Aster glehni Extract Containing Caffeoylquinic Compounds Protects Human Keratinocytes through the TRPV4-PPARδ-AMPK Pathway
Western blot analyses and RT-PCR for TRPV4, AMPK, and PPAR in HaCaT cells treated with antagonists or siRNAs for TRPV4, PPAR, and AMPK. RT-PCR for TRPV4, AMPK, and PPAR in HaCaT cells treated with TRPV4 antagonist in pathological conditions. TRPV4 antagonist and siRNA decreased the protein levels of TRPV4, PPARδ, and AMPK (a, d). PPARδ antagonist and siRNA decreased the protein levels PPARδ and AMPK (b, d). AMPK antagonist and siRNA decreased only AMPK (c, d). In pathological conditions, the TRPV4 antagonist reversed the AG effects on TRPV4, PPARδ, and AMPK (e). The results are expressed as means ± SEM. N=3 for each group. Values were statistically analyzed by unpaired t-test and one-way ANOVA. All experiments were repeated over three times. The dash-dotted line means the one-way ANOVA result between ctrl and all other groups. The dotted line means the one-way ANOVA result among groups except for control. Meaning of indications: Ctrl is an untreated control group, DNCB is a DNCB treated group, D+AG is a DNCB+AG treated group, D+A+Ta is a DNCB+AG+TRPV4 antagonist treated group, SDS is a SDS-treated group, S+AG is a SDS+AG treated group, and S+A+Ta is a SDS+AG+TRPV4 antagonist treated group.
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