Review Article

Ayurvedic Medicine for the Treatment of Dementia: Mechanistic Aspects

Figure 3

Hypothetical diagram showing target sites for the action of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera). Glutamate (Glu); NMDA receptor (NMDA-R); phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho); cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2); cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX); arachidonic acid (ARA); reactive oxygen species (ROS); nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB); nuclear factor-κB-response element (NF-κB-RE); inhibitory subunit of NF-κB (I-κB); tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); interleukin-1β (IL-1β); interleukin-6 (IL-6); monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1); nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2); kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1); antioxidant response element (ARE); small leucine zipper proteins (Maf); heme oxygenase (HO-1); NADPH quinine oxidoreductase (NQO-1); γ-glutamate cystein ligase (γ-GCL); B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2); cytochrome (cyto-c); amyloid precursor protein (APP); β-amyloid (Aβ); Aβ-derived diffusible ligand (ADDL); and Alzheimer disease (AD).