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Figure 1: Adhesion assay. Pretreatment with L. mutabilis inhibits bacterial adhesion in bladder epithelial cells in 5 mM and 11 mM glucose concentrations. Adhesion assay was performed on T24 cells after prior treatment with 1000 μg/ml of L. mutabilis for 24 h, followed by 30 min infection with the following bacteria: E. coli (a), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli (b), P. mirabilis (c), K. pneumoniae (d), multidrug-resistant (MDR) K. pneumoniae (e), and S. saprophyticus (f). Data shown are +/- SEM. Results were normalized to nontreated uninfected control cells indicated by P <0.05, P <0.01, and P <0.0001. Data were calculated from at least two independent experiments with triplicates per condition. MDR refers to strain that is resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes.