Aster glehni Extract Containing Caffeoylquinic Compounds Protects Human Keratinocytes through the TRPV4-PPARδ-AMPK Pathway
Immunocytochemistry for keratin, involucrin, defensin, and TNF in HaCaT cells treated with Aster glehni extract, SDS, DNCB, and GSK0660. The abnormal expressions for keratin, involucrin, defensin, and TNFα by SDS or DNCB treatment were normalized with AG treatment; however, the effects of AG were offset by PPARδ antagonist. Images were taken at 200 × magnification. Densities for images were analyzed with Image J program. The results are expressed as means ± SEM. N=3 for each group. Values were statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test and one-way ANOVA. All experiments were repeated over three times. The dash-dotted line means the one-way ANOVA result between ctrl and all other groups. The dotted line means the one-way ANOVA result between all groups except for control. Meaning of indications: Ctrl is an untreated control group, DNCB is a DNCB treated group, D+AG is a DNCB+AG treated group, D+A+GSK is a DNCB+AG+GSK0660 treated group, SDS is a SDS-treated group, S+AG is a SDS+AG treated group, and S+A+GSK is a SDS+AG+GSK0660 treated group.
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