Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2018 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Beneficial Effects of Qigong Wuqinxi in the Improvement of Health Condition, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Diseases: Evidence from a Systematic Review

Table 2

Studies regarding effects of Wuqinxi exercise in clinical populations included in the analysis.

Authors/Year/ CountryStudy design/ BlindingSample sizeMean age (year) Sex (m/f)Wuqinxi Practicing phasesWuqinxi Learning phaseControl Intervention designRelevant Outcomes measuredResultsFollow-up/ Adverse eventsConclusion
WuqinxiControl

Xiang Cheng et al. /2016/
China [57]
RCT/ Non-blinding15 college students with mild depression;
14 healthy college students
15 college students with mild depression;
14 healthy college students
Wuqinxi:
1. Mild depression:
21.1±1.4 (7/8)
2. Healthy:
21.2±1.2 (7/7)
Control:
1. Mild depression:
21.0±1.6 (8/7)
2. Healthy:
20.9±1.6 (7/7)
Entire exercise: 40~60 mins/ session at 6:00~8:00 or
3 h before bedtime, 3 sessions/week,
12 weeks
1 week of learning under the guidance of professional teachers before interventionunaltered lifestyle1. BECK depression self-reported questionnaire (BDI).
2. Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD).
3. The metabolic parameters of 1H- MRS in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus: NAA/ Cr, Cho/ Cr, NAA/ Cho, Cho/ NAA.
Before the intervention, the scores of BDI and HAMD in the mild depression group were significantly higher
than that in the control group ( all P<0.01), and were lowered obviously after the 12-week intervention (all P<0.01). Compared with the control group, 1H-MRS in the mild depression group before intervention showed significantly increased NAA/Cr value in the left prefrontal cortex, Cho/Cr value in the bilateral hippocampus and the left frontal lobe, and Cho/Cr value of the left
hippocampus and right frontal lobe (P<0.05) with significantly lowered NAA/Cho value in the
Not mentioned/ Not reportedExercising Wuqinxi was thought to reduce depression scale scores in college students with mild depression and improve the metabolic index (NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr values) in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus.

bilateral prefrontal and Cho/
NAA value in the right hippocampus (P<0.05). After 12 weeks of intervention, NAA/Cr value in the bilateral hippocampus and the NAA/Cho value in the right hippocampus were significantly lowered (P<0.05), and NAA/Cho value in the right prefrontal and Cho/NAA value in the right hippocampus were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the mild depression
group. Before the intervention, Pearson correlation analysis showed that the scores of HAMD and BDI were positively correlated with Cho/Cr value in the hippocampus and NAA/Cr value in prefrontal lobe (P<0.01) and inversely with NAA/Cho in prefrontal lobe and Cho/NAA value in the hippocampus (P<0.05). After the intervention, the scores of HAMD and BDI were positively correlated with NAA/Cr value in the hippocampus and Cho/Cr value in the left hippocampus (P<0.05).
.

Mao-Rong Shen et al. /2014/
China [22]
RCT/Non-blinding100 elderly patients with senile osteoporosis100 elderly patients with senile osteoporosisWuqinxi:
68.69±5.18 (46/54)
Control:
69.25±5.27
(45/55)
Entire exercise: 45 mins/session, at morning, 6 sessions/week,
24 weeks
Not mentionedTreating with ibuprofen sustained release capsules (Fenbid) and calcium carbonate and vitamin D3 tablets, 1tablet/time, 2 times/day1. Bone metabolism index: serum osteocalcin (BGP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), level of pyridinoline (PYD).
2. Visual analogue scale (VAS): low back pain score.
24 weeks later, low back pain score of the cases in the Wuqinxi group was obviously increased, compared to that of the control group with a significant difference (P<0.05). Meanwhile, though there was no significant difference between the two groups’ figures related to bone metabolism, patients in the control group showed an increase in serum osteocalcin (BGP)
and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) alongside with a reduction in the level of pyridinoline (PYD).
Not mentioned/ Not reportedPracticing Wuqinxi was positive to the bone metabolism of the senile osteoporosis patients and can effectively relieved and improved the low back pain syndromes of the senile osteoporosis patients. To a certain degree, this exercise can also increase bone formation and decreased bone resorption. It was an effective way to prevent the senile osteoporosis disease and deserved carrying out in communities.

Ping Tu et al. /2014/
China [58]
RCT/Non-blinding20 female patients with knee osteoarthritis20 female patients with knee osteoarthritisAge ≥ 50 years
(0/40)
Entire exercise: 60 mins/session, 6 sessions/week,
16 weeks
Not mentionedQigong zhanzhuang (standing exercise):
10mins/session, 3 sessions/
time/day, at morning, noon, evening, 6 times/week, 4 months
1. The peak torque (PT) and total work (TW) of the affected knee were obtained by
the isokinetic testing system.
2. The level of pain, stiffness, dysfunction measured by The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index Scale.
After intervention, the peak torque (PT) and total work (TW) in both groups were improved compared with those of pre- intervention, and the Wuqinxi group indicated a better improvement in PT and TW. The WOMAC scores went down in both groups after intervention, and the score of pain, dysfunction and the total score were lower in the Wuqinxi group with a statistical significance.Not mentioned/ Not reportedWuqinxi and Zhanzhuang were thought to improve the quadriceps strength of female patients with KOA and reduce the effect of pain, stiffness and dysfunction and so on.
Wuqinxi was considered to have a smooth and comprehensive influence on the knee’s flexor and extensor strength of female patients with KOA when compared with Zhanzhuang and it was helpful for relieving pain and reducing dysfunction.

Mao-Rong Shen et al. /2013/
China [59]
RCT/Non-blinding100 elderly patients with senile osteoporosis100 elderly patients with senile osteoporosisWuqinxi:
68.69±5.18 (46/54)
Control:
69.25±5.27
(45/55)
Entire exercise: 45 mins/session, at morning, 6 sessions/week,
24 weeks
Not mentionedTreated with ibuprofen sustained release capsules (Fenbid) and calcium carbonate and vitamin D3 tablets, 1tablet/time, 2 times/day1. The bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar vertebrae.
2. Visual analogue scale (VAS): low back pain score.
After 24-week treatment, BMD of the lumbar vertebrae in Wuqinxi group was higher than that in control group significantly (P<0.05). And the low back pain scores of the two groups were
significantly different (P<0.05).
Not mentioned/ Not reportedPracticing Wuqinxi increased BMD of the lumbar vertebrae in senile patients with osteoporosis, and decreased their low back pain. It was an effective way to prevent and cure primary osteoporosis, and can be applied in communities.

Hai-Ming Liu /2012/
China [23]
RCT/Non-blinding22 elderly patients with metabolic syndrome18 elderly patients with metabolic syndrome60≤age≤75
Wuqinxi
(10/12)
Control
(9/9)
Entire exercise: 60 mins/session, at morning, 6 sessions/week,
24 weeks
1 week of learning under the guidance of professional teachers before interventionunaltered lifestyle1. The vascular risk factors: body mass index (BMI), fasting blood gluco (FBG),
total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C).
2. The neuropsychological index:
mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Montreal cognitive assessment
(MOCA), verbal fluency test (VFT), trail making test
(TMT), Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD).
Compared with control group and pre-exercise of Wuqinxi group, the vascular risk factors including BMI, FBG, TC, TG, LDL and HDL and the neuropsychological index including MMSE, visual space and executive ability, naming,
attention, delayed recalling,
orientation, total MOCA, HAMD and VFT had significantly beneficial changes after exercise in Wuqinxi group. There was significant negative correlation between WC, SBP,
FBG, TC, TG, LDL and cognitive function, significant positive correlation between HDL and cognitive function.
Not mentioned/ Not reportedThe vascular risk factors and the cognitive function of elderly patients with metabolic syndrome were improved after Wuqinxi exercise. The positive effect of Wuqinxi on vascular risk factors was likely to be the physiological mechanism that Wuqinxi could improve the cognitive function of elderly patients with metabolic syndrome.

Bing-Wu Tian /2012/
China [60]
RCT/Non-blinding20 female middle-aged and elderly patients with knee osteoarthritisControl ①:
20 female middle-aged and elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis.
Control ②:
20 healthy middle-aged and elderly females
60≤age≤70
(0/60)
Entire exercise: 60 mins/session, 6 sessions/week,
24 weeks
Not mentionedunaltered lifestyle1. Body weight body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (PBF), lower
extremity response latencies, vertical jump height, and no pain range of motion (ROM) of the affected limb, proprioception
and balance function of the affected limb.
2. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index Scale.
The body weight, BMI and the percentage of body fat of KOA female middle-aged and elderly patients can be reduced by long-term Wuqinxi exercise, which could also effectively improved the reaction time of lower limbs, the vertical jump
height and the painless ROM of knee-joint without pain and,
reduced the active and passive 30° and 60° angle
reconstruction error of KOA patients, availably improved the sagittal and lateral stable ability, enhance their stable limit, and decreased the fall risk, clinical medical treatment should effectively relieved pain,
spasticity, action limited and improve their body function.
Not mentioned/ Not reportedIt was good for middle-aged and elderly patients with KOA to
practice Wuqinxi in a long term, which can effectively improve the proprioceptive function, dynamic and static balance of knee and reduced their risk of falls. The effect may be related to decrease of body weight and percentage of body fat and the increase of strength, reactive speed and ROM of the affective knee. Clinical treatment can effectively alleviate the KOA patients with symptoms such as pain, stiffness and behavior limited, but the clinical treatment with Wuqinxi practice seems to be able to make the effect more pronounced and lasting.

Zhao-Wei
Li et al. /2009/
China [61]
RCT/Non-blinding33 patients with dyslipidemia33 patients with dyslipidemiaWuqinxi:
58.67±20.43 (19/14)
Control:
56.47±24.15
(21/12)
Entire exercise:
30 mins/session/
day, 16 weeks
Not mentionedAerobic exercise (jogging): 30 mins/session/
day, 16 weeks
Cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)After 16 weeks of Wuqinxi, TC, TG and LDL-C of Wuqinxi group declined remarkably (all P<0.01) and HDL-C of this group rose evidently (P<0.05). TC, TG and LDL-C of Wuqinxi group changed much more dramatically than that of the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the rate of reaching standard in the Wuqinxi group was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05).Not mentioned/ Not reportedWuqinxi showed effective for patients with dyslipidemia.

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.