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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017, Article ID 6310967, 14 pages
Research Article

The Immune Effects of an African Traditional Energy Tonic in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

1Traditional Medicine Laboratory, School of Nursing and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
2Department of Public Management and Economics, Faculty of Management Sciences, Durban University of Technology, Durban, South Africa
3Biomedical Research Centre, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa
4Kwazihlahla Zemithi, J2067, Umlazi, Durban 4031, South Africa

Correspondence should be addressed to Nceba Gqaleni; moc.liamg@0585abecn

Received 18 August 2016; Revised 25 October 2016; Accepted 20 February 2017; Published 20 March 2017

Academic Editor: Raffaele Capasso

Copyright © 2017 Mlungisi Ngcobo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Supplementary Material

The supplementary data provides the chemical fingerprints of the traditional energy tonic using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in Figures 1 and 2. Briefly, the acquired data from the GC-MS analyses showed that the traditional energy tonic a number of active compounds which contribute to the immune effects observed in the cell culture and animal model studies. Analyses using NMR showed that the traditional energy tonic extracts have mostly water soluble (1–6 ppm) compounds and a minority water insoluble compounds (7–10 ppm). To support the observed immunological responses seen through the analyses of the cytokines secretion in serum samples of infected rat models, blood smear counts of pre-infected (Table 1) and post-infected (Table 2) rat models were done. Comparison of immune cell counts from controls rat samples and those that were treated with doses of the traditional energy tonic did not show any significant change in the immune responses.

  1. Supplementary Material