Histopathological analyses of invasive lesions and total organ wall thickness. The panels show representative histopathological profiles of a hematoxylin-eosin stain of the esophagus and gastric fundus in sham or RE induced rats. Panels: (a) sham, (b) control, (c) OMP, (d) PD 200, (e) PD 100, and (f) PD50. Histopathological analysis showed severe focal lesions with hemorrhage (black arrow), ulcer (circle), and edematous changes (dashed line circle) in the esophagus and gastric fundus of control compared with sham. However, the lesions were notably reduced by treatment with each of the 3 doses of PD compared with control; PD: platycodin D; OMP: omeprazole; LU: lumen; EP: epithelium; MU: mucosa; MS: muscular layer; Scale bars = 80 μm.