Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2017, Article ID 9416305, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9416305
Review Article

Aromatherapy and Aromatic Plants for the Treatment of Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease: Clinical Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

1Department of Pharmacy, Health Science and Nutrition, University of Calabria, 87036 Rende, Italy
2Department of Pharmacy and Drug Science, University of Bari “Aldo Moro”, 70125 Bari, Italy
3Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, 50019 Florence, Italy
4Department of Health Sciences, University “Magna Græcia” of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy
5First Department of Pharmacology, Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka, Japan
6Department of Physiology and Anatomy, Tohoku Pharmaceutical University, Sendai, Japan

Correspondence should be addressed to Giacinto Bagetta; ti.lacinu@attegab.g

Received 22 January 2017; Accepted 2 March 2017; Published 30 March 2017

Academic Editor: Michele Navarra

Copyright © 2017 Damiana Scuteri et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Alzheimer, R. A. Stelzmann, H. N. Schnitzlein, and F. R. Murtagh, “An English translation of Alzheimer's 1907 paper, ‘Uber eine eigenartige Erkankung der Hirnrinde’,” Clinical Anatomy, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 429–431, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  2. C. Ballard, M. Orrell, S. Y. Zhong et al., “Impact of antipsychotic review and nonpharmacological interventionon antipsychotic use, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and mortality in people with dementia living in nursing homes: a factorial cluster-randomized controlled trial by the well-being and health for people with dementia (WHELD) program,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 173, no. 3, pp. 252–262, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. H. Barage and K. D. Sonawane, “Amyloid cascade hypothesis: pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies in Alzheimer's disease,” Neuropeptides, vol. 52, pp. 1–18, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition-Revised (DSM-III-R), American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 1987.
  5. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (DSM-IV), American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 1994.
  6. C. G. Ballard, S. Gauthier, J. L. Cummings et al., “Management of agitation and aggression associated with Alzheimer disease,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 245–255, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. W. Achterberg, M. J. Pieper, A. H. van Dalen-Kok et al., “Pain management in patients with dementia,” Clinical Interventions in Aging, vol. 8, pp. 1471–1482, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. J. A. Hardy and G. A. Higgins, “Alzheimer's disease: the amyloid cascade hypothesis,” Science, vol. 256, no. 5054, pp. 184–185, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. L. Cummings, T. Morstorf, and K. Zhong, “Alzheimer's disease drug-development pipeline: few candidates, frequent failures,” Alzheimer's Research and Therapy, vol. 6, no. 4, article 37, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. S. Doody, R. G. Thomas, M. Farlow et al., “Phase 3 trials of solanezumab for mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 4, pp. 311–321, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Salloway, R. Sperling, N. C. Fox et al., “Two phase 3 trials of Bapineuzumab in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 4, pp. 322–333, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Sevigny, P. Chiao, T. Bussière et al., “The antibody aducanumab reduces Aβ plaques in Alzheimer’s disease,” Nature, vol. 537, no. 7618, pp. 50–56, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. Corbett, K. Nunez, and A. Thomas, “Coping with dementia in care homes,” Maturitas, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 3–4, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Margallo-Lana, A. Swann, J. O'Brien et al., “Prevalence and pharmacological management of behavioural and psychological symptoms amongst dementia sufferers living in care environments,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. C. Ballard and A. Corbett, “Agitation and aggression in people with Alzheimer's disease,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 252–259, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. A. Corbett, B. Husebo, M. Malcangio et al., “Assessment and treatment of pain in people with dementia,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 264–274, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. C. Zarow, S. A. Lyness, J. A. Mortimer, and H. C. Chui, “Neuronal loss is greater in the locus coeruleus than nucleus basalis and substantia nigra in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 337–341, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Parvizi, G. W. Van Hoesen, and A. Damasio, “Selective pathological changes of the periaqueductal gray matter in Alzheimer's disease,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 344–353, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. S. Husebo, C. Ballard, R. Sandvik, O. B. Nilsen, and D. Aarsland, “Efficacy of treating pain to reduce behavioural disturbances in residents of nursing homes with dementia: cluster randomised clinical trial,” BMJ, vol. 343, no. 7816, Article ID d4065, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. E. Lonergan, J. Luxenberg, and J. Colford, “Haloperidol for agitation in dementia,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD002852, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  21. C. G. Ballard, S. Gauthier, J. L. Cummings et al., “Management of agitation and aggression associated with alzheimer disease,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 245–255, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. G. Reilly, S. A. Ayis, I. N. Ferrier, S. J. Jones, and S. H. L. Thomas, “QTc-interval abnormalities and psychotropic drug therapy in psychiatric patients,” The Lancet, vol. 355, no. 9209, pp. 1048–1052, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. C. Ballard and R. Howard, “Neuroleptic drugs in dementia: benefits and harm,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 492–500, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. S. Schneider, K. Dagerman, and P. S. Insel, “Efficacy and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials,” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 191–210, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. C. Ballard, M. Margallo-Lana, E. Juszczak et al., “Quetiapine and rivastigmine and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 330, no. 7496, pp. 874–877, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. S. Schneider, P. N. Tariot, K. S. Dagerman et al., “Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer's disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 355, no. 15, pp. 1525–1538, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. FDA Public Health Advisory, “Deaths with antipsychotics in elderly patients with behavioral disturbances,” 2005, https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm053171.htm.
  28. C. Ballard, M. L. Hanney, M. Theodoulou et al., “The dementia antipsychotic withdrawal trial (DART-AD): long-term follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Selbæk, D. Aarsland, C. Ballard et al., “Antipsychotic drug use is not associated with long-term mortality risk in Norwegian nursing home patients,” Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 464.e1–464.e7, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Bagetta, M. Cosentino, and T. Sakurada, Eds., Preface in Aromatherapy: Basic Mechanisms and Evidence Based Clinical Use, Oxfordshire, UK, Taylor & Francis, 2016.
  31. C. G. Ballard, J. T. O'Brien, K. Reichelt, and E. K. Perry, “Aromatherapy as a safe and effective treatment for the management of agitation in severe dementia: the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with Melissa,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 7, pp. 553–558, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Holmes, V. Hopkins, C. Hensford, V. MacLaughlin, D. Wilkinson, and H. Rosenvinge, “Lavender oil as a treatment for agitated behaviour in severe dementia: a placebo controlled study,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 305–308, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. Burns, J. Byrne, C. Ballard, and C. Holmes, “Sensory stimulation in dementia,” British Medical Journal, vol. 325, no. 7376, pp. 1312–1313, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Zarei, S. Changizi Ashtiyani, S. Taheri, and F. Rasekh, “Comparison between effects of different doses of Melissa officinalis and atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemia rats,” Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  35. S. Akhondzadeh, M. Noroozian, M. Mohammadi, S. Ohadinia, A. H. Jamshidi, and M. Khani, “Melissa officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 863–866, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. K. Perry, A. T. Pickering, W. W. Wang, P. Houghton, and N. S. L. Perry, “Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: integrating ethnobotanical and contemporary scientific evidence,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 419–428, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. K. Perry, A. T. Pickering, W. W. Wang, P. J. Houghton, and N. S. L. Perry, “Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 527–534, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. Dastmalchi, V. Ollilainen, P. Lackman et al., “Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory guided fractionation of Melissa officinalis L.,” Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 867–871, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Petersen and M. S. J. Simmonds, “Rosmarinic acid,” Phytochemistry, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 121–125, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. Wake, J. Court, A. Pickering, R. Lewis, R. Wilkins, and E. Perry, “CNS acetylcholine receptor activity in European medicinal plants traditionally used to improve failing memory,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 105–114, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. P. Carnat, A. Carnat, D. Fraisse, and J. L. Lamaison, “The aromatic and polyphenolic composition of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. subsp. officinalis) tea,” Pharmaceutica Acta Helvetiae, vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 301–305, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Hohmann, I. Zupkó, D. Rédei et al., “Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme- dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation,” Planta Medica, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 576–578, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. O. Kennedy, G. Wake, S. Savelev et al., “Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1871–1881, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. G. Guginski, A. P. Luiz, M. D. Silva et al., “Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. H. M. A. Cavanagh and J. M. Wilkinson, “Biological activities of lavender essential oil,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 301–308, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. Elisabetsky, J. Marschner, and D. Onofre Souza, “Effects of linalool on glutamatergic system in the rat cerebral cortex,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 461–465, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Huang, S. Abuhamdah, M.-J. R. Howes et al., “Pharmacological profile of essential oils derived from Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis with anti-agitation properties: focus on ligand-gated channels,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1515–1522, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. D. W. O'Connor, B. Eppingstall, J. Taffe, and E. S. Van Der Ploeg, “A randomized, controlled cross-over trial of dermally-applied lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) oil as a treatment of agitated behaviour in dementia,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, article 315, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. T. Umezu, “Behavioral effects of plant-derived essential oils in the geller type conflict test in mice,” Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 150–153, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Y. Shiina, N. Funabashi, K. Lee et al., “Relaxation effects of lavender aromatherapy improve coronary flow velocity reserve in healthy men evaluated by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 193–197, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. T. Field, T. Field, C. Cullen et al., “Lavender bath oil reduces stress and crying and enhances sleep in very young infants,” Early Human Development, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 399–401, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. T. Kim, C. J. Ren, G. A. Fielding et al., “Treatment with lavender aromatherapy in the post-anesthesia care unit reduces opioid requirements of morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding,” Obesity Surgery, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 920–925, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. A. Zeilmann, E. J. Dole, B. J. Skipper, M. McCabe, T. Low Dog, and R. L. Rhyne, “Use of herbal medicine by elderly Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 526–532, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. C.-Y. Fu, W. Moyle, and M. Cooke, “A randomised controlled trial of the use of aromatherapy and hand massage to reduce disruptive behaviour in people with dementia,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 13, article 165, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. E. Barocelli, F. Calcina, M. Chiavarini et al., “Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of inhaled and orally administered Lavandula hybrida Reverchongrosso’ essential oil,” Life Sciences, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 213–223, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. W.-K. Lin, W.-C. Chan, B. F.-L. Ng, and L. C.-W. Lam, “Efficacy of aromatherapy (Lavandula angustifolia) as an intervention for agitated behaviours in Chinese older persons with dementia: a cross-over randomized trial,” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 405–410, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. Jimbo, Y. Kimura, M. Taniguchi, M. Inoue, and K. Urakami, “Effect of aromatherapy on patients with Alzheimer's disease,” Psychogeriatrics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 173–179, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. World Health Organization and Alzheimer's Disease International, Dementia: A Public Health Priority, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012.
  59. C. Ballard, M. Orrell, Y. Sun et al., “Impact of antipsychotic review and nonpharmacological intervention on antipsychotic use, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and mortality in people with dementia living in nursing homes: a factorial cluster-randomized controlled trial by the Well-Being and Health for People With Dementia (WHELD) program,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 173, no. 3, pp. 252–262, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. H. Braak and E. Braak, “Neuropathological stageing of Alzheimer-related changes,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 239–259, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. G. Gold, C. Bouras, E. Kövari et al., “Clinical validity of Braak neuropathological staging in the oldest-old,” Acta Neuropathologica, vol. 99, no. 5, pp. 579–584, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. P. S. Eriksson, E. Perfilieva, T. Björk-Eriksson et al., “Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus,” Nature Medicine, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1313–1317, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. Sakurada, H. Kuwahata, S. Katsuyama et al., “Chapter 18 intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw. Effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors,” International Review of Neurobiology, vol. 85, pp. 237–248, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. G. Bagetta, L. A. Morrone, L. Rombolà et al., “Neuropharmacology of the essential oil of bergamot,” Fitoterapia, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 453–461, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. H. Kuwahata, T. Komatsu, S. Katsuyama et al., “Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, vol. 103, no. 4, pp. 735–741, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. Katsuyama, A. Otowa, S. Kamio et al., “Effect of plantar subcutaneous administration of bergamot essential oil and linalool on formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in mice,” Biomedical Research, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus