Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7209851, 10 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7209851
Research Article

Major Phytochemical as γ-Sitosterol Disclosing and Toxicity Testing in Lagerstroemia Species

1Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
2Genetics and Environmental Toxicology Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand
3Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand
4Faculty of Law, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

Correspondence should be addressed to Arunrat Chaveerach

Received 20 September 2016; Revised 16 November 2016; Accepted 20 December 2016; Published 16 January 2017

Academic Editor: Ciara Hughes

Copyright © 2017 Prapaparn Sirikhansaeng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. M. Labib, N. A. Ayoub, A. B. Singab, M. M. Al-Azizi, and A. Sleem, “Chemical constituents and pharmacological studies of Lagerstroemia indica,” Phytopharmacology, vol. 4, pp. 373–389, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  2. E. J. Yang, J. S. Lee, B. B. Song, C. Y. Yun, D. H. Kim, and I. S. Kim, “Anti-γ-sitosterol from Kejibeling (Strobilanthes crispus) and its mechanism of action towards c-myc gene expression and apoptotic pathway,” MJI23, pp. 203–208, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  3. A. Ashnagar, A. R. Ghanad, and M. Motakefpour, “Isolation and identification of major chemical components found in the leaves of Lagerstroemia indica plant grown in the city of Tehran, Iran,” International Journal of ChemTech Research, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 478–481, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Ashnagar, M. Motakefpour, A. A. Rahimi, I. Mehregan, and A. Ghannadi, “Persian common crape myrtle leaves; Phytochemical screenings and flavonoid patterns,” Journal of Current Chemical & Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 2, pp. 240–243, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  5. K. Sirimethawong, C. Sriwattanawarunyoo, V. Udeye, and S. Boonphong, “Waxes and triterpene acids from Lagerstroemia loudonii fruit,” International Journal of Science, vol. 10, pp. 33–43, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  6. G. Klein, J. Kim, K. Himmeldirk, Y. Cao, and X. Chen, “Antidiabetes and anti-obesity activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 401–407, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. Hou, Y. Li, Q. Zhang et al., “Triterpene acids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves as α-glucosidase inhibitors,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 614–618, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Miura, S. Takagi, and T. Ishida, “Management of diabetes and its complications with banaba (Largerstroemia speciosa L.) and corosolic acid,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 871495, 8 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. E. W. C. Chan, L. N. Tan, and S. K. Wong, “Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Largerstroemia speciosa: a natural remedy for diabetes,” International Journal of Herbal Medicine, vol. 2, pp. 100–105, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  10. R. I. Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique and Specialized Applications, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 6th edition, 2010.
  11. E. Walum, “Acute oral toxicity,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 497–503, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. World Health Organization, The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification, 2009, http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/pesticides_hazard_2009.pdf.
  13. N. P. Singh, M. T. McCoy, R. R. Tice, and E. L. Schneider, “A simple technique for quantitation of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 175, no. 1, pp. 184–191, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. Balamurugan, V. Duraipandiyan, and S. Ignacimuthu, “Antidiabetic activity of γ-sitosterol isolated from Lippia nodiflora L. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 667, no. 1–3, pp. 410–418, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. Balamurugan, A. Stalin, and S. Ignacimuthu, “Molecular docking of γ-sitosterol with some targets related to diabetes,” European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 38–43, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Sundarraj, R. Thangam, V. Sreevani et al., “γ-Sitosterol from Acacia nilotica L. induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through c-Myc suppression in MCF-7 and A549 cells,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 803–809, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Endrini, A. Rahmat, P. Ismail, and Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, “Cytotoxic effect of γ-sitosterol from Kejibeling (Strobilanthes crispus) and its mechanism of action towards c-myc gene expression and apoptotic pathway,” Medical Journal of Indonesia, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 203–208, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. N. Tripathi, S. Kumar, R. Singh, C. J. Singh, P. Singh, and V. K. Varshney, “Isolation and identification of γ-sitosterol by GC-MS from the leaves of girardinia heterophylla (decne),” Open Bioactive Compounds Journal, vol. 4, pp. 25–27, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H.-J. Heo, Y.-J. Park, Y.-M. Suh et al., “Effects of oleamide on choline acetyltransferase and cognitive activities,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1284–1291, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Huitrón-Reséndiz, L. Gombart, B. F. Cravatt, and S. J. Henriksen, “Effect of oleamide on sleep and its relationship to blood pressure, body temperature, and locomotor activity in rats,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 235–243, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. W. L. Dewey, “Cannabinoid pharmacology,” Pharmacological Reviews, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 151–178, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Martínez-González, H. Bonilla-Jaime, A. Morales-Otal, S. J. Henriksen, J. Velázquez-Moctezuma, and O. Prospéro-García, “Oleamide and anandamide effects on food intake and sexual behavior of rats,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 364, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. W. Owen, R. Haubner, G. Würtele, W. E. Hull, B. Spiegelhalder, and H. Bartsch, “Olives and olive oil in cancer prevention,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 319–326, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. J. Smith, “Squalene: potential chemopreventive agent,” Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 1841–1848, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Netscher, “Synthesis of Vitamin E,” Vitamins and Hormones, vol. 76, pp. 155–202, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. M. Daines, R. J. Payne, M. E. Humphries, and A. D. Abell, “The synthesis of naturally occurring vitamin K and vitamin K analogues,” Current Organic Chemistry, vol. 7, no. 16, pp. 1625–1634, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. D. McGinty, C. S. Letizia, and A. M. Api, “Fragrance material review on phytol,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. S59–S63, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus