Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2017 / Article

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2017 |Article ID 5748256 | 52 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5748256

Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Local Tissue Damage Induced by Snake Venoms: An Overview from Traditional Use to Pharmacological Evidence

Academic Editor: Rainer W. Bussmann
Received23 Feb 2017
Accepted09 Jul 2017
Published21 Aug 2017


Snakebites are a serious problem in public health due to their high morbimortality. Most of snake venoms produce intense local tissue damage, which could lead to temporary or permanent disability in victims. The available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, whose effectiveness is reduced against these effects. Thus, the search for complementary alternatives for snakebite treatment is relevant. There are several reports of the popular use of medicinal plants against snakebites worldwide. In recent years, many studies have been published giving pharmacological evidence of benefits of several vegetal species against local effects induced by a broad range of snake venoms, including inhibitory potential against hyaluronidase, phospholipase, proteolytic, hemorrhagic, myotoxic, and edematogenic activities. In this context, this review aimed to provide an updated overview of medicinal plants used popularly as antiophidic agents and discuss the main species with pharmacological studies supporting the uses, with emphasis on plants inhibiting local effects of snake envenomation. The present review provides an updated scenario and insights into future research aiming at validation of medicinal plants as antiophidic agents and strengthens the potentiality of ethnopharmacology as a tool for design of potent inhibitors and/or development of herbal medicines against venom toxins, especially local tissue damage.

1. Introduction

Snakebites are a serious public health problem in many regions around the world, particularly in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and parts of Oceania [1]. Conservative data indicate that, worldwide, there are between 1.2 and 5.5 million snakebites every year, leading to 25,000 to 125,000 deaths [2]. Despite its significant impact on human health, this condition remains largely neglected by national and international health authorities, funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies, patients’ organizations, and health advocacy groups [1]. Thus, snake envenomation is included since 2009 in World Health Organization (WHO) list of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) [3]. Envenoming and deaths resulting from snakebites are a particularly important public health problem in the rural tropics. Populations in these regions experience high morbidity and mortality because of poor access to health services, which are often suboptimal, as well as other NTDs, which are associated with poverty [3, 4].

Snakes with major clinical importance belong to the families Elapidae (African and Asian cobras, Asian kraits, African mambas, American coral snakes, Australian and New Guinean venomous snakes, and sea snakes) and Viperidae (Old World vipers, American rattlesnakes and pit vipers, and Asian pit vipers) [5]. After production, snake venom is injected in the victim via tubular or channeled fangs [6]. Biochemically, venoms are complex mixtures of pharmacologically active proteins and polypeptides, acting in concert to help in immobilizing the prey [7]. The most common toxins in snake venoms are snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), phospholipases A2 (PLA2s), snake venom serine proteinases (SVSPs), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs), nucleotidases, and snake venom hyaluronidases (SVHs) [7].

Biological properties of snake venom components are peculiar to each species, but in general, the main clinical effects of snake envenomation are immediate and prominent local tissue damage (including myonecrosis, dermonecrosis, hemorrhage, and edema), coagulation disorders (consumption coagulopathy and spontaneous systemic bleeding), cardiovascular alterations (hypotension, hypovolemic shock, and myocardial damage), renal alterations (which could evolve into acute kidney injure), neurotoxic action (descending paralysis, progressing from ptosis and external ophthalmoplegia to bulbar, respiratory muscle, and total flaccid paralysis), generalized rhabdomyolysis with myoglobinuria, and intravascular haemolysis [5, 8].

The only available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which consists of a pool of neutralizing immunoglobulins, or immunoglobulin fragments, purified from the plasma of animals hyperimmunized against snake venoms or specific toxins. Its effectiveness consists in its ability to provide to the patient antibodies with a high affinity to snake venom, aiming to eliminate the toxins responsible for toxicity of the envenoming, mitigating the progress of toxic effects induced by snake venom components [9]. However, the antivenom has some limitations, such as poor ability to treat local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost, and difficult access in some regions [810]. If antivenom administration is initiated rapidly after envenomation, neutralization of systemic effects is usually achieved successfully; however, neutralization of local tissue damage is more difficult [8]. Furthermore, the availability and accessibility of antivenoms is limited in many regions, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and, to a lesser extent, Latin America, which could aggravate even more this picture [1]. Thus, this inability to treat local effects, as well as the increased time between accident and treatment, is the main reason for the temporary or permanent disability observed in many victims, which can lead to serious social, economic, and health negative impacts, given that most victims live in rural areas [3].

In this context, the search for complementary therapies to treat snakebites is relevant and medicinal plants could be highlighted as a rich source of natural inhibitors and pharmacologically active compounds [6, 1113]. There are several reports of the popular use of medicinal plants against snakebites around the world, especially in tropical and subtropical regions such as Asia, Africa, and South America [14, 15]. The rural and tribal people living in remote areas greatly depend on folk medicines for the treatment of bites from any venomous creatures [16]. The use of medicinal plants against snakebites is a historical practice throughout the human history, and this knowledge has been transferred among the rural communities from generation after generation [17]. Nowadays, these herbal antidotes used in folk traditional medicine gained much attention by toxinologists worldwide as a tool for design of potent inhibitors against snake venom toxins. The potential advantages of antiophidic plants are their possible low cost, easy access, stability at room temperature, and ability to neutralize a broad spectrum of toxins, including the local tissue damage [12, 1517].

So, the objective of this review is to provide an updated overview of medicinal plants used popularly as antiophidic and discuss the main species with pharmacological studies supporting the uses, with emphasis on plants inhibiting local effects of snake envenomation, since this is a critical effect of snake venoms that could lead to relevant sequel to victims. A review of the main botanical families popularly used as antiophidic is presented, including the main species and forms of popular use of them. Then, studies supporting their popular use are discussed, as well as the advantages of this kind of approach for treatment of snake venom accident.

2. Methodology

An extensive review of the literature was undertaken in different scientific sources, such as PubMed (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed), Science Direct (http://www.sciencedirect.com/), Scopus (https://www.scopus.com/), Web of Science (http://www.webofknowledge.com/), “Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde” (LILACS) (http://lilacs.bvsalud.org/), Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) (http://www.scielo.org/), Google Scholar (https://scholar.google.com.br/), Cochrane Library (http://www.cochranelibrary.com/), and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/CRDWeb).

The study database included original articles published in peer-reviewed journals, as well as books, thesis, dissertations, patents, and other reports covering antiophidic plants (ethnopharmacological surveys, original articles, or reviews), dated until December 2016. For the online search, where applicable, the following search strategy was employed: (“plant” OR “plants” OR “plant extract” OR “vegetal” OR “vegetal species” OR “vegetal extract” OR “traditional medicine” OR “alternative medicine” OR “complementary therapy” OR “natural medicine” OR “ethnopharmacology” OR “ethnobotany” OR “herbal medicine” OR “herb” OR “herbs” OR “decoction” OR “tea” OR “infusion” OR “macerate”) AND (“snake venom” OR “snake” OR “snakes” OR “snakebite” OR “snakebites” OR “antivenom” OR “antivenoms” OR “anti-venom” OR “anti-venoms” OR “antivenin” OR “antivenins” OR “anti-venin” OR “anti-venins” OR “antiophidian” OR “antiophidic” OR “snake envenomation” OR “antitoxin” OR “antitoxins” OR “snake antidote” OR “snake antidotes” OR “snake venom neutralization” OR “snake venom inhibition” OR “snake toxins inhibition” OR “snake toxins neutralization” OR “viper” OR “viperidae” OR “crotalinae” OR “viperinae” OR “elapidae” OR “pit-viper” OR “bothrops” OR “jararaca” OR “crotalus” OR “micrurus” OR “lachesis” OR “cobra” OR “naja” OR “bitis” OR “vipera” OR “daboia” OR “trimeresus”).

All abstracts and/or full-text data were considered, without language restriction. Then, the publications covering ethnobotanical and/or pharmacological studies of antiophidic plants were selected and carefully analyzed. With the information gathered in these studies, the actual scenario of the use of plants against snake venom was pointed out. Main botanical families used, main countries where antiophidic plants are reported, and mode of use mostly employed in folk medicine were described. Regarding studies of pharmacological evidence, the snake species that were most studied, which plant species were tested and presented positive results, correlating with those species that also presented record of ethnopharmacological use, were also reported.

The accepted botanical name of each medicinal plant listed was confirmed in at least 2 botanical databases among the following ones: Flora do Brasil (http://www.floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/), Tropicos (http://www.tropicos.org/), The Plant List (http://www.theplantlist.org/), and NCBI Taxonomy Browser (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy). In some cases, where the same species was considered as different ones (different synonyms used) in different papers, the accepted name according to the botanical databases mentioned above was used in the present review, bringing the synonym used in the original work between parenthesis.

According to the literature search performed, a lot of ethnopharmacological studies showing medicinal plants claimed as antiophidic were found. A summary of these vegetal species can be observed in Table 1.

Plant nameCountriesParts usedUseReference(s)

Acanthus arboreusSri LankaNDI[18]
Andrographis echioides (syn. Indoneesiella echioides)IndiaShootND[19]
Andrographis lineataIndiaFlower, leafI[20]
Andrographis paniculataIndiaLeaf, whole plantI, E[16, 2026]
Barleria cristataIndia, PakistanLeaf, root, seed, whole plantE[17, 19, 25]
Barleria lupulinaSri LankaNDI[18]
Blechum pyramidatumNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI[27]
Blepharis maderaspatensisIndiaLeafI[28]
Clinacanthus nutansIndiaLeafE[20]
Dicliptera paniculata (syn. Peristrophe paniculata)IndiaRoot, whole plantI, E[24, 25]
Fittonia albivenisPeruAerial partsE[29]
Hygrophila auriculataIndia, Sri LankaSeedI[18, 23]
Justicia adhatoda (syn. Adhatoda vasica)India, Pakistan, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, rootI, E[1618, 30]
Justicia calyculataKenyaAerial partsE[31]
Justicia gendarussaBangladeshLeafI[30, 32]
Justicia japonica (syn. Justicia simplex)IndiaLeafI[23]
Justicia BrazilLeafI[33]
Justicia procumbensSri LankaNDE[18]
Justicia ColombiaFlower, leaf, root, whole plantI, E[34, 35]
Rhinacanthus nasutusIndiaLeaf, rootI, E[16, 28]
Thunbergia alataColombiaFlower, leafE[34]
Trichanthera giganteaColombiaLeaf, rootE[34]
Acorus calamusBangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri LankaRhizome, rootI, E[17, 18, 20, 22, 25, 32, 36]
Sambucus nigraSpainFlowerE[37]
Achyranthes aspera (syn. Achyranthes porphyristachya)#Bangladesh, Colombia, IndiaFruit, inflorescence, leaf, root, seed, stem, whole plantI, E[17, 20, 22, 23, 25, 28, 30, 32, 35, 3841]
Aerva lanataIndia, Sri LankaRhizomeI[18, 20]
Aerva sanguinolentaBangladeshLeafND[30]
Alternanthera albotomentosaColombiaLeafE[34]
Alternanthera brasilianaBrazilFlowerI[33]
Alternanthera sessilisSri LankaNDI[18]
Amaranthus blitumIndiaRootI[25]
Amaranthus dubiusColombiaFruit peel, leaf, root, seedE[34]
Amaranthus polygonoidesSri LankaNDE[18]
Amaranthus spinosusIndiaLeaf, root, stem, whole plantE[17, 19, 32, 42]
Amaranthus viridisBangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri LankaLeaf, stem, whole plantE[17, 18, 30, 42, 43]
Chenopodium albumBangladesh, India, PakistanFruit, root, whole plantE[17, 32, 41]
Cyathula tomentosaIndiaLeafND[19]
Dysphania ambrosioides (syn. Chenopodium ambrosioides)ColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Allium ascalonicumSri LankaNDI[18]
Allium Bangladesh, Colombia, India, KenyaBulb, latex, leafE[20, 25, 31, 32, 34, 40]
Allium Colombia, India, Sri Lanka, SpainBulb, inflorescence, leafI, E[18, 22, 23, 37, 44]
Ammocharis tinneanaKenyaLatexND[31]
Crinum asiaticumSri LankaNDE[18]
Crinum latifoliumSri LankaNDE[18]
Hymenocallis littoralisNicaraguaLeaf, rootI, E[27]
Anacardium India, NicaraguaBark, fruit, leaf, rootI, E[27, 45]
Buchanania cochinchinensis (syn. Buchanania lanzan)IndiaBarkE[24, 38]
Mangifera Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri LankaLeafE[17, 18, 32]
Mangifera minorPapua New GuineaBarkI[46]
Pistacia chinensisPakistanGallE[17]
Pistacia chinensis subsp. India, PakistanGall, leafE[17, 19]
Semecarpus anacardiumIndiaRootI[20]
Semecarpus coriaceaSri LankaNDE[18]
Spondias dulcisSri LankaNDE[18]
Spondias PeruBarkND[29]
Tapirira guianensisColombiaOilE[34]
Annona BrazilLeafI[33, 47]
Annona muricataBrazilLeafND[48]
Annona KenyaLeafI, E[31]
Annona squamosaBangladesh, IndiaBark, fruitI, E[23, 32]
Polyalthia longifoliaBangladeshWhole plantND[30]
Uvaria scheffleriKenyaLeaf, rootE[31]
Centella asiaticaSri LankaNDE[18]
Conium maculatumSpainLeafE[37]
Coriandrum sativumSri LankaNDI[18]
Eryngium bourgatiiSpainAerial parts, rootE[37]
Eryngium campestreSpainAerial parts, rootE[37]
Eryngium foetidumNicaragua, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 27]
Steganotaenia araliaceaKenyaRootE[31]
Trachyspermum ammiSri LankaNDI[18]
Trachyspermum roxburghianumSri LankaNDI[18]
Allamanda ColombiaAerial parts, branch, leaf, stemI, E[35, 44]
Alstonia scholarisBangladesh, India, Sri LankaBark, flower, latex, leaf, rootI, E[18, 19, 32]
Alstonia venenataSri LankaNDE[18]
Asclepias curassavicaNicaraguaBark, flower, latex, leaf, root, whole plantI, E[27]
Blepharodon mucronatumNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Calotropis aciaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Calotropis giganteaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaLatex, leaf, rootI, E[16, 18, 20, 22, 23, 28, 32, 38, 49]
Calotropis Bangladesh, India, PakistanFlower, latex, leaf, root, shootI, E[17, 25, 32, 38, 40, 41]
Cascabela thevetia (syn. Thevetia peruviana)BrazilBark, seedE[50]
Catharanthus roseusBangladesh, ColombiaFlower, leafI, E[32, 34]
Cerbera floribundaPapua New GuineaLatexE[46]
Cerbera odollamSri LankaNDE[18]
Cryptolepis dubia (syn. Cryptolepis buchanani)India, Sri LankaRootND[18, 19]
Cynanchum viminale (syn. Sarcostemma viminale)IndiaWhole plantE[38]
Dregea volubilis (syn. Wattakaka volubilis)India, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 23]
Echidnopsis dammannianaEthiopiaStemE[51]
Echites umbellatusNicaraguaRootI[27]
Gymnema sylvestreIndiaLeaf, rootI, E[19, 20, 22, 23, 28, 52]
Hemidesmus Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaRoot, whole plantI, E[18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 38]
Holarrhena pubescens (syn. Holarrhena antidysenterica)Bangladesh, IndiaBark, root, stemI, E[24, 32, 38]
Hoya ovalifoliaSri LankaNDI[18]
Hunteria zeylanicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Ichnocarpus frutescensBangladeshRootI[32]
Nerium oleander (syn. Nerium indicum)#India, Pakistan, Sri LankaLeaf, root, seedE[17, 18, 20, 28, 41, 53]
Odontadenia puncticulosaNicaraguaLeafI[27]
Pergularia daemiaIndia, NamibiaLeafI[19, 28, 54]
Rauvolfia serpentinaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, rhizome, root, seedI, E[18, 20, 22, 28, 30, 32]
Rauvolfia tetraphylla (syn. Rauvolfia canescens)#Bangladesh, IndiaRootE[16, 30]
Tabernaemontana dichotomaSri LankaNDE[18]
Tabernaemontana divaricataSri LankaNDI[18]
Tabernaemontana sananhoPeruLeafE[29]
Tylophora Bangladesh, IndiaLeafI[23, 30, 32]
Tylophora longifoliaIndiaFlower, leafND[20]
Vincetoxicum hirundinariaIndiaRootND[19]
Willughbeia edulisBangladeshStemE[32]
Wrightia antidysentericaSri LankaNDE[18]
Wrightia arboreaIndiaBarkND[19]
Wrightia tinctoriaIndiaLeafND[38]
Aponogeton crispusSri LankaNDE[18]
Alocasia ColombiaRhizome, rootE[35, 44]
Amorphophallus commutatusIndiaTuberND[55]
Amorphophallus paeoniifoliusSri LankaNDI[18]
Anaphyllum beddomeiIndiaRhizomeE[16]
Anthurium marmoratumColombiaBranch, leaf, stemE[35]
Arisaema concinnumIndiaFruit, tuberND[19]
Arisaema flavumPakistanRhizomeND[17]
Arisaema jacquemontiiIndia, PakistanFlower, leaf, tuberND[17, 19, 56]
Arisaema tortuosumIndiaBulb, tuberI[38, 55]
Caladium bicolorPeruTuberE[57]
Dieffenbachia ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Dieffenbachia parlatoreiColombiaRootE[44]
Dracontium ColombiaRhizomeI, E[35]
Dracontium spruceanumColombia, PeruStem, tuber, rootE[29, 34, 44, 57]
Dracunculus vulgarisSpainBulb, flowerE[37]
Homalomena aromaticaBangladeshRhizomeE[32]
Homalomena peltataColombiaLeafE[44]
Homalomena picturataColombiaLeafE[34]
Lasia spinosaSri LankaNDE[18]
Philodendron deltoideumPeruAerial partsI, E[29]
Philodendron hederaceumNicaraguaLeaf, stemI, E[27]
Philodendron heleniaeColombiaLeafE[44]
Philodendron BrazilVineI[33]
Philodendron ColombiaBranch, leafE[35]
Pothos scandensSri LankaNDI[18]
Rhodospatha oblongataColombiaRhizomeE[35]
Sauromatum venosumIndia, PakistanLeaf, tuberI, E[17, 38]
Typhonium roxburghiiSri LankaNDI[18]
Xanthosoma poeppigiiPeruStemE[57]
Osmoxylon micranthumPapua New GuineaLatexE[46]
Areca catechuSri LankaNDE[18]
Caryota urensSri LankaNDI[18]
Cocos nuciferaSri LankaNDI[18]
Corypha umbraculiferaSri LankaNDE[18]
Euterpe edulisBrazilLatexE[50]
Euterpe oleraceaBrazilFruitE[33]
Phoenix pusillaSri LankaNDI[18]
Syagrus coronataBrazilBarkND[47]
Aristolochia birostrisBrazilWhole plantI[47]
Aristolochia India, Sri LankaFruit, leaf, whole plantI, E[18, 23, 38, 55]
Aristolochia clematitisSerbiaRhizomeND[58]
Aristolochia cordifloraColombiaLeaf, stemI, E[34, 44]
Aristolochia ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Aristolochia Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[16, 20, 22, 23, 28, 30, 32]
Aristolochia ovalifoliaMexicoRootND[59]
Aristolochia ColombiaRootI, E[35]
Aristolochia tagalaIndiaWhole plantI, E[16]
Aristolochia trilobataBrazil, NicaraguaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[27, 50]
Thottea siliquosaIndiaLeaf, rootE[16, 26]
Asparagus racemosusBangladesh, Sri LankaLeaf, rootE[18, 30, 32]
Drimia indica (syn. Urginea indica)IndiaBulbE[25]
Peliosanthes tetaBangladeshRootE[32]
Sansevieria parvaKenyaLatexE[31]
Sansevieria roxburghianaIndiaRhizomeI[23]
Sansevieria trifasciataBangladesh, ColombiaAerial parts, whole plantE[30, 34, 60]
Sansevieria zeylanicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Asplenium dalhousiae (syn. Ceterach dalhousiae)PakistanLeafND[17]
Achillea millefoliumIndiaWhole plantI[20]
Acmella paniculata (syn. Spilanthes paniculata)Sri LankaNDI[18]
Adenostemma fosbergiiEcuadorLeafI[61]
Adenostemma ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Ageratum Colombia, India, BangladeshFlower, leaf, rootE[19, 24, 32, 34]
Ageratum houstonianumPakistanInflorescence, leafE[17]
Ambrosia peruviana (syn. Ambrosia cumanensis)ColombiaAerial parts, whole plantI, E[34, 44]
Artemisia maritimaPakistanWhole plantE[17]
Artemisia scopariaIndia, PakistanWhole plantE[17, 40]
Austroeupatorium inulifoliumColombiaLeafE[34, 44]
Ayapana triplinervis (syn. Eupatorium ayapana, Eupatorium triplinerve)BrazilLeafI[33, 50]
Baccharis inamoena (syn. Baccharis trinervis)ColombiaAerial parts, whole plantE[34]
Baccharoides anthelmintica (syn. Centratherum anthelminticum)IndiaSeedND[26]
Bidens biternataIndiaLeafE[25]
Bidens pilosaKenyaLeafE[31]
Blumea axillarisSri LankaNDI[18]
Blumea brevipes (syn. Laggera brevipes)KenyaRootND[31]
Calendula officinalisIndiaFlowerI[20, 28]
Chromolaena odorataColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Clibadium ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Conyza sumatrensisKenyaLeafI[31]
Cyanthillium cinereumSri LankaNDE[18]
Eclipta prostrata (syn. Eclipta albaBangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri LankaLeaf, whole plantI, E[17, 18, 20, 28, 30, 40]
Elephantopus scaberSri LankaNDE[18]
Emilia sonchifoliaBangladesh, Colombia, India, Sri LankaLeaf, whole plantI, E[16, 18, 30, 34]
Erechtites ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Gnaphalium purpureumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Gynura hispidaSri LankaNDI[18]
Helianthus annuusIndiaSeedE[20]
Inula heleniumSerbiaRootE[58]
Laggera alataSri LankaNDE[18]
Linzia glabra (syn. Vernonia glabra)KenyaLeafE[31]
Microglossa pyrifoliaKenyaLeafE[31]
Mikania cordataBangladeshLeafE[32]
Mikania cordifoliaNicaraguaLeaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27]
Mikania Colombia, NicaraguaLeaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 35, 44]
Neurolaena Colombia, NicaraguaAerial parts, branch, leaf, stemI, E[27, 35, 44]
Pentanema indicumIndia, Sri LankaLeaf, rootI[18, 23]
Pluchea IndiaFlower, seedI, E[20]
Pseudelephantopus ColombiaWhole plantE[44]
Saussurea simpsonianaIndiaFlowerND[19]
Senecio chrysanthemoidesPakistanWhole plantE[17]
Seriphidium brevifolium (syn. Artemisia brevifolia)PakistanFlower, leafE[17]
Solanecio manniiKenyaLeafE[31]
Sphaeranthus africanusSri LankaNDI[18]
Sphaeranthus indicusSri LankaNDI[18]
Sphagneticola trilobataNicaraguaFlower, leaf, stem, whole plantI[27]
Tagetes minutaKenyaLeafE[31]
Taraxacum officinaleColombia, PakistanLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[17, 34]
Tithonia diversifoliaColombia, KenyaLeaf, whole plantI, E[31, 34]
Tricholepis glaberrimaIndiaRootND[19]
Verbesina giganteaColombiaRoot, stemI, E[34]
Vernonanthura patensColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Vernonia zeylanicumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Wedelia calendulaceaIndiaLeafI[20]
Wollastonia biflora (syn. Wedelia biflora)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Xanthium strumariumPakistanAerial partsE[17]
Impatiens balsaminaColombiaFlowerI, E[34]
Begonia annulata (syn. Begonia barbata)BangladeshLeaf, stemE[32]
Dysosma pleianthaChina, TaiwanRhizomeND[62]
Betula alnoidesIndiaBark, leafND[19]
Crescentia ColombiaFruitI[35]
Dolichandra unguis-cati (syn. Macfadyena unguis-cati)#ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Handroanthus barbatus (syn. Tabebuia barbata)BrazilLeafI[33]
Mansoa alliaceaPeruBark, rootI[57]
Oroxylum indicumBangladesh, Sri LankaBarkE[18, 32]
Stereospermum chelonoidesSri LankaNDI[18]
Stereospermum colaisSri LankaNDE[18]
Tabebuia ColombiaBarkI, E[35]
Bixa Bangladesh, Colombia, NicaraguaBranch, fruit, latex, leaf, root, stemI, E[27, 32]
Cochlospermum vitifoliumColombiaAerial partsE[34]
Cordia dichotoma (syn. Cordia obliqua)PakistanBark, fruitND[17]
Cordia spinescens (syn. Varronia spinescens)ColombiaLeafE[34]
Cynoglossum zeylanicumIndiaRootI[63]
Echium vulgareSpainAerial partsND[37]
Ehretia microphylla (syn. Ehretia buxifolia)India, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 20]
Heliotropium europaeumPakistanWhole plantE[17]
Heliotropium NicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI[27]
Tournefortia ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemE[35]
Trichodesma PakistanLeaf, rootND[17]
Trichodesma zeylanicumIndiaRootI, E[20]
Brassica junceaSri LankaNDE[18]
Brassica rapa (syn. Brassica campestris)IndiaNDE[25]
Lepidium virginicumColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Ananas comosusNicaragua, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, rootI, E[18, 27]
Bromelia pinguinNicaraguaLeafI, E[27]
Boswellia serrataIndiaBarkI[24]
Bursera simarubaNicaraguaBark, whole plantI[27]
Canarium zeylanicumSri LankaNDE[18]
Opuntia ficus-indica (syn. Opuntia vulgaris)IndiaRootND[25]
Pereskia ColombiaLeaf, stemE[35]
Calophyllum inophyllumSri LankaNDE[18]
Mesua ferreaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Hippobroma longifloraNicaraguaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[27]
Cannabis sativaIndia, Sri LankaNDI[18, 40]
Canna indicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Capparis deciduaPakistanFlower, shootE[17]
Capparis mooniiSri LankaNDI[18]
Capparis roxburghiiSri LankaNDE[18]
Capparis zeylanicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Carica IndiaFruitND[41]
Crateva adansoniiSri LankaNDI[18]
Crateva tapia (syn. Crateva benthamii)#BrazilLeafE[33]
Cynophalla flexuosa (syn. Capparis flexuosa)BrazilBarkI[64]
Nardostachys jatamansiIndiaRootND[19]
Valeriana jatamansiPakistan, Sri LankaRootI, E[17, 18]
Cassine glaucaIndia, Sri LankaLeafI[18, 19]
Celastrus paniculatusIndiaBark, root, seedI[19, 38]
Gymnosporia emarginataSri LankaNDI[18]
Parnassia nubicolaIndiaTuberND[19]
Parinari capensisNamibiaRootND[65]
Cleome gynandraSri LankaNDE[18]
Cleome viscosaSri LankaNDI[18]
Garcinia morellaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Garcinia xanthochymusSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Gloriosa India, Pakistan, Sri LankaTuberI, E[17, 18, 20, 28, 38, 40]
Anogeissus latifoliaBangladesh, IndiaBark, whole plantI, E[25, 30, 38]
Combretum collinumKenyaRootE[31]
Combretum KenyaBark, rootI[31]
Getonia floribunda (syn. Calycopteris floribunda)BangladeshRootE[32]
Terminalia Bangladesh, IndiaBarkI, E[20, 32]
Terminalia belliricaSri LankaNDI[18]
Terminalia chebulaSri LankaNDI[18]
Callisia gracilisColombiaFlower, leafI, E[34]
Commelina benghalensisIndia, Sri LankaRootND[18, 42]
Connarus BrazilBarkI[33]
Connarus monocarpusSri LankaNDE[18]
Argyreia nervosa (syn. Argyreia speciosa)IndiaRoot, seedND[19]
Argyreia populifoliaSri LankaNDI[18]
Cuscuta reflexaSri LankaNDE[18]
Dichondra repensKenyaLeafE[31]
Evolvulus alsinoidesIndia, Sri LankaRootI[18, 23]
Ipomoea albaSri LankaNDE[18]
Ipomoea aquaticaBangladeshLeaf, whole plantND[30]
Ipomoea asarifoliaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Ipomoea ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemE[35]
Ipomoea mauritianaNicaraguaLeafI, E[27]
Ipomoea pes-capraeNicaraguaLeaf, seedI[27]
Ipomoea pes-tigridisIndia, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 19, 24, 39]
Ipomoea setiferaNicaraguaLeafI, E[27]
Ipomoea trilobaSri LankaNDI[18]
Operculina pteripesNicaraguaLeafE[27]
Rivea hypocrateriformisIndiaNDI[24]
Alangium salviifoliumIndiaBarkI[20, 23]
Cheilocostus speciosus (syn. Costus speciosus)Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaBulb, leaf, stem, root, tuberI, E[18, 19, 32, 55]
Costus ColombiaStemI, E[35]
Costus ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Costus limaColombiaStemE[34]
Bryophyllum pinnatum (syn. Kalanchoe pinnataIndiaLeafND[22, 42]
Kalanchoe laciniata (syn. Kalanchoe brasiliensisBrazilLeafE[33]
Benincasa hispidaSri LankaNDE[18]
Citrullus India, PakistanFruit, rootND[17, 40, 41]
Coccinia grandisPakistan, Sri LankaRootI, E[17, 18]
Corallocarpus epigaeusIndiaTuberI[38]
Cucumis meloSri LankaNDI[18]
Cucurbita pepoSpainFlowerE[37]
Diplocyclos palmatusIndia, Sri LankaLeaf, tuberI, E[18, 23, 66]
Fevillea cordifoliaColombia, NicaraguaSeed, whole plantI, E[27, 35]
Lagenaria Sri LankaNDE[18]
Luffa acutangulaIndia, Sri LankaFruit, whole plantI, E[18, 19, 38]
Momordica balsaminaIndiaNDND[40]
Momordica Colombia, India, Nicaragua, Sri LankaAerial parts, branch, flower, fruit, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[18, 20, 27, 34, 35]
Momordica dioicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Sicydium tamnifoliumMexicoRootND[59]
Trichosanthes cucumerinaIndia, Sri LankaLeafI[18, 38]
Trichosanthes tricuspidataBangladeshRootI
Cycas pectinataBangladeshFlowerE[32]
Cycas revolutaBangladeshWhole plantND[30]
Cyclanthus bipartitusPeruHeartE[57]
Cyperus kyllingiaSri LankaNDI[18]
Cyperus rotundusBangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri LankaBulb, flower, leaf, rhizome, root, tuberI, E[17, 18, 20, 28, 32, 39]
Kyllinga odorata (syn. Kyllinga monocephala)IndiaNDND[40]
Tetracera sarmentosaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Dioscorea oppositifoliaSri LankaNDI[18]
Dioscorea pentaphyllaIndiaTuberI[38, 55]
Dipterocarpus lowiiSri LankaNDI[18]
Dipterocarpus zeylanicusSri LankaNDE[18]
Drosera burmanniiSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Drosera indicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Diospyros kakiMalaysiaFruitI[67]
Diospyros melanoxylonIndiaSeedE[25]
Diospyros montanaIndiaRootI[38]
Diospyros vera (syn. Maba buxifolia)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Euclea racemosaEthiopiaLeafI[51]
Elaeagnus latifoliaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Gaultheria trichophyllaIndiaLeafI[66]
Erythroxylum monogynumSri LankaNDE[18]
Acalypha aristata (syn. Acalypha arvensis)NicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Acalypha fimbriataNDNDND[68]
Acalypha Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaLeaf, whole plantE[18, 20, 32]
Acalypha phleoidesMexicoNDND[68]
Acalypha wilkesiana (syn. Acalypha godseffiana)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Agrostistachys hookeriSri LankaNDE[18]
Baliospermum solanifolium (syn. Baliospermum montanum)IndiaLeaf, root, seedE[19, 32]
Cnidoscolus aconitifoliusColombiaLeaf, whole plantI, E[34]
Croton tigliumSri LankaNDE[18]
Croton trinitatisColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Euphorbia antiquorumSri LankaNDE[18]
Euphorbia Bangladesh, Brazil, IndiaLatex, root, whole plantI[19, 20, 32, 47]
Euphorbia miliiBangladeshWhole plantND[30]
Euphorbia neriifolia (syn. Euphorbia ligularia)India, Sri LankaLatex, leaf, stemI, E[18, 19, 22, 38]
Euphorbia thymifoliaNicaraguaLatex, leaf, whole plantI[27]
Euphorbia tirucalliSri LankaNDI[18]
Euphorbia tithymaloides (syn. Pedilanthus tithymaloides)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Euphorbia tortilisSri LankaNDE[18]
Hura crepitansPeruLatexE[57]
Jatropha Brazil, NepalLatex, root, stemI[47, 64, 69, 70]
Jatropha Bangladesh, BrazilLatex, leaf, stemI, E[32, 50]
Jatropha BrazilLatexND[47, 64]
Jatropha multifidaSri LankaNDE[18]
Jatropha podagricaSri LankaNDE[18]
Jatropha ribifoliaBrazilLatexND[47]
Mallotus repandusSri LankaNDE[18]
Manihot esculentaBrazil, Colombia, NicaraguaBranch, leaf, rootI, E[27, 33, 34]
Melanolepis multiglandulosaPapua New GuineaLatexI[46]
Phyllanthus ColombiaBranch, leafI, E[35]
Ricinus communisBrazil, Pakistan, Sri LankaFruit, latex, leaf, root, seedI, E[17, 18, 69, 71, 72]
Spirostachys africanaNamibiaStemND[65]
Tragia involucrataIndiaWhole plantI[20, 28]
Trewia nudifloraBangladeshLeafE[32]
Abrus Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, stemI, E[20, 21, 28, 32, 38]
Abrus pulchellusSri LankaNDE[18]
Acacia caesiaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Acacia cornigeraMexicoRootND[59]
Acacia leucophloeaIndiaBarkI, E[20, 63]
Acacia melliferaNamibiaNDND[54]
Acacia niloticaIndiaLeafI, E[38]
Acacia tortaIndiaBarkI[63]
Acosmium panamenseMexicoBarkND[59]
Adenanthera pavoninaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Albizia Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri LankaBark, flower, fruit, leaf, seedI, E[1618, 23, 32, 40]
Albizia proceraBangladesh, PakistanJuicy parts, leaf, rootE[17, 32]
Alysicarpus vaginalisSri LankaNDI[18]
Amburana cearensisBrazilSeedND[71]
Bauhinia divaricata (syn. Bauhinia retusa)IndiaBark, flower, leafND[19]
Bauhinia guianensisNicaraguaBark, stemI, E[27]
Bauhinia purpureaIndiaBark, flower, leafND[19]
Bauhinia racemosaSri LankaNDE[18]
Bauhinia Bangladesh, Sri LankaBulb, stemE[18, 32]
Brownea ColombiaBarkI, E[35]
Butea IndiaBark, leaf, resin, seedI, E[24, 25, 38, 40, 41]
Caesalpinia bonducIndia, Nicaragua, Sri LankaRoot, seedI, E[18, 20, 27, 38]
Caesalpinia coriariaSri LankaNDE[18]
Cajanus cajanBangladeshStemE[30, 32]
Canavalia gladiataSri LankaNDE[18]
Cassia Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Sri LankaBark, fruit, leaf, root, seedI, E[18, 19, 24, 25, 32, 33, 38, 40]
Centrosema pubescensColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Clitoria ternateaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, root, seedI, E[16, 18, 19, 32, 38, 39, 42, 60]
Crotalaria laburnifoliaSri LankaNDE[18]
Crotalaria verrucosaIndiaSeedI[23]
Dalbergia melanoxylonIndiaBarkI[20]
Deguelia amazonica (syn. Derris amazonica)BrazilRootND[50]
Derris floribundaBrazilRootND[50]
Desmodium Colombia, NicaraguaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[27, 35]
Desmodium gangeticumBangladesh, India, PakistanRoot, whole plantI, E[17, 32, 55]
Desmodium triflorumBangladesh, Sri LankaShootI, E[18, 32]
Dipteryx BrazilSeedI[33, 50]
Entada leptostachyaKenyaLatexE[31]
Entada rheedii (syn. Entada pursaetha)Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaLeaf, seedI, E[18, 32, 49]
Erythrina americanaMexicoLeaf, seedND[59]
Erythrina excelsaIndia, KenyaBark, latexND[20, 31]
Erythrina fuscaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Erythrina subumbransSri LankaNDI[18]
Erythrina variegataIndiaBarkND[19]
Gliricidia sepiumColombiaLeaf, stemI, E[34]
Glycine maxIndiaSeedI[20]
Glycyrrhiza glabraSri LankaNDE[18]
Humboldtia decurrensIndiaRootE[16]
Humboldtia laurifoliaSri LankaNDE[18]
Indigofera circinellaKenyaLeafE[31]
Indigofera suffruticosaColombia, NicaraguaAerial parts, seed, whole plantI, E[27, 34]
Indigofera IndiaRootI[16]
Leucaena leucocephalaSri LankaNDE[18]
Libidibia BrazilSeedI[33]
Machaerium feroxBrazilLeafE[33]
Macrotyloma uniflorumSri LankaNDI[18]
Mimosa Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[16, 19, 20, 22, 23, 28, 32]
Mucuna Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri LankaFruit, seed, stem, whole plantI, E[18, 19, 28, 32, 69]
Mucuna sloaneiEcuadorSeedI[61]
Mucuna urensNicaraguaSeedE[27]
Parkinsonia aculeataBrazilSeedND[47]
Pentaclethra NicaraguaBarkI, E[27]
Plathymenia BrazilBarkI[33]
Pongamia pinnataSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Pterocarpus santalinusSri LankaNDE[18]
Saraca asocaSri LankaNDI[18]
Senna alata (syn. Cassia alata)India, Nicaragua, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, whole plantI, E[18, 20, 27, 28]
Senna Sri LankaNDE[18]
Senna ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Senna hirsutaBangladeshLeafE[32]
Senna occidentalis (syn. Cassia occidentalis)Bangladesh, India, Nicaragua, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[18, 27, 32, 40]
Senna reticulata (syn. Cassia reticulata)Brazil, NicaraguaLeaf, root, whole plantI[27, 50]
Senna siameaKenyaRootND[31]
Senna sophera (syn. Cassia sophera)BangladeshLeaf, rootI[30, 32]
Senna tora (syn. Cassia tora)Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, seed, stemI, E[20, 24, 25, 28, 32, 42]
Sesbania grandifloraSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Tadehagi triquetrum (syn. Desmodium triquetrum)IndiaWhole plantND[19]
Tamarindus Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaSeed, whole plantI, E[18, 22, 25, 32, 38]
Tephrosia purpureaBangladesh, IndiaRoot, whole plantI, E[19, 20, 24, 32]
Trigonella foenum-graecumSri LankaNDI[18]
Uraria lagopodioidesIndiaBarkI, E[49]
Uraria pictaBangladesh, IndiaRoot, whole plantI[24, 30]
Vigna luteolaColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Vigna radiataSri LankaNDI[18]
Chelonanthus alatus (syn. Irlbachia alata)#ColombiaBranch, leafE[35]
Enicostema IndiaWhole plantI[23, 45]
Fagraea ceilanicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Hoppea dichotomaIndiaShootND[19]
Huperzia phlegmariaSri LankaNDE[18]
Potalia amaraPeruAerial partsND[29]
Columnea ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Columnea sanguinea (syn. Besleria sanguinea)#ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Episcia ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Gleichenella pectinataColombiaWhole plantI[34]
Xiphidium Colombia, Nicaragua, PeruLeaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 35, 44, 57]
Heliconia ColombiaRhizomeE[35]
Hydrolea zeylanicaSri LankaNDI[18]
Trichomanes ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Curculigo orchioidesBangladesh, IndiaBulb, leaf, rhizomeI[32, 73]
Iris kemaonensisIndiaRhizomeND[66]
Sisyrinchium micranthumColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Aegiphila ColombiaLeaf, branch, stemE[35]
Anisochilus velutinusSri LankaNDE[18]
Anisomeles indicaIndia, Sri LankaWhole plantND[18, 19]
Anisomeles malabaricaBangladesh, IndiaWhole plantI[28, 30, 60]
Callicarpa tomentosaSri LankaNDE[18]
Clerodendrum cordatum (syn. Clerodendrum viscosum)BangladeshFlower, leafE[32]
Clerodendrum phlomidisSri LankaNDE[18]
Fuerstia africanaKenyaLeafI[31]
Gmelina arboreaBangladeshRootI[32]
Gmelina asiaticaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Hyptis ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Hyptis suaveolensBangladeshLeafE[32]
Leonotis leonurusSouth AfricaFlower, leafI[74]
Leucas Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, stemI[23, 24, 28, 30, 32]
Leucas IndiaBark, leaf, whole plantI, E[19, 20, 40, 49]
Marsypianthes BrazilLeafI[33]
Mentha × piperitaColombiaLeafE[34]
Mentha pulegiumColombiaLeafE[34]
Ocimum Bangladesh, Colombia, IndiaBranch, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[20, 32, 35]
Ocimum campechianum (syn. Ocimum micranthum)Colombia, NicaraguaAerial parts, leaf, whole plantI, E[27, 44]
Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. Ocimum sanctumIndia, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[16, 18, 20, 28, 40, 41]
Origanum vulgareSerbiaFlower, leafND[58]
Plectranthus amboinicusSri LankaNDI[18]
Plectranthus hadiensisSri LankaNDI[18]
Plectranthus monostachyusBrazilLeafI[33]
Pogostemon cablinMalaysiaNDND[75]
Pogostemon heyneanusSri LankaNDE[18]
Premna esculentaBangladeshLeafE[32]
Premna serratifolia (syn. Premna integrifolia)BangladeshLeaf, rootI, E[36]
Rosmarinus officinalisColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Rotheca serrata (syn. Clerodendrum serratum)IndiaLeaf, rootND[19, 39]
Tectona grandisIndiaBarkI[25]
Teucrium chamaedrysSerbiaFlowerND[58]
Thymus vulgarisIndia, SpainAerial parts, whole plantI, E[20, 37]
Vitex Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaLeaf, rhizome, rootI, E[18, 20, 22, 32]
Vitex trifoliaIndiaLeafI[28]
Volkameria eriophylla (syn. Clerodendrum eriophyllum)KenyaLeaf, rootND[76]
Aniba parviflora (syn. Aniba fragransBrazilBarkI[33]
Cinnamomum verumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Litsea glutinosaSri LankaNDE[18]
Litsea longifoliaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Persea macranthaSri LankaNDE[18]
Careya arboreaSri LankaNDE[18]
Couroupita guianensisBangladeshBark, leafND[30]
Lindernia ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Strychnos IndiaBark, root, seedI, E[16, 20, 49]
Strychnos potatorumSri LankaNDE[18]
Strychnos ColombiaStemE[35]
Struthanthus cassythoidesNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Struthanthus ColombiaBranch, leafE[35]
Huperzia pulcherrimaSri LankaNDE[18]
Lygodium heterodoxumNicaraguaLeafI, E[27]
Lygodium venustumColombia, Mexico, NicaraguaAerial parts, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 34, 59]
Lawsonia inermisIndiaBarkND[25]
Punica granatumIndia, Sri LankaWhole plantI, E[18, 20, 28]
Trapa natans (syn. Trapa bispinosa)Sri LankaNDI[18]
Magnolia champaca (syn. Michelia champaca)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Bronwenia cornifolia (syn. Banisteriopsis cornifolia)NicaraguaBark, leaf, stemE[27]
Byrsonima crassifoliaBrazil, NicaraguaBark, leafI[27, 47]
Stigmaphyllon puberumNicaraguaLeaf, stemI, E[27]
Abelmoschus moschatusBangladesh, India, Sri LankaFruit, leaf, seedI, E[18, 32, 38]
Abroma augustaBangladeshLeaf, root, stemE[32]
Abutilon hirtum (syn. Abutilon heterotrichum)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Abutilon indicumIndia, Sri LankaFruit, leafI[18, 20]
Ceiba pentandraSri LankaNDI[18]
Corchorus trilocularisKenyaLeafE[31]
Firmiana simplex (syn. Sterculia urens)IndiaBark, latexI[38, 55]
Gossypium arboreumSri LankaNDE[18]
Gossypium herbaceum IndiaSeedND[41]
Gossypium hirsutumBrazilLeafI[33]
Grewia damineSri LankaNDE[18]
Grewia nervosa (syn. Microcos paniculata)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Helicteres isoraBangladesh, IndiaFruit, rootI[23, 25, 32]
Hibiscus rostellatus (syn. Hibiscus furcatus)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Hibiscus surattensisSri LankaNDE[18]
Hibiscus tiliaceusMexicoSeedND[59]
Melochia corchorifoliaBangladesh, Sri LankaLeaf, whole plantI, E[18, 32]
Sida Bangladesh, Colombia, India, Sri LankaLeaf, whole plantI, E[18, 32, 35, 39, 44]
Sida cordataSri LankaNDI[18]
Sida cordifoliaBangladeshLeafI[32]
Sida rhombifoliaBangladesh, Nicaragua, Sri LankaLeaf, stemI, E[18, 27, 32]
Thespesia populneaSri LankaNDI[18]
Triumfetta rhomboideaKenyaRootE[31]
Urena lobataBangladeshRootI[32]
Wissadula periplocifoliaBangladesh, Sri LankaLeaf, rootE[18, 30, 60]
Ischnosiphon rotundifoliusBrazilLeafND[47]
Martynia annuaIndia, Sri LankaFruitE[18, 25]
Osbeckia octandraSri LankaNDE[18]
Bellucia BrazilBarkI[33]
Melastoma malabathricumBangladeshLeafE[32]
Memecylon umbellatumIndiaLeafI[63]
Azadirachta indicaIndia, Sri LankaBark, flower, latex, leaf, seedI, E[18, 20, 22, 28, 3941]
Cipadessa bacciferaIndiaLeaf, rootI[63]
Melia azedarachIndia, Sri LankaBark, leafI, E[18, 41]
Munronia pinnataSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Cissampelos fasciculataColombiaLeafI[44]
Cissampelos Bangladesh, India, Mexico, Nicaragua, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[18, 19, 23, 25, 27, 32, 38, 55, 59]
Cocculus acuminatusIndiaStemE[16]
Cocculus hirsutus (syn. Cocculus villosus)IndiaLeafI[38, 40]
Coscinium fenestratumSri LankaNDI[18]
Cyclea peltataSri LankaNDI[18]
Odontocarya ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Tinospora cordifoliaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaFruit, root, stemI[18, 22, 23, 32]
Nymphoides indicaNicaragua, Sri LankaLeaf, rootI, E[18, 27]
Hortonia angustifoliaSri LankaNDE[18]
Artocarpus heterophyllusSri LankaNDE[18]
Artocarpus nobilisSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Broussonetia zeylanicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Castilla ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Dorstenia contrajervaMexico, NicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27, 59]
Ficus benghalensisIndiaNDND[40]
Ficus drupaceaSri LankaNDE[18]
Ficus hispidaSri LankaNDE[18]
Ficus ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Ficus racemosaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaBark, shootI, E[18, 32, 38]
Ficus religiosaIndia, Sri LankaBarkI, E[18, 49]
Morus IndiaLeafI[20]
Plecospermum spinosumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Streblus asperBangladeshRootE[32]
Moringa India, Sri LankaBark, root, seedI, E[16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28]
Ensete ventricosum (syn. Ensete edule)KenyaLatexE[31]
Musa × paradisíac Ecuador, India, Nicaragua, Sri LankaBark, flower, latexI, E[18, 20, 27, 28, 61]
Myristica fragransSri LankaNDI[18]
Myrcia bracteata (syn. Eugenia bracteata)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Syzygium aromaticumSri LankaNDI[18]
Syzygium caryophyllatumSri LankaNDE[18]
Syzygium cumini (syn. Eugenia jambolana)India, Pakistan, Sri LankaBark, leafI[17, 18, 20]
Syzygium zeylanicumSri LankaNDE[18]
Nelumbo nuciferaSri LankaNDI[18]
Nepenthes distillatoriaSri LankaNDE[18]
Boerhavia coccineaPakistanWhole plantE[17]
Boerhavia diffusaBrazil, India, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantE[18, 24, 25, 39, 41, 50]
Boerhavia procumbensPakistanLeafE[17]
Mirabilis jalapaBangladesh, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 32]
Nymphaea nouchaliSri LankaNDE[18]
Nymphaea pubescensSri LankaNDI[18]
Ochna jabotapitaSri LankaNDI[18]
Sauvagesia erectaNicaraguaWhole plantI, E[27]
Jasminum officinaleSri LankaNDE[18]
Jasminum sambacSri LankaNDE[18]
Nyctanthes arbor-tristisIndia, Sri LankaRootI[18, 49]
Olea europaeaSpainOilND[37]
Opilia amentaceaKenyaRootE[31]
Vanda tessellataIndiaRootE[25]
Zeuxine regiaSri LankaNDE[18]
Averrhoa carambolaSri LankaNDI[18]
Biophytum reinwardtiiSri LankaNDI[18]
Oxalis corniculataBangladesh, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 32]
Pandanus kaidaSri LankaNDI[18]
Pandanus odorifer (syn. Pandanus odoratissimus)IndiaRootND[19]
Argemone mexicanaBangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, seed, stemI, E[20, 32, 38, 42]
Desmodium elegansPakistanRootE[17, 53]
Adenia hondalaSri LankaNDE[18]
Passiflora ColombiaBranch, leafE[34, 35]
Antidesma buniusIndiaLeafND[77]
Bridelia retusaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Cleistanthus collinusSri LankaNDI[18]
Glochidion zeylanicumSri LankaNDI[18]
Margaritaria indicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Phyllanthus acidusIndiaRootND[77]
Phyllanthus debilisSri LankaNDI[18]
Phyllanthus emblica (syn. Emblica officinalisBangladesh, India, Sri LankaBark, fruit, rootI, E[18, 20, 22, 30]
Phyllanthus niruriIndiaFlowerE[20]
Phyllanthus reticulatusIndiaLeafI[20]
Phyllanthus urinariaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Petiveria Colombia, NicaraguaBranch, leaf, root, whole plantI, E[27, 34, 35]
Pinus PakistanOil, resin, woodE[17, 53]
Peperomia ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Peperomia pellucidaNicaragua, Sri LankaWhole plantI, E[18, 27]
Piper amalagoMexico, NicaraguaLeaf, rootI[27, 59]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leafE[35]
Piper Colombia, NicaraguaBranch, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 34, 35, 44]
Piper betleSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Piper chuvyaSri LankaNDE[18]
Piper confusionisPeruLeafE[57]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Piper ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Piper Bangladesh, Sri LankaFlower, fruit, Latex, rootE[18, 30]
Piper Brazil, ColombiaBranch, leaf, root, stemI, E[35, 50]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Piper nigrumBangladesh, India, Sri LankaFloral bud, flower, fruit, rootI, E[18, 20, 28, 32, 52]
Piper Colombia, NicaraguaBranch, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 35]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemE[35]
Piper umbellatumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Pittosporum neelgherrenseIndiaBarkI, E[16]
Pittosporum tetraspermumIndiaBarkI[26]
Bacopa monnieriBangladesh, India, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantI[18, 23, 32, 39, 41]
Plantago australisColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Plantago majorColombiaAerial parts, leafI, E[44]
Scoparia Colombia, NicaraguaAerial parts, branch, leaf, root, whole plantI, E[27, 34, 35, 44]
Platanus orientalisPakistanBarkI, E[17]
Plumbago indicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Plumbago zeylanicaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 23, 32]
Chrysopogon zizanioides (syn. Vetiveria zizanioides)India, Sri LankaRootI, E[16, 18]
Cymbopogon citratusColombiaLeafE[34]
Cynodon dactylonBangladesh, India, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantE[18, 19, 32]
Drynaria quercifoliaSri LankaNDI[18]
Eleusine coracanaSri LankaNDI[18]
Gynerium sagittatumNicaraguaLeaf, rootI[27]
Heteropogon contortusIndia, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 38, 55]
Isachne globosaSri LankaNDE[18]
Oryza punctataSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Oryza sativaSri LankaNDI[18]
Pogonatherum paniceumSri LankaNDE[18]
Saccharum arundinaceumSri LankaNDI[18]
Saccharum officinarumColombia, Sri LankaStemI, E[18, 34, 44]
Polygala abyssinicaPakistanRootI[17]
Polygala crotalarioidesIndiaLeaf, rootND[19]
Polygala paniculataBrazilRootE[47]
Polygala spectabilisBrazilRootI, E[47]
Persicaria barbata (syn. Polygonum barbatum)IndiaLeafI, E[38]
Persicaria chinensis (syn. Polygonum chinense)BangladeshLeafE[32]
Persicaria ferruginea (syn. Polygonum ferrugineum) ColombiaAerial partsE[34]
Persicaria glabra (syn. Polygonum glabrum)IndiaRootE[25]
Pleopeltis ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Pyrrosia piloselloidesSri LankaNDE[18]
Monochoria hastataSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Portulaca pilosaBrazilLeafI[33]
Aegiceras corniculatumSri LankaNDE[18]
Anagallis arvensisSerbiaAerial partsND[58]
Ardisia humilisSri LankaNDE[18]
Maesa KenyaRootND[31]
Myrsine coriaceaColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Acrostichum aureumNicaraguaLeaf, rootI, E[27]
Adiantum capillus-venerisPakistanFrondE[17]
Pellaea viridisKenyaLeafE[31]
Clematis brachiata (syn. Clematis triloba)IndiaRootE[25]
Delphinium denudatumIndiaRootND[19]
Delphinium vestitumIndiaWhole plantND[19]
Alphitonia incanaPapua New GuineaOilE[46]
Ziziphus jujuba (syn. Ziziphus mauritiana)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Ziziphus oenopliaIndia, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 49]
Rhizophora mangleNicaraguaBarkI, E[27]
Crataegus monogynaSpainThornND[37]
Potentilla sundaicaIndiaRoot, stemND[19]
Prunus persicaEthiopiaLeafI[51]
Prunus walkeriSri LankaNDE[18]
Pyrus communisPakistanFruit, leafI[17]
Sanguisorba officinalisSerbiaRhizomeND[58]
Catunaregam spinosa (syn. Randia dumetorum)IndiaRootI[23]
Ceriscoides turgida (syn. Gardenia turgida)IndiaBark, rootI[24, 38]
Chiococca albaBrazil, NicaraguaLeaf, rootI[27, 47]
Clausena dentataSri LankaNDE[18]
Gonzalagunia ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Hamelia axillarisNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Hamelia barbataNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Hamelia patensNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Hamelia rovirosaeNicaraguaFlower, leaf, stemI, E[27]
Hedyotis scandensBangladeshLeaf, stemE[32]
Ixora coccineaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Ixora cuneifoliaBangladeshBarkE[32]
Ixora pavetta (syn. Ixora arborea)IndiaLeaf, rood, seedND[19]
Mitragyna parvifoliaIndiaBark, stemI, E[38, 63]
Morinda angustifoliaBangladeshLeafI[32]
Morinda citrifoliaBangladeshRootND[30]
Morinda coreiaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Morinda persicifoliaBangladeshLeafE[32]
Mussaenda frondosaSri LankaNDI[18]
Mussaenda roxburghiiBangladeshLeafE[32]
Nauclea orientalisSri LankaNDE[18]
Neonauclea purpurea (syn. Anthocephalus chinensis)BangladeshBark, leafND[30]
Oldenlandia diffusaIndiaWhole plantE[20]
Oldenlandia umbellataIndiaLeaf, rootE[20]
Ophiorrhiza IndiaRootI[16, 20]
Paederia foetidaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Palicourea croceoidesColombiaBarkI[34]
Pavetta indicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Psychotria elataNicaraguaFlower, leaf, root, stem, whole plantI, E[27]
Psychotria flavidaIndiaRootI[63]
Psychotria Colombia, Nicaragua, Sri LankaBranch, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[18, 27, 35]
Randia MexicoFruit, whole plantI[59, 78]
Rubia Nepal, PakistanLeaf, root, stemI[17, 69]
Rubia manjithIndiaRoot, stemND[19]
Spermacoce remota (syn. Borreria assurgens)NicaraguaLeaf, rootI, E[27]
Tamilnadia uliginosaSri LankaNDI[18]
Wendlandia exsertaIndiaRootI[49]
Acronychia pedunculataSri LankaNDE[18]
Aegle marmelosBangladesh, India, Sri LankaBark, whole plantI, E[18, 20, 30, 32, 41]
Atalantia ceylanicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Citrus aurantiifoliaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Citrus aurantiumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Citrus japonica (syn. Citrus madurensis)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Citrus Colombia, India, Sri LankaFruit, leaf, rootI, E[18, 20, 28, 34, 35]
Citrus maxima (syn. Citrus grandis)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Glycosmis pentaphyllaIndiaLeafI, E[16]
Limonia acidissima (syn. Feronia limonia)India, Sri LankaRootI[18, 20]
Murraya koenigiiIndia, Sri LankaBark, leafI, E[18, 28]
Murraya Sri LankaNDE[18]
Naringi crenulataIndiaFruitND[19]
Pamburus missionisSri LankaNDE[18]
Ruta chalepensisColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Toddalia asiaticaIndia, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 63]
Casearia NDBark, leafND[79]
Casearia nigrescens (syn. Casearia elliptica)IndiaBark, leafND[19]
Casearia BrazilLeaf, whole plantND[47, 79]
Casearia tomentosaIndiaBark, rootI, E[49, 79]
Flacourtia indicaBangladeshLeafE[32]
Santalum albumSri LankaNDE[18]
Allophylus cobbeSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Cardiospermum halicacabumIndia, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 28]
Dodonaea viscosaIndiaLeafE[28]
Harpullia arboreaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Sapindus emarginatusIndiaBarkI[20]
Sapindus mukorossiIndia, PakistanFruit, leaf, root, seedE[17, 25]
Madhuca longifolia (syn. Madhuca indica)India, Sri LankaBark, fruit, leaf, nut, root, seedI, E[18, 20, 23, 25, 32, 38]
Manilkara zapotaMexicoRootND[59]
Mimusops elengiSri LankaNDI[18]
Verbascum thapsusIndiaLeafND[66]
Selaginella ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Ailanthus excelsaIndiaBarkI[38]
Quassia Colombia, NicaraguaRoot, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 35]
Quassia indicaSri LankaNDI[18]
Simaba ColombiaSeed, whole plantI, E[34, 35, 44]
Siparuna gesnerioidesColombiaLeaf, rootI[34, 44]
Siparuna ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Smilax regeliiNicaraguaRootI[27]
Smilax spinosaNicaraguaRootI[27]
Atropa acuminataPakistanLeaf, rootE[17]
Capsicum annuum (syn. Capsicum frutescensBangladesh, Colombia, India, Sri LankaFruit, rootI, E[18, 19, 25, 32, 34, 35]
Datura metelBangladesh, Colombia, India, Sri LankaBark, flower, fruit, leaf, root, seedI, E[18, 22, 23, 25, 28, 30, 34]
Datura IndiaRootI, E[38]
Lycopersicon esculentumColombiaLeaf, stem, whole plantE[34]
Nicotiana tabacumColombia, India, NicaraguaLeafI, E[20, 27, 44]
Solanum ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Solanum americanum (syn. Solanum nigrum)Colombia, India, Sri LankaFruit, leaf, whole plantI, E[18, 25, 34, 38]
Solanum capsicoidesBangladeshSeedND[30]
Solanum incanumKenyaFruit, stemE[31]
Solanum melongenaSri LankaNDI[18]
Solanum ColombiaBranch, fruit, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Solanum ochraceo-ferrugineumMexicoWhole plantND[59]
Solanum torvumBangladesh, India, NicaraguaFlower, leaf, rootI, E[20, 27, 30, 32]
Solanum verbascifoliumMexicoWhole plantND[59]
Solanum virginianum (syn. Solanum xanthocarpum)India, Sri LankaRootI[18, 41]
Withania somniferaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 22, 32]
Byttneria pilosaBangladeshLeaf, stemE[32]
Symplocos cochinchinensisSri LankaNDE[18]
Symplocos racemosaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Talinum paniculatumSri LankaNDE[18]
Daphne papyraceaPakistanLeaf, root, stemND[17]
Sciaphila purpureaColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Boehmeria niveaSri LankaNDE[18]
Cecropia obtusifoliaNicaraguaLeafI[27]
Cecropia peltataBangladesh, NicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI[27, 30]
Girardinia diversifoliaSri LankaNDE[18]
Pouzolzia zeylanica (syn. Pouzolzia indica)Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, whole plantE[32, 42]
Aloysia triphyllaColombiaAerial partsE[34]
Lantana camaraBangladesh, Colombia, India, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, root, stemI, E[18, 32, 34, 39, 41]
Lippia albaColombiaAerial parts, leaf, whole plantI, E[34]
Lippia grandisBrazilLeafI[33]
Stachytarpheta cayennensisColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Verbena litoralisColombiaFruit peel, leaf, root, seedE[34]
Verbena officinalisPakistanRoot, whole plantE[17, 53]
Ampelocissus latifoliaIndiaRootI[49]
Cayratia pedata (syn. Cissus pedata)BangladeshLeafND[30]
Cayratia trifolia (syn. Vitis trifolia)Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, rootI, E[36, 38]
Cissus adnataBangladeshLeafE[32]
Cissus javanaBangladeshLeaf, stemE[32]
Cissus Sri LankaNDE[18]
Leea indicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Vitis heyneana (syn. Vitis lanata)BangladeshLeafE[32]
Aloe harlanaEthiopiaLeafI[51]
Aloe littoralisPakistanWhole plantE[17]
Aloe veraNicaragua, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 27]
Alpinia calcarataSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Alpinia galangaSri LankaNDI[18]
Alpinia nigraSri LankaNDE[18]
Alpinia purpurataColombiaLeafE[44]
Curcuma angustifoliaIndiaRhizomeE[28]
Curcuma Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaRhizomeI, E[16, 18, 20, 30]
Elettaria cardamomumSri LankaNDI[18]
Globba marantina (syn. Globba bulbifera)IndiaRhizomeI[49]
Hedychium coronariumColombia, NicaraguaRoot, whole plantE[27, 34]
Renealmia ColombiaRhizome, stemI, E[34, 35]
Renealmia thyrsoideaColombiaLeaf, stemI[34]
Zingiber Ecuador, Nicaragua, Sri LankaRhizome, rootI, E[18, 27, 61]
Balanites IndiaBark, fruitE[38]

In parentheses is the synonym used in the original work; out of the parentheses is the accepted name (in case of more than one paper treating the same species with different names); ND = information not described in the work; I = internal use; E = external use. Species evaluated on antiophidic activities in previous studies (see Tables 28) showing good inhibitory potential against venom induced local effects. #Species evaluated on antiophidic activities in previous studies, however, with poor inhibition potential against venom induced local effects.

Plant namePart usedSnake venomInhibited activitiesReference(s)
In vitroIn vivo

Andrographis stenophyllaLeafN. najaHemorrhage[83]
Pupalia lappaceaHerbalN. nigricollisSVH[82]
Allium BulbN. n. karachiensisPLA2[84]
Allium BulbN. n. karachiensisPLA2[84]
Lannea acidaCortexN. nigricollisSVH[82]
Pistacia chinensis subsp.GallN. n. karachiensisPLA2[84]
Sclerocarya birreaCortexN. nigricollisSVH[82]
Spondias Cortex, radixN. nigricollisSVH[82]
Annona CortexN. nigricollisSVH[82]
Cuminum cyminumSeedN. n. karachiensisPLA2[84]
Acokanthera oppositifoliaRadixN. nigricollisSVH
Calotropis Flower, latexN. n. karachiensisPLA2[84]
Strophanthus sarmentosusFoliumN. nigricollisSVH[82]
Strophanthus speciosusRadixN. nigricollisSVH[82]
Tylophora Leaf, rootN. najaPLA2