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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017, Article ID 9383272, 11 pages
Research Article

The Effects of Thai Herbal Ha-Rak Formula on COX Isoform Expression in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Induced by IL-1β

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand
2Center of Applied Thai Traditional Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand

Correspondence should be addressed to Pravit Akarasereenont;

Received 26 August 2017; Accepted 27 September 2017; Published 29 October 2017

Academic Editor: Youn C. Kim

Copyright © 2017 Titchaporn Palo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To investigate the modulated effects of HRF on cyclooxygenase isoform expression and its activity, using the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) model induced by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Methods. Cells were treated with indomethacin (positive control), HRF, and its components at various concentrations prior to treatment with IL-1β at 24 h. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of HRF and its components through mRNA and protein expression were established using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot, respectively. COX activity was identified via exogenous and endogenous PGE2 productions using the EIA. Result. There was no cytotoxicity in HUVECs treated with HRF. None of the experimental conditions used in the study affected the expression of COX-1, but COX-2 protein expression was inhibited at concentrations under 10 µg/mL. Despite the significantly increased levels of exogenous PGE2, HRF had no effect on COX-2 mRNA expression. However, the production of PGE2 was lower at a concentration of 100 µg/mL HRF than at a concentration below 10 µg/mL. Interestingly, each component of HRF revealed different effects of the Ha-Rak formula. Conclusion. Our preliminary findings suggest that HRF and its components provide diverse modulation of COX-2 and PGE2 at the in vitro level.