Curcumin Induces Autophagy, Apoptosis, and Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells
Curcumin induced apoptosis in PANC1 cells, measured by flow cytometry. (a) Each diagram was composed of four parts on behalf of different living state of cells. The total ratio of lower right (Annexin V+/PI-) and upper (Annexin V+/PI+) quadrants stands for apoptosis level. (b) The percentage of apoptosis was significantly higher in 80 μg/ml groups. Data are representative of three independent experiments. Error bar, SEM. , significantly different from control group ().
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