayurvedic Pharmacology

Table 4

Transducers involved in thermosensation and examples of agonists ( information Ayurveda versus modern science: evergreen tree and Andrographis paniculata are described as being “cold” in Ayurveda [119] and clove is described as being “hot” in Ayurveda [119], while eugenol was found to have hypothermic effects [120]; mint is pungent and therefore “hot” although it induces a cooling sensation [119]).

TRP channelsAgonists

Cooling Sensation

TRPM5 (sweet, umami, bitter taste receptor cells) (15°–35°C) [121]Rutamarin (rue) [122]

TRPM8 (trigeminal orosensation)
Moderate non-painful coolness (10°–28°C) [123, 124]
Menthol [123]
Geraniol (rose oil, citronella oil) [125]
Eucalyptol (eucalyptus) [125]

TRPA1 (trigeminal orosensation)
Noxious cold or painful cold
(<15°C) [126, 127]
Eugenol (clove) [128]
See also TRPA1 (pungency) under Warming sensation

Warming sensation

TRPV4 (trigeminal orosensation)
(>27°C) non painful warmth [129]
Bisandrographolide A (Andrographis paniculata) [130]
Eugenol [131]

TRPV3 (trigeminal orosensation) (≥33°C) non painful warmth [132]Carvacrol (oregano) [133]
Eugenol [133]
Thymol (thyme) [133]
Camphor [134]

TRPV1 (trigeminal orosensation) (>43°C) painful heat [135], pungencyCapsaicin (chili peppers) [136]
Piperine (black pepper) [137]
Low pH (<5.9) [138] (sour items?)

TRPV2 (trigeminal orosensation)
(>52°C) extreme heat [135]
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol acid [139], cannabidiol (marijuana) [140]

TRPA1 (trigeminal orosensation – pungency, burning sensation)Allicin (garlic) [141]
6-Gingerol, zingerone, 6-shogaol (ginger) [142]
Allyl isothiocyanate (horseradish, mustard oil) [143]
Cinnamaldehyde (cinnamon) [144]
Oleocanthal (olive oil) [145]
Organic weak acids [146] (sour plants?)
Polygodial (water pepper) [147]
Perillaketone, perillaldehyde (Perilla frutescens) [148]

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