Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2017 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Restructuring Reward Mechanisms in Nicotine Addiction: A Pilot fMRI Study of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Cigarette Smokers

Table 1

Subject demographics/baseline self-report.

MOREControlChi2/

Overall sample (N = 13)76
% female0.430.141.04
Mean age49.6 (11.3)48.3 (14.2)0.18
Years of education13.7 (1.8)15.0 (3.3)0.89
Race1.04
 African Americans31
 Caucasians45
Baseline clinical measures
 Nicotine dependence (FTND)7.1 (2.1)6.2 (.8)1.1
 Years smoking26.9 (11.4)23.0 (11.3)0.61
 Average daily cigarettes23.3 (10.9)21.2 (11.7)0.34
 Carbon monoxide (CO) (screening)28.3 (10.8)27.0 (15.6)0.18
 Depressive symptoms (CESD)17.3 (12.3)21.7 (14.1)0.6
 Mindfulness (FFMQ)
  Observe28.7 (4.8)25.2 (6.3)1.2
  Describe31.0 (3.9)28.8 (7.4)0.68
  Awareness30.4 (6.7)27.3 (8.2)0.75
  Nonjudgement28.0 (6.5)29.2 (6.0)0.33
  Nonreactive24.1 (4.5)20.3 (6.5)1.2

Note. Standard deviation reported in parentheses next to mean where applicable.