Table 1: List of medicinal plants used against snakebites.

Plant nameCountriesParts usedUseReference(s)

Acanthaceae
Acanthus arboreusSri LankaNDI[18]
Andrographis echioides (syn. Indoneesiella echioides)IndiaShootND[19]
Andrographis lineataIndiaFlower, leafI[20]
Andrographis paniculataIndiaLeaf, whole plantI, E[16, 2026]
Barleria cristataIndia, PakistanLeaf, root, seed, whole plantE[17, 19, 25]
Barleria lupulinaSri LankaNDI[18]
Blechum pyramidatumNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI[27]
Blepharis maderaspatensisIndiaLeafI[28]
Clinacanthus nutansIndiaLeafE[20]
Dicliptera paniculata (syn. Peristrophe paniculata)IndiaRoot, whole plantI, E[24, 25]
Fittonia albivenisPeruAerial partsE[29]
Hygrophila auriculataIndia, Sri LankaSeedI[18, 23]
Justicia adhatoda (syn. Adhatoda vasica)India, Pakistan, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, rootI, E[1618, 30]
Justicia calyculataKenyaAerial partsE[31]
Justicia gendarussaBangladeshLeafI[30, 32]
Justicia japonica (syn. Justicia simplex)IndiaLeafI[23]
Justicia BrazilLeafI[33]
Justicia procumbensSri LankaNDE[18]
Justicia ColombiaFlower, leaf, root, whole plantI, E[34, 35]
Rhinacanthus nasutusIndiaLeaf, rootI, E[16, 28]
Thunbergia alataColombiaFlower, leafE[34]
Trichanthera giganteaColombiaLeaf, rootE[34]
Acoraceae
Acorus calamusBangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri LankaRhizome, rootI, E[17, 18, 20, 22, 25, 32, 36]
Adoxaceae
Sambucus nigraSpainFlowerE[37]
Amaranthaceae
Achyranthes aspera (syn. Achyranthes porphyristachya)#Bangladesh, Colombia, IndiaFruit, inflorescence, leaf, root, seed, stem, whole plantI, E[17, 20, 22, 23, 25, 28, 30, 32, 35, 3841]
Aerva lanataIndia, Sri LankaRhizomeI[18, 20]
Aerva sanguinolentaBangladeshLeafND[30]
Alternanthera albotomentosaColombiaLeafE[34]
Alternanthera brasilianaBrazilFlowerI[33]
Alternanthera sessilisSri LankaNDI[18]
Amaranthus blitumIndiaRootI[25]
Amaranthus dubiusColombiaFruit peel, leaf, root, seedE[34]
Amaranthus polygonoidesSri LankaNDE[18]
Amaranthus spinosusIndiaLeaf, root, stem, whole plantE[17, 19, 32, 42]
Amaranthus viridisBangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri LankaLeaf, stem, whole plantE[17, 18, 30, 42, 43]
Chenopodium albumBangladesh, India, PakistanFruit, root, whole plantE[17, 32, 41]
Cyathula tomentosaIndiaLeafND[19]
Dysphania ambrosioides (syn. Chenopodium ambrosioides)ColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Amaryllidaceae
Allium ascalonicumSri LankaNDI[18]
Allium Bangladesh, Colombia, India, KenyaBulb, latex, leafE[20, 25, 31, 32, 34, 40]
Allium Colombia, India, Sri Lanka, SpainBulb, inflorescence, leafI, E[18, 22, 23, 37, 44]
Ammocharis tinneanaKenyaLatexND[31]
Crinum asiaticumSri LankaNDE[18]
Crinum latifoliumSri LankaNDE[18]
Hymenocallis littoralisNicaraguaLeaf, rootI, E[27]
Anacardiaceae
Anacardium India, NicaraguaBark, fruit, leaf, rootI, E[27, 45]
Buchanania cochinchinensis (syn. Buchanania lanzan)IndiaBarkE[24, 38]
Mangifera Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri LankaLeafE[17, 18, 32]
Mangifera minorPapua New GuineaBarkI[46]
Pistacia chinensisPakistanGallE[17]
Pistacia chinensis subsp. India, PakistanGall, leafE[17, 19]
Semecarpus anacardiumIndiaRootI[20]
Semecarpus coriaceaSri LankaNDE[18]
Spondias dulcisSri LankaNDE[18]
Spondias PeruBarkND[29]
Tapirira guianensisColombiaOilE[34]
Annonaceae
Annona BrazilLeafI[33, 47]
Annona muricataBrazilLeafND[48]
Annona KenyaLeafI, E[31]
Annona squamosaBangladesh, IndiaBark, fruitI, E[23, 32]
Polyalthia longifoliaBangladeshWhole plantND[30]
Uvaria scheffleriKenyaLeaf, rootE[31]
Apiaceae
Centella asiaticaSri LankaNDE[18]
Conium maculatumSpainLeafE[37]
Coriandrum sativumSri LankaNDI[18]
Eryngium bourgatiiSpainAerial parts, rootE[37]
Eryngium campestreSpainAerial parts, rootE[37]
Eryngium foetidumNicaragua, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 27]
Steganotaenia araliaceaKenyaRootE[31]
Trachyspermum ammiSri LankaNDI[18]
Trachyspermum roxburghianumSri LankaNDI[18]
Apocynaceae
Allamanda ColombiaAerial parts, branch, leaf, stemI, E[35, 44]
Alstonia scholarisBangladesh, India, Sri LankaBark, flower, latex, leaf, rootI, E[18, 19, 32]
Alstonia venenataSri LankaNDE[18]
Asclepias curassavicaNicaraguaBark, flower, latex, leaf, root, whole plantI, E[27]
Blepharodon mucronatumNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Calotropis aciaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Calotropis giganteaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaLatex, leaf, rootI, E[16, 18, 20, 22, 23, 28, 32, 38, 49]
Calotropis Bangladesh, India, PakistanFlower, latex, leaf, root, shootI, E[17, 25, 32, 38, 40, 41]
Cascabela thevetia (syn. Thevetia peruviana)BrazilBark, seedE[50]
Catharanthus roseusBangladesh, ColombiaFlower, leafI, E[32, 34]
Cerbera floribundaPapua New GuineaLatexE[46]
Cerbera odollamSri LankaNDE[18]
Cryptolepis dubia (syn. Cryptolepis buchanani)India, Sri LankaRootND[18, 19]
Cynanchum viminale (syn. Sarcostemma viminale)IndiaWhole plantE[38]
Dregea volubilis (syn. Wattakaka volubilis)India, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 23]
Echidnopsis dammannianaEthiopiaStemE[51]
Echites umbellatusNicaraguaRootI[27]
Gymnema sylvestreIndiaLeaf, rootI, E[19, 20, 22, 23, 28, 52]
Hemidesmus Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaRoot, whole plantI, E[18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 38]
Holarrhena pubescens (syn. Holarrhena antidysenterica)Bangladesh, IndiaBark, root, stemI, E[24, 32, 38]
Hoya ovalifoliaSri LankaNDI[18]
Hunteria zeylanicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Ichnocarpus frutescensBangladeshRootI[32]
Nerium oleander (syn. Nerium indicum)#India, Pakistan, Sri LankaLeaf, root, seedE[17, 18, 20, 28, 41, 53]
Odontadenia puncticulosaNicaraguaLeafI[27]
Pergularia daemiaIndia, NamibiaLeafI[19, 28, 54]
Rauvolfia serpentinaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, rhizome, root, seedI, E[18, 20, 22, 28, 30, 32]
Rauvolfia tetraphylla (syn. Rauvolfia canescens)#Bangladesh, IndiaRootE[16, 30]
Tabernaemontana dichotomaSri LankaNDE[18]
Tabernaemontana divaricataSri LankaNDI[18]
Tabernaemontana sananhoPeruLeafE[29]
Tylophora Bangladesh, IndiaLeafI[23, 30, 32]
Tylophora longifoliaIndiaFlower, leafND[20]
Vincetoxicum hirundinariaIndiaRootND[19]
Willughbeia edulisBangladeshStemE[32]
Wrightia antidysentericaSri LankaNDE[18]
Wrightia arboreaIndiaBarkND[19]
Wrightia tinctoriaIndiaLeafND[38]
Aponogetonaceae
Aponogeton crispusSri LankaNDE[18]
Araceae
Alocasia ColombiaRhizome, rootE[35, 44]
Amorphophallus commutatusIndiaTuberND[55]
Amorphophallus paeoniifoliusSri LankaNDI[18]
Anaphyllum beddomeiIndiaRhizomeE[16]
Anthurium marmoratumColombiaBranch, leaf, stemE[35]
Arisaema concinnumIndiaFruit, tuberND[19]
Arisaema flavumPakistanRhizomeND[17]
Arisaema jacquemontiiIndia, PakistanFlower, leaf, tuberND[17, 19, 56]
Arisaema tortuosumIndiaBulb, tuberI[38, 55]
Caladium bicolorPeruTuberE[57]
Dieffenbachia ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Dieffenbachia parlatoreiColombiaRootE[44]
Dracontium ColombiaRhizomeI, E[35]
Dracontium spruceanumColombia, PeruStem, tuber, rootE[29, 34, 44, 57]
Dracunculus vulgarisSpainBulb, flowerE[37]
Homalomena aromaticaBangladeshRhizomeE[32]
Homalomena peltataColombiaLeafE[44]
Homalomena picturataColombiaLeafE[34]
Lasia spinosaSri LankaNDE[18]
Philodendron deltoideumPeruAerial partsI, E[29]
Philodendron hederaceumNicaraguaLeaf, stemI, E[27]
Philodendron heleniaeColombiaLeafE[44]
Philodendron BrazilVineI[33]
Philodendron ColombiaBranch, leafE[35]
Pothos scandensSri LankaNDI[18]
Rhodospatha oblongataColombiaRhizomeE[35]
Sauromatum venosumIndia, PakistanLeaf, tuberI, E[17, 38]
Typhonium roxburghiiSri LankaNDI[18]
Xanthosoma poeppigiiPeruStemE[57]
Araliaceae
Osmoxylon micranthumPapua New GuineaLatexE[46]
Arecaceae
Areca catechuSri LankaNDE[18]
Caryota urensSri LankaNDI[18]
Cocos nuciferaSri LankaNDI[18]
Corypha umbraculiferaSri LankaNDE[18]
Euterpe edulisBrazilLatexE[50]
Euterpe oleraceaBrazilFruitE[33]
Phoenix pusillaSri LankaNDI[18]
Syagrus coronataBrazilBarkND[47]
Aristolochiaceae
Aristolochia birostrisBrazilWhole plantI[47]
Aristolochia India, Sri LankaFruit, leaf, whole plantI, E[18, 23, 38, 55]
Aristolochia clematitisSerbiaRhizomeND[58]
Aristolochia cordifloraColombiaLeaf, stemI, E[34, 44]
Aristolochia ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Aristolochia Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[16, 20, 22, 23, 28, 30, 32]
Aristolochia ovalifoliaMexicoRootND[59]
Aristolochia ColombiaRootI, E[35]
Aristolochia tagalaIndiaWhole plantI, E[16]
Aristolochia trilobataBrazil, NicaraguaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[27, 50]
Thottea siliquosaIndiaLeaf, rootE[16, 26]
Asparagaceae
Asparagus racemosusBangladesh, Sri LankaLeaf, rootE[18, 30, 32]
Drimia indica (syn. Urginea indica)IndiaBulbE[25]
Peliosanthes tetaBangladeshRootE[32]
Sansevieria parvaKenyaLatexE[31]
Sansevieria roxburghianaIndiaRhizomeI[23]
Sansevieria trifasciataBangladesh, ColombiaAerial parts, whole plantE[30, 34, 60]
Sansevieria zeylanicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Aspleniaceae
Asplenium dalhousiae (syn. Ceterach dalhousiae)PakistanLeafND[17]
Asteraceae
Achillea millefoliumIndiaWhole plantI[20]
Acmella paniculata (syn. Spilanthes paniculata)Sri LankaNDI[18]
Adenostemma fosbergiiEcuadorLeafI[61]
Adenostemma ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Ageratum Colombia, India, BangladeshFlower, leaf, rootE[19, 24, 32, 34]
Ageratum houstonianumPakistanInflorescence, leafE[17]
Ambrosia peruviana (syn. Ambrosia cumanensis)ColombiaAerial parts, whole plantI, E[34, 44]
Artemisia maritimaPakistanWhole plantE[17]
Artemisia scopariaIndia, PakistanWhole plantE[17, 40]
Austroeupatorium inulifoliumColombiaLeafE[34, 44]
Ayapana triplinervis (syn. Eupatorium ayapana, Eupatorium triplinerve)BrazilLeafI[33, 50]
Baccharis inamoena (syn. Baccharis trinervis)ColombiaAerial parts, whole plantE[34]
Baccharoides anthelmintica (syn. Centratherum anthelminticum)IndiaSeedND[26]
Bidens biternataIndiaLeafE[25]
Bidens pilosaKenyaLeafE[31]
Blumea axillarisSri LankaNDI[18]
Blumea brevipes (syn. Laggera brevipes)KenyaRootND[31]
Calendula officinalisIndiaFlowerI[20, 28]
Chromolaena odorataColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Clibadium ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Conyza sumatrensisKenyaLeafI[31]
Cyanthillium cinereumSri LankaNDE[18]
Eclipta prostrata (syn. Eclipta albaBangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri LankaLeaf, whole plantI, E[17, 18, 20, 28, 30, 40]
Elephantopus scaberSri LankaNDE[18]
Emilia sonchifoliaBangladesh, Colombia, India, Sri LankaLeaf, whole plantI, E[16, 18, 30, 34]
Erechtites ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Gnaphalium purpureumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Gynura hispidaSri LankaNDI[18]
Helianthus annuusIndiaSeedE[20]
Inula heleniumSerbiaRootE[58]
Laggera alataSri LankaNDE[18]
Linzia glabra (syn. Vernonia glabra)KenyaLeafE[31]
Microglossa pyrifoliaKenyaLeafE[31]
Mikania cordataBangladeshLeafE[32]
Mikania cordifoliaNicaraguaLeaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27]
Mikania Colombia, NicaraguaLeaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 35, 44]
Neurolaena Colombia, NicaraguaAerial parts, branch, leaf, stemI, E[27, 35, 44]
Pentanema indicumIndia, Sri LankaLeaf, rootI[18, 23]
Pluchea IndiaFlower, seedI, E[20]
Pseudelephantopus ColombiaWhole plantE[44]
Saussurea simpsonianaIndiaFlowerND[19]
Senecio chrysanthemoidesPakistanWhole plantE[17]
Seriphidium brevifolium (syn. Artemisia brevifolia)PakistanFlower, leafE[17]
Solanecio manniiKenyaLeafE[31]
Sphaeranthus africanusSri LankaNDI[18]
Sphaeranthus indicusSri LankaNDI[18]
Sphagneticola trilobataNicaraguaFlower, leaf, stem, whole plantI[27]
Tagetes minutaKenyaLeafE[31]
Taraxacum officinaleColombia, PakistanLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[17, 34]
Tithonia diversifoliaColombia, KenyaLeaf, whole plantI, E[31, 34]
Tricholepis glaberrimaIndiaRootND[19]
Verbesina giganteaColombiaRoot, stemI, E[34]
Vernonanthura patensColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Vernonia zeylanicumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Wedelia calendulaceaIndiaLeafI[20]
Wollastonia biflora (syn. Wedelia biflora)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Xanthium strumariumPakistanAerial partsE[17]
Balsaminaceae
Impatiens balsaminaColombiaFlowerI, E[34]
Begoniaceae
Begonia annulata (syn. Begonia barbata)BangladeshLeaf, stemE[32]
Berberidaceae
Dysosma pleianthaChina, TaiwanRhizomeND[62]
Betulaceae
Betula alnoidesIndiaBark, leafND[19]
Bignoniaceae
Crescentia ColombiaFruitI[35]
Dolichandra unguis-cati (syn. Macfadyena unguis-cati)#ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Handroanthus barbatus (syn. Tabebuia barbata)BrazilLeafI[33]
Mansoa alliaceaPeruBark, rootI[57]
Oroxylum indicumBangladesh, Sri LankaBarkE[18, 32]
Stereospermum chelonoidesSri LankaNDI[18]
Stereospermum colaisSri LankaNDE[18]
Tabebuia ColombiaBarkI, E[35]
Bixaceae
Bixa Bangladesh, Colombia, NicaraguaBranch, fruit, latex, leaf, root, stemI, E[27, 32]
Cochlospermum vitifoliumColombiaAerial partsE[34]
Boraginaceae
Cordia dichotoma (syn. Cordia obliqua)PakistanBark, fruitND[17]
Cordia spinescens (syn. Varronia spinescens)ColombiaLeafE[34]
Cynoglossum zeylanicumIndiaRootI[63]
Echium vulgareSpainAerial partsND[37]
Ehretia microphylla (syn. Ehretia buxifolia)India, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 20]
Heliotropium europaeumPakistanWhole plantE[17]
Heliotropium NicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI[27]
Tournefortia ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemE[35]
Trichodesma PakistanLeaf, rootND[17]
Trichodesma zeylanicumIndiaRootI, E[20]
Brassicaceae
Brassica junceaSri LankaNDE[18]
Brassica rapa (syn. Brassica campestris)IndiaNDE[25]
Lepidium virginicumColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Bromeliaceae
Ananas comosusNicaragua, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, rootI, E[18, 27]
Bromelia pinguinNicaraguaLeafI, E[27]
Burseraceae
Boswellia serrataIndiaBarkI[24]
Bursera simarubaNicaraguaBark, whole plantI[27]
Canarium zeylanicumSri LankaNDE[18]
Cactaceae
Opuntia ficus-indica (syn. Opuntia vulgaris)IndiaRootND[25]
Pereskia ColombiaLeaf, stemE[35]
Calophyllaceae
Calophyllum inophyllumSri LankaNDE[18]
Mesua ferreaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Campanulaceae
Hippobroma longifloraNicaraguaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[27]
Cannabaceae
Cannabis sativaIndia, Sri LankaNDI[18, 40]
Cannaceae
Canna indicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Capparaceae
Capparis deciduaPakistanFlower, shootE[17]
Capparis mooniiSri LankaNDI[18]
Capparis roxburghiiSri LankaNDE[18]
Capparis zeylanicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Carica IndiaFruitND[41]
Crateva adansoniiSri LankaNDI[18]
Crateva tapia (syn. Crateva benthamii)#BrazilLeafE[33]
Cynophalla flexuosa (syn. Capparis flexuosa)BrazilBarkI[64]
Caprifoliaceae
Nardostachys jatamansiIndiaRootND[19]
Valeriana jatamansiPakistan, Sri LankaRootI, E[17, 18]
Celastraceae
Cassine glaucaIndia, Sri LankaLeafI[18, 19]
Celastrus paniculatusIndiaBark, root, seedI[19, 38]
Gymnosporia emarginataSri LankaNDI[18]
Parnassia nubicolaIndiaTuberND[19]
Chrysobalanaceae
Parinari capensisNamibiaRootND[65]
Cleomaceae
Cleome gynandraSri LankaNDE[18]
Cleome viscosaSri LankaNDI[18]
Clusiaceae
Garcinia morellaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Garcinia xanthochymusSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Colchicaceae
Gloriosa India, Pakistan, Sri LankaTuberI, E[17, 18, 20, 28, 38, 40]
Combretaceae
Anogeissus latifoliaBangladesh, IndiaBark, whole plantI, E[25, 30, 38]
Combretum collinumKenyaRootE[31]
Combretum KenyaBark, rootI[31]
Getonia floribunda (syn. Calycopteris floribunda)BangladeshRootE[32]
Terminalia Bangladesh, IndiaBarkI, E[20, 32]
Terminalia belliricaSri LankaNDI[18]
Terminalia chebulaSri LankaNDI[18]
Commelinaceae
Callisia gracilisColombiaFlower, leafI, E[34]
Commelina benghalensisIndia, Sri LankaRootND[18, 42]
Connaraceae
Connarus BrazilBarkI[33]
Connarus monocarpusSri LankaNDE[18]
Convolvulaceae
Argyreia nervosa (syn. Argyreia speciosa)IndiaRoot, seedND[19]
Argyreia populifoliaSri LankaNDI[18]
Cuscuta reflexaSri LankaNDE[18]
Dichondra repensKenyaLeafE[31]
Evolvulus alsinoidesIndia, Sri LankaRootI[18, 23]
Ipomoea albaSri LankaNDE[18]
Ipomoea aquaticaBangladeshLeaf, whole plantND[30]
Ipomoea asarifoliaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Ipomoea ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemE[35]
Ipomoea mauritianaNicaraguaLeafI, E[27]
Ipomoea pes-capraeNicaraguaLeaf, seedI[27]
Ipomoea pes-tigridisIndia, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 19, 24, 39]
Ipomoea setiferaNicaraguaLeafI, E[27]
Ipomoea trilobaSri LankaNDI[18]
Operculina pteripesNicaraguaLeafE[27]
Rivea hypocrateriformisIndiaNDI[24]
Cornaceae
Alangium salviifoliumIndiaBarkI[20, 23]
Costaceae
Cheilocostus speciosus (syn. Costus speciosus)Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaBulb, leaf, stem, root, tuberI, E[18, 19, 32, 55]
Costus ColombiaStemI, E[35]
Costus ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Costus limaColombiaStemE[34]
Crassulaceae
Bryophyllum pinnatum (syn. Kalanchoe pinnataIndiaLeafND[22, 42]
Kalanchoe laciniata (syn. Kalanchoe brasiliensisBrazilLeafE[33]
Cucurbitaceae
Benincasa hispidaSri LankaNDE[18]
Citrullus India, PakistanFruit, rootND[17, 40, 41]
Coccinia grandisPakistan, Sri LankaRootI, E[17, 18]
Corallocarpus epigaeusIndiaTuberI[38]
Cucumis meloSri LankaNDI[18]
Cucurbita pepoSpainFlowerE[37]
Diplocyclos palmatusIndia, Sri LankaLeaf, tuberI, E[18, 23, 66]
Fevillea cordifoliaColombia, NicaraguaSeed, whole plantI, E[27, 35]
Lagenaria Sri LankaNDE[18]
Luffa acutangulaIndia, Sri LankaFruit, whole plantI, E[18, 19, 38]
Momordica balsaminaIndiaNDND[40]
Momordica Colombia, India, Nicaragua, Sri LankaAerial parts, branch, flower, fruit, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[18, 20, 27, 34, 35]
Momordica dioicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Sicydium tamnifoliumMexicoRootND[59]
Trichosanthes cucumerinaIndia, Sri LankaLeafI[18, 38]
Trichosanthes tricuspidataBangladeshRootI
Cycadaceae
Cycas pectinataBangladeshFlowerE[32]
Cycas revolutaBangladeshWhole plantND[30]
Cyclanthaceae
Cyclanthus bipartitusPeruHeartE[57]
Cyperaceae
Cyperus kyllingiaSri LankaNDI[18]
Cyperus rotundusBangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri LankaBulb, flower, leaf, rhizome, root, tuberI, E[17, 18, 20, 28, 32, 39]
Kyllinga odorata (syn. Kyllinga monocephala)IndiaNDND[40]
Dilleniaceae
Tetracera sarmentosaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Dioscoreaceae
Dioscorea oppositifoliaSri LankaNDI[18]
Dioscorea pentaphyllaIndiaTuberI[38, 55]
Dipterocarpaceae
Dipterocarpus lowiiSri LankaNDI[18]
Dipterocarpus zeylanicusSri LankaNDE[18]
Droseraceae
Drosera burmanniiSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Drosera indicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Ebenaceae
Diospyros kakiMalaysiaFruitI[67]
Diospyros melanoxylonIndiaSeedE[25]
Diospyros montanaIndiaRootI[38]
Diospyros vera (syn. Maba buxifolia)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Euclea racemosaEthiopiaLeafI[51]
Elaeagnaceae
Elaeagnus latifoliaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Ericaceae
Gaultheria trichophyllaIndiaLeafI[66]
Erythroxylaceae
Erythroxylum monogynumSri LankaNDE[18]
Euphorbiaceae
Acalypha aristata (syn. Acalypha arvensis)NicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Acalypha fimbriataNDNDND[68]
Acalypha Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaLeaf, whole plantE[18, 20, 32]
Acalypha phleoidesMexicoNDND[68]
Acalypha wilkesiana (syn. Acalypha godseffiana)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Agrostistachys hookeriSri LankaNDE[18]
Baliospermum solanifolium (syn. Baliospermum montanum)IndiaLeaf, root, seedE[19, 32]
Cnidoscolus aconitifoliusColombiaLeaf, whole plantI, E[34]
Croton tigliumSri LankaNDE[18]
Croton trinitatisColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Euphorbia antiquorumSri LankaNDE[18]
Euphorbia Bangladesh, Brazil, IndiaLatex, root, whole plantI[19, 20, 32, 47]
Euphorbia miliiBangladeshWhole plantND[30]
Euphorbia neriifolia (syn. Euphorbia ligularia)India, Sri LankaLatex, leaf, stemI, E[18, 19, 22, 38]
Euphorbia thymifoliaNicaraguaLatex, leaf, whole plantI[27]
Euphorbia tirucalliSri LankaNDI[18]
Euphorbia tithymaloides (syn. Pedilanthus tithymaloides)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Euphorbia tortilisSri LankaNDE[18]
Hura crepitansPeruLatexE[57]
Jatropha Brazil, NepalLatex, root, stemI[47, 64, 69, 70]
Jatropha Bangladesh, BrazilLatex, leaf, stemI, E[32, 50]
Jatropha BrazilLatexND[47, 64]
Jatropha multifidaSri LankaNDE[18]
Jatropha podagricaSri LankaNDE[18]
Jatropha ribifoliaBrazilLatexND[47]
Mallotus repandusSri LankaNDE[18]
Manihot esculentaBrazil, Colombia, NicaraguaBranch, leaf, rootI, E[27, 33, 34]
Melanolepis multiglandulosaPapua New GuineaLatexI[46]
Phyllanthus ColombiaBranch, leafI, E[35]
Ricinus communisBrazil, Pakistan, Sri LankaFruit, latex, leaf, root, seedI, E[17, 18, 69, 71, 72]
Spirostachys africanaNamibiaStemND[65]
Tragia involucrataIndiaWhole plantI[20, 28]
Trewia nudifloraBangladeshLeafE[32]
Fabaceae
Abrus Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, stemI, E[20, 21, 28, 32, 38]
Abrus pulchellusSri LankaNDE[18]
Acacia caesiaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Acacia cornigeraMexicoRootND[59]
Acacia leucophloeaIndiaBarkI, E[20, 63]
Acacia melliferaNamibiaNDND[54]
Acacia niloticaIndiaLeafI, E[38]
Acacia tortaIndiaBarkI[63]
Acosmium panamenseMexicoBarkND[59]
Adenanthera pavoninaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Albizia Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri LankaBark, flower, fruit, leaf, seedI, E[1618, 23, 32, 40]
Albizia proceraBangladesh, PakistanJuicy parts, leaf, rootE[17, 32]
Alysicarpus vaginalisSri LankaNDI[18]
Amburana cearensisBrazilSeedND[71]
Bauhinia divaricata (syn. Bauhinia retusa)IndiaBark, flower, leafND[19]
Bauhinia guianensisNicaraguaBark, stemI, E[27]
Bauhinia purpureaIndiaBark, flower, leafND[19]
Bauhinia racemosaSri LankaNDE[18]
Bauhinia Bangladesh, Sri LankaBulb, stemE[18, 32]
Brownea ColombiaBarkI, E[35]
Butea IndiaBark, leaf, resin, seedI, E[24, 25, 38, 40, 41]
Caesalpinia bonducIndia, Nicaragua, Sri LankaRoot, seedI, E[18, 20, 27, 38]
Caesalpinia coriariaSri LankaNDE[18]
Cajanus cajanBangladeshStemE[30, 32]
Canavalia gladiataSri LankaNDE[18]
Cassia Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Sri LankaBark, fruit, leaf, root, seedI, E[18, 19, 24, 25, 32, 33, 38, 40]
Centrosema pubescensColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Clitoria ternateaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, root, seedI, E[16, 18, 19, 32, 38, 39, 42, 60]
Crotalaria laburnifoliaSri LankaNDE[18]
Crotalaria verrucosaIndiaSeedI[23]
Dalbergia melanoxylonIndiaBarkI[20]
Deguelia amazonica (syn. Derris amazonica)BrazilRootND[50]
Derris floribundaBrazilRootND[50]
Desmodium Colombia, NicaraguaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[27, 35]
Desmodium gangeticumBangladesh, India, PakistanRoot, whole plantI, E[17, 32, 55]
Desmodium triflorumBangladesh, Sri LankaShootI, E[18, 32]
Dipteryx BrazilSeedI[33, 50]
Entada leptostachyaKenyaLatexE[31]
Entada rheedii (syn. Entada pursaetha)Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaLeaf, seedI, E[18, 32, 49]
Erythrina americanaMexicoLeaf, seedND[59]
Erythrina excelsaIndia, KenyaBark, latexND[20, 31]
Erythrina fuscaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Erythrina subumbransSri LankaNDI[18]
Erythrina variegataIndiaBarkND[19]
Gliricidia sepiumColombiaLeaf, stemI, E[34]
Glycine maxIndiaSeedI[20]
Glycyrrhiza glabraSri LankaNDE[18]
Humboldtia decurrensIndiaRootE[16]
Humboldtia laurifoliaSri LankaNDE[18]
Indigofera circinellaKenyaLeafE[31]
Indigofera suffruticosaColombia, NicaraguaAerial parts, seed, whole plantI, E[27, 34]
Indigofera IndiaRootI[16]
Leucaena leucocephalaSri LankaNDE[18]
Libidibia BrazilSeedI[33]
Machaerium feroxBrazilLeafE[33]
Macrotyloma uniflorumSri LankaNDI[18]
Mimosa Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[16, 19, 20, 22, 23, 28, 32]
Mucuna Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri LankaFruit, seed, stem, whole plantI, E[18, 19, 28, 32, 69]
Mucuna sloaneiEcuadorSeedI[61]
Mucuna urensNicaraguaSeedE[27]
Parkinsonia aculeataBrazilSeedND[47]
Pentaclethra NicaraguaBarkI, E[27]
Plathymenia BrazilBarkI[33]
Pongamia pinnataSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Pterocarpus santalinusSri LankaNDE[18]
Saraca asocaSri LankaNDI[18]
Senna alata (syn. Cassia alata)India, Nicaragua, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, whole plantI, E[18, 20, 27, 28]
Senna Sri LankaNDE[18]
Senna ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Senna hirsutaBangladeshLeafE[32]
Senna occidentalis (syn. Cassia occidentalis)Bangladesh, India, Nicaragua, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[18, 27, 32, 40]
Senna reticulata (syn. Cassia reticulata)Brazil, NicaraguaLeaf, root, whole plantI[27, 50]
Senna siameaKenyaRootND[31]
Senna sophera (syn. Cassia sophera)BangladeshLeaf, rootI[30, 32]
Senna tora (syn. Cassia tora)Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, seed, stemI, E[20, 24, 25, 28, 32, 42]
Sesbania grandifloraSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Tadehagi triquetrum (syn. Desmodium triquetrum)IndiaWhole plantND[19]
Tamarindus Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaSeed, whole plantI, E[18, 22, 25, 32, 38]
Tephrosia purpureaBangladesh, IndiaRoot, whole plantI, E[19, 20, 24, 32]
Trigonella foenum-graecumSri LankaNDI[18]
Uraria lagopodioidesIndiaBarkI, E[49]
Uraria pictaBangladesh, IndiaRoot, whole plantI[24, 30]
Vigna luteolaColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Vigna radiataSri LankaNDI[18]
Gentianaceae
Chelonanthus alatus (syn. Irlbachia alata)#ColombiaBranch, leafE[35]
Enicostema IndiaWhole plantI[23, 45]
Fagraea ceilanicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Hoppea dichotomaIndiaShootND[19]
Huperzia phlegmariaSri LankaNDE[18]
Potalia amaraPeruAerial partsND[29]
Gesneriaceae
Columnea ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Columnea sanguinea (syn. Besleria sanguinea)#ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Episcia ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Gleicheniaceae
Gleichenella pectinataColombiaWhole plantI[34]
Haemodoraceae
Xiphidium Colombia, Nicaragua, PeruLeaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 35, 44, 57]
Heliconiaceae
Heliconia ColombiaRhizomeE[35]
Hydroleaceae
Hydrolea zeylanicaSri LankaNDI[18]
Hymenophyllaceae
Trichomanes ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Hypoxidaceae
Curculigo orchioidesBangladesh, IndiaBulb, leaf, rhizomeI[32, 73]
Iridaceae
Iris kemaonensisIndiaRhizomeND[66]
Sisyrinchium micranthumColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Lamiaceae
Aegiphila ColombiaLeaf, branch, stemE[35]
Anisochilus velutinusSri LankaNDE[18]
Anisomeles indicaIndia, Sri LankaWhole plantND[18, 19]
Anisomeles malabaricaBangladesh, IndiaWhole plantI[28, 30, 60]
Callicarpa tomentosaSri LankaNDE[18]
Clerodendrum cordatum (syn. Clerodendrum viscosum)BangladeshFlower, leafE[32]
Clerodendrum phlomidisSri LankaNDE[18]
Fuerstia africanaKenyaLeafI[31]
Gmelina arboreaBangladeshRootI[32]
Gmelina asiaticaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Hyptis ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Hyptis suaveolensBangladeshLeafE[32]
Leonotis leonurusSouth AfricaFlower, leafI[74]
Leucas Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, stemI[23, 24, 28, 30, 32]
Leucas IndiaBark, leaf, whole plantI, E[19, 20, 40, 49]
Marsypianthes BrazilLeafI[33]
Mentha × piperitaColombiaLeafE[34]
Mentha pulegiumColombiaLeafE[34]
Ocimum Bangladesh, Colombia, IndiaBranch, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[20, 32, 35]
Ocimum campechianum (syn. Ocimum micranthum)Colombia, NicaraguaAerial parts, leaf, whole plantI, E[27, 44]
Ocimum tenuiflorum (syn. Ocimum sanctumIndia, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[16, 18, 20, 28, 40, 41]
Origanum vulgareSerbiaFlower, leafND[58]
Plectranthus amboinicusSri LankaNDI[18]
Plectranthus hadiensisSri LankaNDI[18]
Plectranthus monostachyusBrazilLeafI[33]
Pogostemon cablinMalaysiaNDND[75]
Pogostemon heyneanusSri LankaNDE[18]
Premna esculentaBangladeshLeafE[32]
Premna serratifolia (syn. Premna integrifolia)BangladeshLeaf, rootI, E[36]
Rosmarinus officinalisColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Rotheca serrata (syn. Clerodendrum serratum)IndiaLeaf, rootND[19, 39]
Tectona grandisIndiaBarkI[25]
Teucrium chamaedrysSerbiaFlowerND[58]
Thymus vulgarisIndia, SpainAerial parts, whole plantI, E[20, 37]
Vitex Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaLeaf, rhizome, rootI, E[18, 20, 22, 32]
Vitex trifoliaIndiaLeafI[28]
Volkameria eriophylla (syn. Clerodendrum eriophyllum)KenyaLeaf, rootND[76]
Lauraceae
Aniba parviflora (syn. Aniba fragransBrazilBarkI[33]
Cinnamomum verumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Litsea glutinosaSri LankaNDE[18]
Litsea longifoliaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Persea macranthaSri LankaNDE[18]
Lecythidaceae
Careya arboreaSri LankaNDE[18]
Couroupita guianensisBangladeshBark, leafND[30]
Linderniaceae
Lindernia ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Loganiaceae
Strychnos IndiaBark, root, seedI, E[16, 20, 49]
Strychnos potatorumSri LankaNDE[18]
Strychnos ColombiaStemE[35]
Loranthaceae
Struthanthus cassythoidesNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Struthanthus ColombiaBranch, leafE[35]
Lycopodiaceae
Huperzia pulcherrimaSri LankaNDE[18]
Lygodiaceae
Lygodium heterodoxumNicaraguaLeafI, E[27]
Lygodium venustumColombia, Mexico, NicaraguaAerial parts, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 34, 59]
Lythraceae
Lawsonia inermisIndiaBarkND[25]
Punica granatumIndia, Sri LankaWhole plantI, E[18, 20, 28]
Trapa natans (syn. Trapa bispinosa)Sri LankaNDI[18]
Magnoliaceae
Magnolia champaca (syn. Michelia champaca)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Malpighiaceae
Bronwenia cornifolia (syn. Banisteriopsis cornifolia)NicaraguaBark, leaf, stemE[27]
Byrsonima crassifoliaBrazil, NicaraguaBark, leafI[27, 47]
Stigmaphyllon puberumNicaraguaLeaf, stemI, E[27]
Malvaceae
Abelmoschus moschatusBangladesh, India, Sri LankaFruit, leaf, seedI, E[18, 32, 38]
Abroma augustaBangladeshLeaf, root, stemE[32]
Abutilon hirtum (syn. Abutilon heterotrichum)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Abutilon indicumIndia, Sri LankaFruit, leafI[18, 20]
Ceiba pentandraSri LankaNDI[18]
Corchorus trilocularisKenyaLeafE[31]
Firmiana simplex (syn. Sterculia urens)IndiaBark, latexI[38, 55]
Gossypium arboreumSri LankaNDE[18]
Gossypium herbaceum IndiaSeedND[41]
Gossypium hirsutumBrazilLeafI[33]
Grewia damineSri LankaNDE[18]
Grewia nervosa (syn. Microcos paniculata)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Helicteres isoraBangladesh, IndiaFruit, rootI[23, 25, 32]
Hibiscus rostellatus (syn. Hibiscus furcatus)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Hibiscus surattensisSri LankaNDE[18]
Hibiscus tiliaceusMexicoSeedND[59]
Melochia corchorifoliaBangladesh, Sri LankaLeaf, whole plantI, E[18, 32]
Sida Bangladesh, Colombia, India, Sri LankaLeaf, whole plantI, E[18, 32, 35, 39, 44]
Sida cordataSri LankaNDI[18]
Sida cordifoliaBangladeshLeafI[32]
Sida rhombifoliaBangladesh, Nicaragua, Sri LankaLeaf, stemI, E[18, 27, 32]
Thespesia populneaSri LankaNDI[18]
Triumfetta rhomboideaKenyaRootE[31]
Urena lobataBangladeshRootI[32]
Wissadula periplocifoliaBangladesh, Sri LankaLeaf, rootE[18, 30, 60]
Marantaceae
Ischnosiphon rotundifoliusBrazilLeafND[47]
Martyniaceae
Martynia annuaIndia, Sri LankaFruitE[18, 25]
Melastomataceae
Osbeckia octandraSri LankaNDE[18]
Bellucia BrazilBarkI[33]
Melastoma malabathricumBangladeshLeafE[32]
Memecylon umbellatumIndiaLeafI[63]
Meliaceae
Azadirachta indicaIndia, Sri LankaBark, flower, latex, leaf, seedI, E[18, 20, 22, 28, 3941]
Cipadessa bacciferaIndiaLeaf, rootI[63]
Melia azedarachIndia, Sri LankaBark, leafI, E[18, 41]
Munronia pinnataSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Menispermaceae
Cissampelos fasciculataColombiaLeafI[44]
Cissampelos Bangladesh, India, Mexico, Nicaragua, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantI, E[18, 19, 23, 25, 27, 32, 38, 55, 59]
Cocculus acuminatusIndiaStemE[16]
Cocculus hirsutus (syn. Cocculus villosus)IndiaLeafI[38, 40]
Coscinium fenestratumSri LankaNDI[18]
Cyclea peltataSri LankaNDI[18]
Odontocarya ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Tinospora cordifoliaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaFruit, root, stemI[18, 22, 23, 32]
Menyanthaceae
Nymphoides indicaNicaragua, Sri LankaLeaf, rootI, E[18, 27]
Monimiaceae
Hortonia angustifoliaSri LankaNDE[18]
Moraceae
Artocarpus heterophyllusSri LankaNDE[18]
Artocarpus nobilisSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Broussonetia zeylanicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Castilla ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Dorstenia contrajervaMexico, NicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27, 59]
Ficus benghalensisIndiaNDND[40]
Ficus drupaceaSri LankaNDE[18]
Ficus hispidaSri LankaNDE[18]
Ficus ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Ficus racemosaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaBark, shootI, E[18, 32, 38]
Ficus religiosaIndia, Sri LankaBarkI, E[18, 49]
Morus IndiaLeafI[20]
Plecospermum spinosumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Streblus asperBangladeshRootE[32]
Moringaceae
Moringa India, Sri LankaBark, root, seedI, E[16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 28]
Musaceae
Ensete ventricosum (syn. Ensete edule)KenyaLatexE[31]
Musa × paradisíac Ecuador, India, Nicaragua, Sri LankaBark, flower, latexI, E[18, 20, 27, 28, 61]
Myristicaceae
Myristica fragransSri LankaNDI[18]
Myrtaceae
Myrcia bracteata (syn. Eugenia bracteata)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Syzygium aromaticumSri LankaNDI[18]
Syzygium caryophyllatumSri LankaNDE[18]
Syzygium cumini (syn. Eugenia jambolana)India, Pakistan, Sri LankaBark, leafI[17, 18, 20]
Syzygium zeylanicumSri LankaNDE[18]
Nelumbonaceae
Nelumbo nuciferaSri LankaNDI[18]
Nepenthaceae
Nepenthes distillatoriaSri LankaNDE[18]
Nyctaginaceae
Boerhavia coccineaPakistanWhole plantE[17]
Boerhavia diffusaBrazil, India, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantE[18, 24, 25, 39, 41, 50]
Boerhavia procumbensPakistanLeafE[17]
Mirabilis jalapaBangladesh, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 32]
Nymphaeaceae
Nymphaea nouchaliSri LankaNDE[18]
Nymphaea pubescensSri LankaNDI[18]
Ochnaceae
Ochna jabotapitaSri LankaNDI[18]
Sauvagesia erectaNicaraguaWhole plantI, E[27]
Oleaceae
Jasminum officinaleSri LankaNDE[18]
Jasminum sambacSri LankaNDE[18]
Nyctanthes arbor-tristisIndia, Sri LankaRootI[18, 49]
Olea europaeaSpainOilND[37]
Opiliaceae
Opilia amentaceaKenyaRootE[31]
Orchidaceae
Vanda tessellataIndiaRootE[25]
Zeuxine regiaSri LankaNDE[18]
Oxalidaceae
Averrhoa carambolaSri LankaNDI[18]
Biophytum reinwardtiiSri LankaNDI[18]
Oxalis corniculataBangladesh, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 32]
Pandanaceae
Pandanus kaidaSri LankaNDI[18]
Pandanus odorifer (syn. Pandanus odoratissimus)IndiaRootND[19]
Papaveraceae
Argemone mexicanaBangladesh, IndiaLeaf, root, seed, stemI, E[20, 32, 38, 42]
Papilionaceae
Desmodium elegansPakistanRootE[17, 53]
Passifloraceae
Adenia hondalaSri LankaNDE[18]
Passiflora ColombiaBranch, leafE[34, 35]
Phyllanthaceae
Antidesma buniusIndiaLeafND[77]
Bridelia retusaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Cleistanthus collinusSri LankaNDI[18]
Glochidion zeylanicumSri LankaNDI[18]
Margaritaria indicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Phyllanthus acidusIndiaRootND[77]
Phyllanthus debilisSri LankaNDI[18]
Phyllanthus emblica (syn. Emblica officinalisBangladesh, India, Sri LankaBark, fruit, rootI, E[18, 20, 22, 30]
Phyllanthus niruriIndiaFlowerE[20]
Phyllanthus reticulatusIndiaLeafI[20]
Phyllanthus urinariaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Phytolaccaceae
Petiveria Colombia, NicaraguaBranch, leaf, root, whole plantI, E[27, 34, 35]
Pinaceae
Pinus PakistanOil, resin, woodE[17, 53]
Piperaceae
Peperomia ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Peperomia pellucidaNicaragua, Sri LankaWhole plantI, E[18, 27]
Piper amalagoMexico, NicaraguaLeaf, rootI[27, 59]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leafE[35]
Piper Colombia, NicaraguaBranch, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 34, 35, 44]
Piper betleSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Piper chuvyaSri LankaNDE[18]
Piper confusionisPeruLeafE[57]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Piper ColombiaWhole plantE[35]
Piper Bangladesh, Sri LankaFlower, fruit, Latex, rootE[18, 30]
Piper Brazil, ColombiaBranch, leaf, root, stemI, E[35, 50]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Piper nigrumBangladesh, India, Sri LankaFloral bud, flower, fruit, rootI, E[18, 20, 28, 32, 52]
Piper Colombia, NicaraguaBranch, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 35]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Piper ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemE[35]
Piper umbellatumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Pittosporaceae
Pittosporum neelgherrenseIndiaBarkI, E[16]
Pittosporum tetraspermumIndiaBarkI[26]
Plantaginaceae
Bacopa monnieriBangladesh, India, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantI[18, 23, 32, 39, 41]
Plantago australisColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Plantago majorColombiaAerial parts, leafI, E[44]
Scoparia Colombia, NicaraguaAerial parts, branch, leaf, root, whole plantI, E[27, 34, 35, 44]
Platanaceae
Platanus orientalisPakistanBarkI, E[17]
Plumbaginaceae
Plumbago indicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Plumbago zeylanicaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 23, 32]
Poaceae
Chrysopogon zizanioides (syn. Vetiveria zizanioides)India, Sri LankaRootI, E[16, 18]
Cymbopogon citratusColombiaLeafE[34]
Cynodon dactylonBangladesh, India, Sri LankaLeaf, root, whole plantE[18, 19, 32]
Drynaria quercifoliaSri LankaNDI[18]
Eleusine coracanaSri LankaNDI[18]
Gynerium sagittatumNicaraguaLeaf, rootI[27]
Heteropogon contortusIndia, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 38, 55]
Isachne globosaSri LankaNDE[18]
Oryza punctataSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Oryza sativaSri LankaNDI[18]
Pogonatherum paniceumSri LankaNDE[18]
Saccharum arundinaceumSri LankaNDI[18]
Saccharum officinarumColombia, Sri LankaStemI, E[18, 34, 44]
Polygalaceae
Polygala abyssinicaPakistanRootI[17]
Polygala crotalarioidesIndiaLeaf, rootND[19]
Polygala paniculataBrazilRootE[47]
Polygala spectabilisBrazilRootI, E[47]
Polygonaceae
Persicaria barbata (syn. Polygonum barbatum)IndiaLeafI, E[38]
Persicaria chinensis (syn. Polygonum chinense)BangladeshLeafE[32]
Persicaria ferruginea (syn. Polygonum ferrugineum) ColombiaAerial partsE[34]
Persicaria glabra (syn. Polygonum glabrum)IndiaRootE[25]
Polypodiaceae
Pleopeltis ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Pyrrosia piloselloidesSri LankaNDE[18]
Pontederiaceae
Monochoria hastataSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Portulacaceae
Portulaca pilosaBrazilLeafI[33]
Primulaceae
Aegiceras corniculatumSri LankaNDE[18]
Anagallis arvensisSerbiaAerial partsND[58]
Ardisia humilisSri LankaNDE[18]
Maesa KenyaRootND[31]
Myrsine coriaceaColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Pteridaceae
Acrostichum aureumNicaraguaLeaf, rootI, E[27]
Adiantum capillus-venerisPakistanFrondE[17]
Pellaea viridisKenyaLeafE[31]
Ranunculaceae
Clematis brachiata (syn. Clematis triloba)IndiaRootE[25]
Delphinium denudatumIndiaRootND[19]
Delphinium vestitumIndiaWhole plantND[19]
Rhamnaceae
Alphitonia incanaPapua New GuineaOilE[46]
Ziziphus jujuba (syn. Ziziphus mauritiana)Sri LankaNDE[18]
Ziziphus oenopliaIndia, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 49]
Rhizophoraceae
Rhizophora mangleNicaraguaBarkI, E[27]
Rosaceae
Crataegus monogynaSpainThornND[37]
Potentilla sundaicaIndiaRoot, stemND[19]
Prunus persicaEthiopiaLeafI[51]
Prunus walkeriSri LankaNDE[18]
Pyrus communisPakistanFruit, leafI[17]
Sanguisorba officinalisSerbiaRhizomeND[58]
Rubiaceae
Catunaregam spinosa (syn. Randia dumetorum)IndiaRootI[23]
Ceriscoides turgida (syn. Gardenia turgida)IndiaBark, rootI[24, 38]
Chiococca albaBrazil, NicaraguaLeaf, rootI[27, 47]
Clausena dentataSri LankaNDE[18]
Gonzalagunia ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Hamelia axillarisNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Hamelia barbataNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Hamelia patensNicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI, E[27]
Hamelia rovirosaeNicaraguaFlower, leaf, stemI, E[27]
Hedyotis scandensBangladeshLeaf, stemE[32]
Ixora coccineaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Ixora cuneifoliaBangladeshBarkE[32]
Ixora pavetta (syn. Ixora arborea)IndiaLeaf, rood, seedND[19]
Mitragyna parvifoliaIndiaBark, stemI, E[38, 63]
Morinda angustifoliaBangladeshLeafI[32]
Morinda citrifoliaBangladeshRootND[30]
Morinda coreiaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Morinda persicifoliaBangladeshLeafE[32]
Mussaenda frondosaSri LankaNDI[18]
Mussaenda roxburghiiBangladeshLeafE[32]
Nauclea orientalisSri LankaNDE[18]
Neonauclea purpurea (syn. Anthocephalus chinensis)BangladeshBark, leafND[30]
Oldenlandia diffusaIndiaWhole plantE[20]
Oldenlandia umbellataIndiaLeaf, rootE[20]
Ophiorrhiza IndiaRootI[16, 20]
Paederia foetidaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Palicourea croceoidesColombiaBarkI[34]
Pavetta indicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Psychotria elataNicaraguaFlower, leaf, root, stem, whole plantI, E[27]
Psychotria flavidaIndiaRootI[63]
Psychotria Colombia, Nicaragua, Sri LankaBranch, leaf, stem, whole plantI, E[18, 27, 35]
Randia MexicoFruit, whole plantI[59, 78]
Rubia Nepal, PakistanLeaf, root, stemI[17, 69]
Rubia manjithIndiaRoot, stemND[19]
Spermacoce remota (syn. Borreria assurgens)NicaraguaLeaf, rootI, E[27]
Tamilnadia uliginosaSri LankaNDI[18]
Wendlandia exsertaIndiaRootI[49]
Rutaceae
Acronychia pedunculataSri LankaNDE[18]
Aegle marmelosBangladesh, India, Sri LankaBark, whole plantI, E[18, 20, 30, 32, 41]
Atalantia ceylanicaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Citrus aurantiifoliaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Citrus aurantiumSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Citrus japonica (syn. Citrus madurensis)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Citrus Colombia, India, Sri LankaFruit, leaf, rootI, E[18, 20, 28, 34, 35]
Citrus maxima (syn. Citrus grandis)Sri LankaNDI, E[18]
Glycosmis pentaphyllaIndiaLeafI, E[16]
Limonia acidissima (syn. Feronia limonia)India, Sri LankaRootI[18, 20]
Murraya koenigiiIndia, Sri LankaBark, leafI, E[18, 28]
Murraya Sri LankaNDE[18]
Naringi crenulataIndiaFruitND[19]
Pamburus missionisSri LankaNDE[18]
Ruta chalepensisColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Toddalia asiaticaIndia, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 63]
Salicaceae
Casearia NDBark, leafND[79]
Casearia nigrescens (syn. Casearia elliptica)IndiaBark, leafND[19]
Casearia BrazilLeaf, whole plantND[47, 79]
Casearia tomentosaIndiaBark, rootI, E[49, 79]
Flacourtia indicaBangladeshLeafE[32]
Santalaceae
Santalum albumSri LankaNDE[18]
Sapindaceae
Allophylus cobbeSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Cardiospermum halicacabumIndia, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 28]
Dodonaea viscosaIndiaLeafE[28]
Harpullia arboreaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Sapindus emarginatusIndiaBarkI[20]
Sapindus mukorossiIndia, PakistanFruit, leaf, root, seedE[17, 25]
Sapotaceae
Madhuca longifolia (syn. Madhuca indica)India, Sri LankaBark, fruit, leaf, nut, root, seedI, E[18, 20, 23, 25, 32, 38]
Manilkara zapotaMexicoRootND[59]
Mimusops elengiSri LankaNDI[18]
Scrophulariaceae
Verbascum thapsusIndiaLeafND[66]
Selaginellaceae
Selaginella ColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Simaroubaceae
Ailanthus excelsaIndiaBarkI[38]
Quassia Colombia, NicaraguaRoot, stem, whole plantI, E[27, 35]
Quassia indicaSri LankaNDI[18]
Simaba ColombiaSeed, whole plantI, E[34, 35, 44]
Siparunaceae
Siparuna gesnerioidesColombiaLeaf, rootI[34, 44]
Siparuna ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Smilacaceae
Smilax regeliiNicaraguaRootI[27]
Smilax spinosaNicaraguaRootI[27]
Solanaceae
Atropa acuminataPakistanLeaf, rootE[17]
Capsicum annuum (syn. Capsicum frutescensBangladesh, Colombia, India, Sri LankaFruit, rootI, E[18, 19, 25, 32, 34, 35]
Datura metelBangladesh, Colombia, India, Sri LankaBark, flower, fruit, leaf, root, seedI, E[18, 22, 23, 25, 28, 30, 34]
Datura IndiaRootI, E[38]
Lycopersicon esculentumColombiaLeaf, stem, whole plantE[34]
Nicotiana tabacumColombia, India, NicaraguaLeafI, E[20, 27, 44]
Solanum ColombiaBranch, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Solanum americanum (syn. Solanum nigrum)Colombia, India, Sri LankaFruit, leaf, whole plantI, E[18, 25, 34, 38]
Solanum capsicoidesBangladeshSeedND[30]
Solanum incanumKenyaFruit, stemE[31]
Solanum melongenaSri LankaNDI[18]
Solanum ColombiaBranch, fruit, leaf, stemI, E[35]
Solanum ochraceo-ferrugineumMexicoWhole plantND[59]
Solanum torvumBangladesh, India, NicaraguaFlower, leaf, rootI, E[20, 27, 30, 32]
Solanum verbascifoliumMexicoWhole plantND[59]
Solanum virginianum (syn. Solanum xanthocarpum)India, Sri LankaRootI[18, 41]
Withania somniferaBangladesh, India, Sri LankaRootI, E[18, 22, 32]
Sterculiaceae
Byttneria pilosaBangladeshLeaf, stemE[32]
Symplocaceae
Symplocos cochinchinensisSri LankaNDE[18]
Symplocos racemosaSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Talinaceae
Talinum paniculatumSri LankaNDE[18]
Thymelaeaceae
Daphne papyraceaPakistanLeaf, root, stemND[17]
Triuridaceae
Sciaphila purpureaColombiaWhole plantI, E[35]
Urticaceae
Boehmeria niveaSri LankaNDE[18]
Cecropia obtusifoliaNicaraguaLeafI[27]
Cecropia peltataBangladesh, NicaraguaLeaf, whole plantI[27, 30]
Girardinia diversifoliaSri LankaNDE[18]
Pouzolzia zeylanica (syn. Pouzolzia indica)Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, whole plantE[32, 42]
Verbenaceae
Aloysia triphyllaColombiaAerial partsE[34]
Lantana camaraBangladesh, Colombia, India, Sri LankaFlower, leaf, root, stemI, E[18, 32, 34, 39, 41]
Lippia albaColombiaAerial parts, leaf, whole plantI, E[34]
Lippia grandisBrazilLeafI[33]
Stachytarpheta cayennensisColombiaWhole plantE[34]
Verbena litoralisColombiaFruit peel, leaf, root, seedE[34]
Verbena officinalisPakistanRoot, whole plantE[17, 53]
Vitaceae
Ampelocissus latifoliaIndiaRootI[49]
Cayratia pedata (syn. Cissus pedata)BangladeshLeafND[30]
Cayratia trifolia (syn. Vitis trifolia)Bangladesh, IndiaLeaf, rootI, E[36, 38]
Cissus adnataBangladeshLeafE[32]
Cissus javanaBangladeshLeaf, stemE[32]
Cissus Sri LankaNDE[18]
Leea indicaSri LankaNDE[18]
Vitis heyneana (syn. Vitis lanata)BangladeshLeafE[32]
Xanthorrhoeaceae
Aloe harlanaEthiopiaLeafI[51]
Aloe littoralisPakistanWhole plantE[17]
Aloe veraNicaragua, Sri LankaLeafI, E[18, 27]
Zingiberaceae
Alpinia calcarataSri LankaNDI, E[18]
Alpinia galangaSri LankaNDI[18]
Alpinia nigraSri LankaNDE[18]
Alpinia purpurataColombiaLeafE[44]
Curcuma angustifoliaIndiaRhizomeE[28]
Curcuma Bangladesh, India, Sri LankaRhizomeI, E[16, 18, 20, 30]
Elettaria cardamomumSri LankaNDI[18]
Globba marantina (syn. Globba bulbifera)IndiaRhizomeI[49]
Hedychium coronariumColombia, NicaraguaRoot, whole plantE[27, 34]
Renealmia ColombiaRhizome, stemI, E[34, 35]
Renealmia thyrsoideaColombiaLeaf, stemI[34]
Zingiber Ecuador, Nicaragua, Sri LankaRhizome, rootI, E[18, 27, 61]
Zygophyllaceae
Balanites IndiaBark, fruitE[38]

In parentheses is the synonym used in the original work; out of the parentheses is the accepted name (in case of more than one paper treating the same species with different names); ND = information not described in the work; I = internal use; E = external use. Species evaluated on antiophidic activities in previous studies (see Tables 28) showing good inhibitory potential against venom induced local effects. #Species evaluated on antiophidic activities in previous studies, however, with poor inhibition potential against venom induced local effects.