Control group which did not receive any nonpharmacological method for pain relief of labor (160)
(i) Nonpharmacological methods for pain relief of labor including showering, being in upright position, aromatherapy, and soft music without words (160)
(i) 20% lavender essential oil
10 × 10 cm cloth impregnated with 1 mL 20% lavender essential oil which was attached to the mother’s breast at the beginning of the active phase. The aromatherapy intervention was combined with other nonpharmacological interventions
(i) 9 essential oils (bergamot, lemon clary sage, lavender, roman chamomile, geranium, rose otto, sandalwood, and jasmine). A combination of essential oils chosen by the aromatherapist on each treatment session (16)
15 mL grape seed carrier oil with (4 drops) or without essential oils applied in a full body massage using gentle effleurage and petrissage
Massage on the neck, shoulders, arms, back, and legs including effleurage, friction, petrissage, and vibration at a moderate pressure using 20 mL of massage oil
Twice per week
In this study, both aromatherapy modalities were tested, inhalation aromatherapy and aromatherapy massage. Therefore, the study was included in both categories in the table. NA, not available; min, minutes; h, hour.
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