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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2018, Article ID 9536924, 10 pages
Research Article

Association of Tongue Bacterial Flora and Subtypes of Liver-Fire Hyperactivity Syndrome in Hypertensive Patients

1Provincial Clinical Medical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350001, China
2Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fujian Provincial Hospital, Fuzhou 350001, China
3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005, China
4Teaching and Research Office of Medical Cosmetology, Department of Management, Fujian Health College, Fuzhou 350101, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Jie-wei Luo; moc.nuyila@1240oulcod

Received 10 July 2017; Accepted 4 December 2017; Published 10 January 2018

Academic Editor: Salvatore Chirumbolo

Copyright © 2018 Jie-wei Luo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Structural changes in symbiotic human microorganisms can affect host phenotype. Liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome (LFHS) presents as bitter taste, halitosis, xerostomia, odontalgia, and other oral symptoms. LFHS is associated with hypertension (EH). In this study, tongue flora was analyzed to further understand the intrinsic relationship between tongue flora and LFHS. Samples of tongue coating, from 16 patients with EH-LFHS, 16 with EH-non-LFHS, and 16 controls, were obtained; then, 16S rRNA variable (V3-V4) regions were amplified and sequenced by MiSeq PE300 Sequencing. Tag clustering and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) abundance analysis were used to compare the OTU sequence with the 16S database. The species were classified, and diversity and structure of the bacterial flora were compared between the three groups. Alpha diversity analysis, including Observed Species index and Chao index, indicated significantly higher richness of species in patients with EH-LFHS . Higher phylogenetic diversity, in patients with EH-non-LFHS, indicates greater differences in evolutionary history than in patients with EH-LFHS. Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseria, and Sphingomonas were the most prevalent in patients with EH-LFHS, differed from the other two groups. This indicates that richer bacterial diversity, and structure associated with EH-LFHS, may affect the occurrence, development, and outcome of hypertension and syndrome subtypes recognized by TCM.