Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2019 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Ethnobotanical Study of Indigenous Medicinal Plants of Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia

Table 2

List of the MPs recorded from Jazan region, diseases they were claimed to cure and ways of utilisation.

Family, Plant species,
voucher specimen, endemism
HabitHabitatVernacular namePlant part (s) used Preparations Utilization methodPharmacological activityRFCRecorded literature use

1Blepharis ciliaris (L.) B. L. Burtt (CERSH-022)Perennial herbSand dunes and plainsAl-ZaghafLea, Roo, SeePow, DecDecoction of leaves, roots and seeds is taken orally. The roots are ground to make a powder applied topically; eye dropsFever, astringents, appetizer, cough, asthma, wounds, sores, pruritic, injuries, liver and GIT diseases, diuretic, urinary diseases, menstrual pain, spleen disorder, eye pain0.05Vitiligo, sores, wounds, fever, cough, asthma, anti-inflammatory, cataracts, astringents, eye inflammation, appetizer, antitoxic, diuretic, lung diseases, liver and spleen disorder [46]
2Anisotes trisulcus (Forssk.) Nees (endemic) 
ShrubFyfa MountainsMathLea, flowDecBoiling crushed fresh leaves and flowers in water and the water is taken orallyFever, malaria, diabetes, foot inflammation, oedema, hepatoprotective, neurological disorder, hepatitis0.06Diabetes, malaria, hepatitis, oedema, epilepsy, anaesthetic, hepatoprotective, jaundice, antibacterial, cytotoxicity [79]
3Avicennia marina Forssk 
Sub-shrubAlong the shore-lineShouraBarInfSoaking crushed bark in water and the water is taken orallySmallpox, sores, pruritic, induce women infertility, diabetes0.04Smallpox, diabetes [10, 11]
4Peristrophe paniculata (Forssk.) Brummitt 
Annual HerbTihama plainsMadhiafa, thouemWhoInfSoaking crushed plant in water and the water is taken orallyAnti-snake venom0.02Anti-snake poison [5]
5Dracaena ombet Kot. & Peyr. (rare)  
TreeFyfa mountainsAzef, MeqrAer, ResExt, Pas, PowPaste is applied topically for skin problems; the plant extract is taken orally for malaria, powdered resin is applied topicallySkin infections, wounds, burns, injuries, haemorrhage, smooth the hair, allergy, malaria, spasm0.03Wounds, burns, hair, spasm, strengthening, allergy, malaria [10]
6Achyranthes aspera L.  
Perennial herbFyfa mountainsMahwatWhoPas, ExtLeaf paste is applied locally for skin diseases; root paste is applied on snake bite area, the plant extract is used for fever, abortion and labour pains and GIT diseases; gargle for toothacheFever, astringent, colds, stomach ache, diuretic, skin diseases, acne, anti-inflammatory, pruritic, snake and scorpion stings, abortion and labour pains, toothache0.06Pruritic, fever, snake bites, jaundice, stomach-ache, toothache, colds [5, 12]
7Suaeda aegyptiaca Hasselq 
Perennial herbTihama plain and Farasan IslandsSuwwadLeaPasLeaf paste is applied topicallyContagious skin diseases, blisters, sores, pruritic0.02Blisters and sores [4]
8Aerva javanica (Burm.f.) Juss. ex Schultes 
Perennial herbCommon in Tihama plainsAl-RaaRoo, lea, flow, SeePow, Pas, InfLeaf paste is applied topically for skin diseases; soaking the crushed fresh plant in water and the water is taken orallyHeadaches, wounds, injuries, bruises, toothache, snake and insect stings, malaria, kidney stones, bone fractures, rheumatism, neurological disorders0.09Headaches, toothache, haemostatic, wounds, ulcers, anti-inflammatory, neurological disorder, rheumatism, GIT diseases, bone problems, haemorrhage, kidney problems [6, 7, 1215]
9Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult (CERSH-115)Perennial herbNear the stagnant waters of the wadisAl-AthlabWhoExt, PasRoot paste is applied on scorpion sting areaDiuretic, GIT diseases; scorpion stings0.02Antimicrobial, scorpion sting [16]
10Amaranthus viridis L.  
Annual herbFyfa mountainsKaf Almehana, QutaifaWhoPas, DecLeaf used as emollient in scorpion stingsBlood purifier, piles, GIT diseases, abortifacient, scorpion stings0.04Scorpion stings [17]
11Anethum graveolens L.  
Annual herbCultivated in gardensShibt/ snoutLea, fru, RooInfSoaking crushed plant and the water is taken orallyPostnatal problems, GIT problems0.03GIT diseases [14]
12Foeniculum vulgare Mill.  
Perennial herbMountainsShamrRoo, SeePow, DecBoiling crushed fresh roots in water and the water is taken orallyBody energizer, tonic, GIT diseases, spasm, blood purifier, malaria0.04GIT diseases, urological, neurological, gynaecological, blood and immune system, cough, spasm [14, 18]
13Cuminum cyminum L.  
Annual herbCultivated in gardensCuminSeeInf or Dec, PowSeeds powder applied externally; boiling crushed seeds in water and the water is taken orallyGIT problems, urinary diseases, scorpion stings, diabetes0.03GIT diseases, gynaecological, endocrine and nutritional problems, respiratory problems [14]
14Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague (CERSH-001)ShrubCultivated in gardensAjwainWho, See, oilPow, DecBoiling crushed seeds in water and the water is taken orally; Seeds powder applied externally; oil is given to expel hookworms.GIT diseases, hookworms, diarrhoea, asthma, coughs, influenza, cholera, kidney stones, urinary diseases, scorpion stings, SM disorders0.04GIT diseases, SM disorders, gynaecological, scorpion stings [14]
15Caralluma edulis (Edgew.) Benth. & Hook.f.  
Perennial herbAlong watercoursesGhlothaSee, StePas, PowPowder mixed with milk and applied externally, leaf paste is applied topicallyMalaria, respiratory and throat diseases, lung pains, scorpion stings and snake bites, chickenpox, smallpox, measles, pruritic0.04Chickenpox, smallpox, diabetes, measles, breast cancer [10, 19]
16Monolluma quadrangula (Forssk.) Plowes 
Perennial herbMountainsGhalafLeaCook/ heatedHeated on coal then cooked with spices and eaten; the fresh plant is eaten to treat gastric ulcers and diabetesInfluenza, diabetes, spasm, gastric ulcers0.03Influenza, diabetes, spasm, gastric ulcers [10, 20]
17Ceropegia variegata Forssk. Decne. (endangered)
Perennial herbAlong watercoursesMeyabesaAerPasLeaf paste is applied externally in the abdominal areaExpel tapeworms0.02Taeniafuge [10]
18Calotropis procera (Aiton.) W.T. Aiton 
Small treeDistributed in Tihama palinUsharFlow, lea, Ste, latExt, Pas, lini, PouLeaf paste is used to clean pain area. Leaf extract is applied directly against hair loss; Leaf paste and latex are used for locally for skin problems; poultice is applied on rheumatic painBody energizer, fever, asthma, headaches, indigestion, cough, diarrhoea, toothache, leprosy, wounds, muscles problems, skin infections, boils, psoriasis, hair loss, scorpion stings, malaria, diabetes0.08Skin infections, psoriasis, hair loss, diabetes, leishmaniosis, analgesic, respiratory problems, scorpion stings, strengthening muscles, rheumatism [5, 6, 10, 13, 14, 21]
19Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne 
ShrubSand dunes and plainsMarkhWhoInf, Pas, ExtSoaking crushed bark in water and the water is taken orally; crushed stems are applied to wounds; infusion of the whole plant mixed with butter milk is given for stomach disorders.Headaches, diuretic, stomach disorders, wounds, stop bleeding, kidney disorders, urinary retention, SM and gynaecological disorders0.06diuretic, smallpox, psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis, diabetes, carminative, purgative, antitumor, hypolipidemic, anti-atherosclerotic [6]
20Nerium oleander L.  
Small treeCultivated in gardensDiflaLea, RooPas, Ext, PouExtracts from leaves and roots are used internally; poultice is applied for skin problems.Skin diseases, scabies, pruritic, bronchitis, coughs, diuretic, anti-snake venom0.06Diuretic, emetic, bronchitis, coughs, scabies [6, 18]
21Rhazya stricta Decne.  
ShrubTihama plainsHarmalLea, flowPow, PasLeaf paste is applied topicallyRheumatism, allergy, improving bad breath, skin rash, pruritic0.06Tonic, stimulant, syphilis, allergy, GIT disease, anti-microbial, colon cancer, anti-inflammatory, rheumatism [4, 6, 13, 14, 19]
22Carissa edulis Vahl (Forssk.)  
Shrub or small treeFyfa MountainsA'rm, AiroonLea, FruPow, PasBerries are eaten raw; leaf paste is applied topicallyAnti-snake venom, parasitic worms, colic, toothache, menstrual pain0.03Anthelmintic, stomach disorders, antiscorbutic, toothache, astringent [22]
23Adenium obesum (Forssk.) Roem & Schult. (rare, endemic) 
ShrubRocky slopes at intermediate elevationsAdnahAer, latPow, Pas, JuiPowdered plant is applied externally on the head; the plant juice is dropped directly in the mouth; the use of plant milky latex is applied topically to skin diseases (lotion)Headache, GIT diseases, skin infections, rashes, pruritic, lice, muscle pain, dislocations, excites the sexual desire in women, venereal diseases, scorpion stings, teeth cleaning, pesticide0.07Headache, muscle pain, joint pain, kill lice, tonsillitis, skin diseases, cleaning the teeth, aphrodisiac, antiviral, antibacterial, venereal diseases [7, 10, 15, 2326]
24Sansevieria ehrenbergii Schweinf. ex Baker.  
ShrubTihama plainsSalbAerPowPowder is applied topically on skin affected areasWounds, pruritic, injuries, insect bites, malaria0.03Wounds, insect bites [10]
25Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.  
ShrubFyfa MountainsAl-Maguar, SabarLea, RooJui, Ext, PasLeaf juice is given orally for menstrual trouble, treating gonorrhoea, liver and spleen disorders; leaf gel is applied topically for skin problems; paste is applied locally for rheumatismFever, laxative, sunstroke, malaria, eczema, psoriasis, hair loss, gastric ulcer, liver pain, diabetes, menstrual troubles, gonorrhoea, spleen disorders, nerve pain, rheumatism0.08Skin diseases, eczema, psoriasis, laxative, sunstroke, stomach ulcer, pain of nerves, gonorrhoea, menstrual trouble, liver and spleen disorders, rheumatism [5, 14, 15, 27]
26Asphodelus tenuifolius Cav.  
Perennial herbAlong watercoursesBroqueSee, RooPas, PouPoultice is applied for skin problems and rheumatismSkin diseases, wounds, anti-inflammatory, pruritic, rheumatism, colds0.02Eczema, alopecia, paralysis, earache [28]
27Pulicaria undulata (L.) Kostel.  
Perennial herbFyfa MountainsGathgathWhoPas, InfLeaf paste is applied topically, infusion is taken orally for internal diseasesSkin diseases, wounds, central nervous system depression0.06Central nervous system depression, antimicrobial, breast cancer, liver cancer, leukaemia, diuretic [6, 19, 23]
28Pulicaria jaubertii Gamal Ed Din (CERSH-048)Perennial herbTihama plains and Farasan IslandAl-Arar/
Eter Elraee
WhoDecSoaking crushed leaves in boiled water and the water is taken orallyCarminative, intestinal worms, digestive disorders, malaria0.03Anthelmintic, antimicrobial, antifungal, antimalarial, insecticidal [29]
29Pulicaria schimperi DC.  
Annual or biennial herbFyfa MountainsSakabLeaPasLeaf paste is applied topically to cure wounds and for hairHair strengthening, wounds infection0.03Wounds [30]
30Rhanterium epapposum Oliv.  
ShrubDesert landsAl-ArfajLeaPas, DecLeaf paste is applied topically; decoction is used orally to treat diabetes and digestive troublesRespiratory and throat diseases, diabetes, allergy, oedema, digestive troubles, toothache, insect repellent0.06Diabetes, allergy, oedema, toothache, GIT disorders, antimicrobial [6, 10]
31Artemisia abyssinica Schultz-Bip (CERSH-121)ShrubMountainsBeithran, Al-obalWhoDec or InfDecoction is used orally to treat diabetes, cough, cold, irritation of the throat and menstrual painAppetizer, digestive troubles, parasitic worms, spasm, rheumatism, menstrual pain, diabetes, malaria, cough, cold, irritation of the throat0.07Appetizer, headache, diabetes, mellitus, cold, spasm, pharyngitis, insect repellent, anthelmintic, rheumatism, antibacterial, indigestion [5, 7, 10, 23]
32Artemisia sieberi Besser 
ShrubMountainsShihWhoDec, BurThe whole plant is used as a smoke inhalant to treat various diseases; decoction from leaves are used orally as an anthelminticGIT diseases, intestinal worms0.04Breast and liver cancer [19]
33Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (CERSH-071)Annual herbTihama palinOukhouanWhoPasLeaf paste is applied topically; fresh roots are chewedLaxative, anti-inflammatory0.03Purgative, syphilis. Anti-inflammation [5]
34Achillea biebersteinii Afan.  
Perennial herbMountainsKaysoum/Aldefera/
WhoPas, InfLeaf paste is applied topically; an infusion form its leaves is used orally; chewing of fresh leaves relieves toothacheCarminative, itching, insect repellent, urinary diseases, toothache, kidney inflammation, menstruation troubles, leishmaniosis0.05Leishmaniosis, insect repellent, toothache [7, 23]
35Conyza incana (Vahl) Willd.  
Perennial herbFyfa MountainsBaithran, arfajLeaBurThe smoke of burned leaves is used to repel insects and is inhaled nasally for relieving muscular painsCentral nervous system depression, cardiac stimulation, muscular pains, insects repellent, malaria, leishmaniosis0.03Antifungal activity [23]
36Xanthium strumarium L.  
Annual herbAlong watercoursesWhoDec, CookSoaking crushed whole plant in boiled water and the water is taken orallyMalaria, GIT disorders, stomach ache0.02Leukoderma, bites of insects, epilepsy, allergy, salivation, malaria, leprosy, rheumatism, tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, diarrhoea, constipation, lumbago, pruritus, bacterial and fungal infections [31]
37Osteospermum vaillantii Decne (CERSH-110)ShrubMoutainsAnnakad, Hechmat El-thoreWhoInfSoaking crushed whole plant in water and the water is taken orallyGIT diseases, liver disorders0.02Fever, stomach ailments and liver disorders
38Picris cyanocarpa Boiss.  
Annual herbTihama plainsHozanWhoDecSoaking crushed whole plant in water and the water is taken orallyLower blood pressure, cardiac stimulation, central nervous system stimulation,0.02Antioxidant properties [23]
39Sonchus oleraceus L 
Annual herbFyfa MountainsUddaidLea, flowPas, DecLeaf paste is applied topically; decoction applied orally to induce menstruationInduce menstruation, skin infection, sores, pruritic, scorpion stings0.03Skin diseases, sores [4, 13]
40Asparagus africanus Lam.  
ShrubFyfa MountainsSmin, khurus theebAerPasLeaf paste is applied topically, chewing of leaves relieves breathing problemsParalysis, skin diseases, pruritic, swelling, malaria, breathing problems0.03Malaria, leishmaniosis, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities [32]
41Heliotropium digynum Forssk.  
ShrubSandy soil in Tiham plainsHettan, Raghel, Atana, DafraWhoPas, InfLeaf paste is applied topically; soaking crushed leaves in water and the water is taken orallySkin diseases, liver pain, diuretic0.03Skin diseases [4]
42Heliotropium bacciferum Forssk. (CERSH-027)Perennial herbTihama palinRamramWho, leaDec, PasLeaf paste is applied topically for snake bites; decoction applied orally is used for urinary problemsUrinary diseases, snake bites, skin infections0.04Scorpion stings, skin diseases, tonsillitis [21]
43Commiphora gileadensis (L.) Christ.(rare)  
ShrubTihama plains and Farasan IslandAl-bishamBran, gum, ResDec, Pas, PouPoultice is applied for skin problems and bone fracture (topically); soaking crushed resin in water and the water is taken orallyToothache, respiratory diseases, anti-snake venom, bone fracture, leishmaniosis, nervous system disorders0.05Anti-snake poison, peptic ulcer, leishmaniosis, gynaecological diseases, respiratory diseases, neurological troubles [7, 14]
44Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. (rare) (CERSH-005)ShrubTihama plainsMyrrha 
Orouq Al Aqa
Res, gum, BarInf, PasOil leaf paste is applied topically; soaking crushed resin or bark in water and the water is taken orallyCarminative, bone fractures, wounds, burns, pruritic, stomach pain, urinary tract infection, scorpion stings0.05Laxative, wounds, stomach pain, diarrhoea, urinary tract infection, scorpion stings, respiratory diseases, gynaecological infections, haemorrhage [10, 12, 14, 21]
45Matthiola Arabica Boiss.
Annual herbTihama plains along watercoursesSoqarSeeInfSoaking crushed seeds in water and the water is taken orally; the seeds are eaten rawAnaemia0.02Anaemia [10]
46Opuntia ficus-indica Mill (CERSH-006)ShrubCultivated in gardensBarshoumSte, FruDecSoaking crushed stems in boiled water and the water is taken orallyDiabetes0.03Diabetes [21].
47Capparis spinosa L.  
ShrubTihama plainsShafallahLea, RooDec, PasLeaf paste is applied topically; soaking crushed leaves and roots in boiled water and the water is taken orallyUrinary diseases, kidney stones, GIT problems, parasitic worms, diuretic, skin diseases, anti-inflammatory, rheumatism, diabetes, splenomegaly, induce menstruation0.06Dermatitis, diarrhoea, diabetes [5, 7]
48Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew (rare)(CERSH-051)ShrubTihama plains and Farasan IslandsTandhabWhoPas, InfLeaf paste is applied topically; soaking crushed fresh leaves in water and the water is taken orallyCarminative, laxative, fever, intestinal worms, leprosy, sores, ear pain, diabetes, rheumatism, aphrodisiac, induce menstruation0.05Coughs, appetizer, asthma, fever, boils, anti-inflammatory; cardiac troubles, analgesic, biliousness, alveolaris, pyorrhoea, purgative, diabetes, anthelmintic, hypercholesterolemia, antimicrobial [33]
49Cadaba rotundifolia Forssk.  
ShrubTihama plainsKathabLeaInfSoaking crushed fresh leaves in water and the water is taken orallyRheumatism, urinary diseases0.02Antibiotic [12]
50Cadaba farinosa Forssk 
ShrubAbu-Arish Tihama plainsAsaf, Qusaia, Azan-al-arnabLeaPas, DecLeaf paste is applied topically on the head; decoction from leaves is taken orallyParasitic worms, liver pains, dysentery, induce menstruation, cough, lungs problems, nervous system disorders0.04Hepatoprotective, sores, wounds, hydrocephalus, haemorrhage antioxidant activities [12]
51Minuartia filifolia (Forssk.). Mattf. (CERSH-095)Perennial herbMountainsOud Al-HalabaBarPas, DecLeaf paste is applied topically, decoction from bark is taken orallyPromote women fertility, snakes bites0.02
52Cleome viscosa L.  
Annual herbFyfa MountainsOm -HanifWhoPas, DecLeaf paste is applied topically; decoction from crushed fresh leaves is taken orallyIntestinal worms, stomach ache, anti-inflammatory, skin diseases, wounds, leprosy, malaria, ear pain, snake bites0.05Anthelmintic, wounds, analgesic, carminative, anticonvulsant, antitumor, antidiarrheal, antiemetic, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective [12]
53Cleome amblyocarpa Barratte & Murb.(CERSH-104)Annual herbTihama plainsKhunayzah/ ouffinaWhoDecDecoction from crushed plant is taken orallyInsecticide, scabies, rheumatism, kidney problems, sexual stimulator0.03Rheumatism, rheum, scabies, rheumatic fever, anti-inflammatory [6]
54Cleome gynandra L.  
Annual herbAlong watercourses and mountainsOyfiqanRoo, lea, SeeDecBoiling crushed fresh leaves and roots in water and the water is taken orallyAppetiser, carminative, ear pain, splenomegaly, muscles problems, scorpion stings0.04Muscle weakness, diabetes, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, cardiovascular diseases [10, 34]
55Cleome brachycarpa Vahl ex DC (CERSH-068)Perennial herbTihama plains and Farasan IslandsBirbranleaPas, InfLeaf paste is applied topically; soaking crushed fresh leaves in water and the water is taken orallyAppetizer, carminative, stomach irritant, skin diseases, scabies, leprosy0.03Diuretic and astringent, narcotic and stomach irritant, foot problems [6, 12]
56Combretum molle R.Br. ex G. Don. (CERSH-029)Shrub or small treeFyfa MountainsAlthu’abGum-The gum is eaten rawCause women infertility, digestive disorders, stomach ache, malaria0.03anti-inflammatory, infections, diabetes, malaria, bleeding, diarrhoea, digestive disorders, diuretic, anti-Trypanosoma, anthelmintic [7, 35]
57Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (CERSH-008)Perennial herbAlong watercoursesHundhalFru, See, leaDecHalf the fresh fruit is applied topically; decoction of leaves and seeds is used orally.Laxative, scorpion stings and snakes bites, insect bites, leishmaniosis, vitiligo, skin infections, rabies, GIT diseases, rheumatism0.08Laxative, analgesic, skin infection, hair dye, scorpion, dog, insect and snake bites, vitiligo, GIT diseases, larynx cancer, leukaemia [4, 6, 13, 14, 19, 21]
58Juniperus procera Hochst. Ex. Endel. (CERSH-052)TreeAl Hashar mountainsAlar’arLea, fruInf, BurSoaking crushed fruits in water is taken orally; leaves are applied on burning charcoal and smoke is inhaled nasallySkin infections, warts, toothache, spasm, cold, flu0.03Spasm, gout, cold, pharyngitis, urological disorder [7, 14]
59Ricinus communis L.  
ShrubWidely distributed in Tihama plainsKharwahWho, oilsLini, Pow, Ext, Jui, PouLeaf and root powders are applied topically on wounds; root extract is given to treat asthma, bronchitis and rheumatism; poultice of leaves applied locally; seed oil is applied topicallyBoils, sores, warts, wounds, intestinal worms, dysentery, inhibit menstruation, enhance the lactation process, rheumatism, joint pain, bad breath, toothache, asthma, bronchitis, scorpion stings0.07GIT diseases, dysentery, asthma, warts, wound, skin diseases, boils, sores, SM, bronchitis, Joint pain, cracks of feet, rheumatism [4, 5, 14]
60Euphorbia schimperiana Scheele (CERSH-123)Small treeFyfa MountainsLubbanaWho, latExt, Dec, liniAn extract of leaves and roots is used topically; soaking crushed fresh leaves in water and the water is taken orallyLaxative, respiratory and throat diseases, coughs, asthma, wounds, skin infections, anti-snake venom, ear pains0.04Cavernous stinking wounds [7]
61Euphorbia retusa (Forssk.)  
Perennial herbGhazalah/  
LatLiniLatex is used topicallyNervous system depression, asthma, eczema, wounds, warts, leishmaniosis0.03Anorectal diseases, colon diseases, fissures, cracks, fistulas, abscesses, haemorrhoids, inflammatory bowel disease [36, 37]
62Jatropha glauca Vahl.  
ShrubFyfa MountainKharat, Orouq AobabLea, See, StePow, Dec, PasSoaking crushed fresh leaves in water and the water is taken orally; the paste is used topically; powder of white stems is used topicallyChronic skin diseases, enhance the lactation process, asthma, allergy, malaria0.03Asthma, leukoderma, allergy, haemorrhoids [10, 12].
63Acalypha fruticosa (Forssk). var. fruticose 
Shrub or treeAlong watercourses and
Abadil mountains
Thefran, anamaLea, RooPas, Dec, InfLeaf paste is applied topically; soaking the crushed plant in water and the water is taken orally or used as nose drops; a root decoction/infusion is taken orally for fever and constipation; stems or roots are chewed for toothacheFevers, toothache, eye infections, bee stings, malaria, typhoid, liver problems, constipation, wounds, skin infections, sores, colds, cough, haemorrhage0.06Malaise, fevers, colds, cough, tooth decays, eye infections, haemorrhage, wound, skin infections, diphtheria, malaria, typhoid, liver problems, stomach ache, convulsions, constipation [5, 12, 15]
64Acalypha indica L.  
Annual herbAlong watercourses and Abadil MountainsWhoPasLeaf paste is applied topicallyBronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, scorpion stings0.03Ganglions [12]
65Chrozophora oblongifolia (Delile) A. Juss. ex Spreng.  
Sub-shrubAlong watercoursesTannoumLea, SteExtStem or leaf extract is used topicallyGIT problems, cathartic and emetic0.02Antimicrobial, antioxidant [38]
66Tamarindus indica L.  
TreeFyfa MountainsTamur HindiFru, SeeDecBoiling crushed fresh fruits in water and the water is taken orallyLaxative, headache, ear pain, smallpox, scabies, sores, wounds; blood diseases, antihypertensive, liver pain, intestinal worms, bone fractures, snake bites0.07GIT diseases, skin diseases [14, 15]
67Alhagi graecorum Boiss 
ShrubTihama plainsAqoolWhoDecA decoction made from seeds is used orallyAnthelmintic, constipation, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, kidney stones, blood diseases, blood purifier; sexual enhancement, rheumatism0.04Cataracts, jaundice, migraine, painful joints, aphrodisiac, bilharzias, rheumatism [6]
68Acacia oerfota (Forssk.) Schweinf. (CERSH-054)Shrub or treeFyfa, mountainsAl-orfetLeaInf, PasSoaking crushed leaves in water and the water is taken orally; leaf paste is applied topicallySevere fever, allergy, skin diseases, scorpion stings, hepatitis0.04Food poisoning, wound infections [12]
69Acacia tortillis (Forssk)  
Shrub or treeAlong watercourses and Fyfa MountainsAlsomerBran, Roo, honeyDec, Pas, BurThe shoots and roots are burned and smoke is inhaled nasally; scorched leaves/roots are applied topically; toothbrushUlcers and deep wounds, anti-inflammatory, teeth cleaning0.03Teeth cleaning, ulcers and gangrene, wounds dry coughs, coughs, diphtheria [7, 12]
70Acacia ehrenbergiana Hayne
Shrub or treeAlong watercoursesAssalamLea, BarPas, InfLeaf paste is applied topically and grinded leaves in water is used to wash the eyesGIT diseases, eye infections0.03Injuries, wound infections, eye infections [12]
71Acacia seyal Del.  
Shrub or TreeFyfa MountainsTalh, Sanat SayelBar, Gum, RooInfSoaking crushed bark or root in water and the water is taken orallyBurns, stop bleeding, Leprosy, stomach ache, after abortion0.03Stop bleeding, stomach ache, dysentery, after abortion [4, 12]
72Astragalus spinosus Vahl.  
ShrubMountainsKatadWhoDecBoiling crushed plant in water and the water is taken orallyLeukaemia, skin diseases, wounds, scorpion stings0.02Scorpion stings [21]
73Senna alexandrina Mill.  
ShrubAlong watercoursesSana, EshriqLea, SeeDec, PasLeaf paste is applied topically; soaking crushed leaves in water and the water is taken orallyLaxative, skin diseases, GIT diseases, constipation, abdominal pain, stomach cramps0.07Injuries, skin diseases, constipation, stomach cramps, abdominal pain, gynaecological [6, 10, 12, 14]
74Tephrosia apollinea (Delile) Link 
ShrubMountainsWhoDecSoaking crushed plant in water and the water is taken orallyLower blood pressure, cardiac stimulation, cough, bronchitis, bone fractures, ear ache0.03Anti-bacterial; ear ache, bronchitis, cough, wounds bleeding, bone fractures, dysentery, diarrhoea [6, 12, 23]
75Plectranthus asirensis J.R.I Wood (rare, endemic)  
ShrubFyfa, MountainsShar Elkrood, sana’aburWhoDec, PasBoiling crushed fresh plant in water and the water is taken orally; paste of fresh leaves are placed topically on wounds to avoid infectionSore throat, rash, itching, wounds, malaria0.03Intestinal disturbance, respiratory disorders, heart diseases, liver fatigue, malaria, central nervous system disorders, antiseptic, wounds [3941]
76Origanum majorana L.  
Sub-shrubCultivated in gardensBardakushWhoDecBoiling crushed fresh plant in water and the water is taken orallyHeadaches, analgesic, asthma, cough, rheumatism0.04Analgesic during labour- inflammation of the uterus [10]
77Lavandula dentata L.  
Shrubcommon on MountainsDhurumFlowInf, teaInfusion of fresh plant in water and the water is taken orally; leaf extract in tea is taken orallyUrine retention, kidney stones, ureter stones, bowel disease0.02Wounds, diuretic, carminative, antiseptic, rheumatism, bronchopulmonary infections [42]
78Nepeta deflersiana Schweinf. ex Hedge (CERSH-118)Perennial herbMountainsShaya’aWhoTeaLeaf extract in tea is taken orallySedative or tranquilliser, stomach problems0.03Anti-inflammatory, carminative, ant-rheumatic [43]
79Ocimum basilicum L.  
Annual herbCultivated in gardensRayhanLea, Roo, SeeDec, Pas, Jui, TeaDecoction taken orally for internal use and as spices; paste of leaves are placed topically on bruises to avoid infection; leaf paste is applied topically on snake bites; leaf and root juice are given orally to cure dysentery; leaves mixed with tea used to allay upset stomach, cold, and fever.Fever, cough, bruises, ulcers, skin diseases, GIT diseases, diarrhoea, ringworms, ear ache, spasm, urinary diseases, kidney disorders, internal piles, anti-snake venom0.06Spasm, stomach ulcer, dysentery, respiratory, parasites, ear ache [5, 10, 12, 14]
80Marrubium vulgare L.  
Perennial herbMountainsZagomeLeaPow, DecLeaf powder is used topically to treat wounds; decoction is used orally for treating menstrual pain and urinary diseasesBody energizer, intestinal worms, hepatitis, dyspepsia, menstrual pain, absence of a menstrual period, urinary diseases, tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis0.04Wounds, coughs [15]
81Teucrium yemense Deflers (endemic) (CERSH-097)Perennial herbAl-Abadil and Fyfa MountainsRechal FatimaWhoInfSoaking crushed plant in water and the water is taken orallyDiabetes, kidney problems, anthelmintic, rheumatism0.03Insect repellent, spasm, kidney disease, rheumatism, diabetes [27]
82Lawsonia inermis L.  
ShrubCultivated or wildHennaLeaInf, PowLeaf infusion is used orally; leaf powder is used as a dye for womenUrinary tract infection, skin protection, diabetes, scorpion stings, nerve pain and nervous system disorders0.04Antifungal, urinary tract infection, skin protection, neurological and SM disorders [9, 10, 14]
83Abutilon Pannosum (Forest.) Schlecht (CERSH-057)ShrubFarasan Islands and Along watercoursesRaynSee, BarExt, InfThe extracts and infusion of seeds and bark in water are applied orally to treat most of the diseasesSedative, fever, psoriasis, cleaning wound, skin ulcer, diabetes, anaemia, GIT diseases, diuretic, diarrhoea, urinary diseases, pulmonary problems, cough, bronchitis, vaginal infection, gonorrhoea bladder disorders0.06Diuretic, dysentery, fever, sedative, diarrhoea, cough, gonorrhoea, bronchitis, pile grumbles, pulmonary problems, cleaning wound and ulcer, vaginal infection, anaemia, diabetes, bladder problems, haemorrhoids [5, 6, 23]
84Malva parviflora L.  
Annual herbTihama plainsKhobaizaWhoInf.Soaking crushed plant in water and the water is taken orally; fresh leaves is chewed to treat respiratory and throat diseasesLaxative, respiratory and throat diseases, cough, bronchitis, diabetes, intestinal ulcers, hair growth, constipation, scorpion stings0.06Laxative, hair growth, cough, constipation, skin burns, urinary tract infection [13, 14, 18]
85Azadirachta indica A. Juss.  
Small treeAlong watercoursesNeemWhoDec, PasSoaking crushed plant in water and the water is taken orally, plant past is used topically for scorpion stingsGIT diseases, gastric ulcers, scorpion stings, diabetes0.04GIT diseases, antifungal, antipyretic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, diabetes, anti-arthritic, gastric ulcer [9, 14]
86Dorstenia foetida Schweinf. (endangered)  
Sub-shrubFyfa MountainsArkouth, Om-lakefLatInf, LatInfusion and latex is used topically (lotion)GIT diseases, Leishmaniosis0.02Leishmaniosis [7]
87Ficus palmata Forssk
Small treeFyfa MountainsAl-HamatWho, latLatFruits are eaten; latex is used topicallykidney and bladder problems, gastro-intestinal diseases, warts0.03Warts, GIT diseases [7, 14]
88Ficus carica L.  
Small treeTihama plainsTeenLea, fruDec, Pas, LatFruits are eaten raw; decoction of fruit in water is taken orally; leaf paste is applied on face to lighten frecklesLaxative, kidney infections, kidney stones, GIT diseases, scorpion stings0.03Laxative, cough; lighten freckles [5]
89Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori (rare) (CERSH-013)TreeTihama plainsAl-BanLea, See oil, gumsDec, Pas, oilDecoction and oil from the seeds is taken orally; grind the leaves in water and wash the eyeLaxative, headache, incurable wounds, burns, abdominal and colon pains, constipation, diabetes, eyes pain, anaemia, sciatic pain, SM disorders0.07Headaches, fever, burns, wounds, colon, eyes pain, anaemia, joints pains, backache, diabetes, sciatic pain, conjunctivitis [4, 7, 10]
90Myrtus communis L.  
ShrubTihama plainsAl-A’s/HadassLea, BarInf, PasSoaking crushed leaves in water and the water is taken orally (or gargle) to cure respiratory and intestinal problems; bark is chewed; leaf paste is applied topically for skin problemsDeep wound diseases, GIT diseases, liver disorder, asthma, cough, mouth ulcers, scorpion stings, cardiovascular problems, leishmaniosis0.07Asthma, cough, respiratory problems, gangrene, pharyngitis, leishmaniosis, blood and immune system [7, 14]
91Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (CERSH-058)TreeTihama plainsKhafourLeaBurThe leaf is roasted on the heated tool and the smoke is inhaledAbortion0.02Antimicrobial, spasmolytic [13]
92Peganum harmala L.  
(rare) (CERSH-065)
Perennial herbTihama plainsHarmalWhoBurThe whole plant is used as a smoke inhalant to treat various diseasesToothache, intestinal worms, rheumatism, skin diseases0.03Sheep fertility [18]
93Jasminum sambac Linn 
Small shrubCultivated in gardensAl-FillFru, flowDec, BurDecoction of fruit and flowers in water is taken orally; inhalation of the flowersIntestinal worms, skin diseases, skin rashes, leprosy, ulcers, heighten sexual desire0.03Liver diseases, cirrhosis, diarrhoea, heighten sexual desire, skin rashes, sun burn, analgesic, antimicrobial, wound healing [25]
94Olea europaea L. ssp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) Ciferri.(CERSH-059)TreeMountainsAl-etemOil, lea, BarInf, Pas liniSoaking crushed leaves in water and the water is taken orally; fresh leaves is chewed, soaking leaves in water and water is used as mouthwash, paste and oil is used topicallyLiver diseases, oesophageal irritation, ulcers, oedemas, oral thrush, dental caries, warts, skin smoothing, leprosy, smallpox, scabies, diabetes, leishmaniosis, rheumatism0.05Rheumatism, leishmaniosis, skin diseases of camels, diabetes, mellitus and hypertension, gonorrhoea [7, 12]
95Fumaria parviflora Lam 
Annual herbTihama plains and MountainsShahtarajAerInf, liniSoaking crushed aerial parts in water and the water is taken orallyIntestinal worms, diuretic, urinary diseases, blood purifier, spleen disorder, leprosy, scabies, eczema, acne, lungs diseases0.05Diuretic, laxative, blood purifier, scabies, eczema, acne, skin disorders [5]
96Plantago major L.  
Perennial herbTihama plainsLissan JamalRoo, leaDec, PowDecoction of fresh plant in water is taken orally, leaf powder is used topically for skin diseasesUrinary diseases, blisters, boil, wounds, malaria, scorpion stings0.03Blisters, boil and wounds [4]
97Limonium axillare (Forssk.) O. Kuntze (CERSH-099)ShrubTihama plains and Farasan IslandsQattafWhoDecDecoction of fresh plant in water is taken orallyCentral nervous system depression0.02Diarrhoea, astringent [6, 23]
98Saccharum spontaneum L.  
Perennial grassAlong watercoursesHalfWhoJuiJuice of whole plant is used orallyUrinary diseases, skin diseases, tuberculosis0.03Anaemia, vomiting, abdominal disorders, obesity, astringent, emollient, diuretic, tonic, dyspepsia, burning sensation, piles, respiratory troubles, antidiarrheal, anti-urolithiatic activity [44]
99Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. ex Asch. & Schweinf. (CERSH-015)Annual grassTihama plains and Mountainsna’eem el-saleeb, rigl Al-harbayaRoo, leaPas, Ext, DecThe leaf paste in water is applied topically; Ext of the plant is taken orally; decoctions of seeds is given orally for postnatal problemsGIT diseases, gastric ulcer, kidney diseases, biliary and urinary ailments, skin inflammation, small pox, lesion, sores, postnatal problems0.03Astringent, bitter tonic, anti-anthelmintic, wounds, smallpox, GIT, biliary and urinary ailments, polyurea fevers, spasm of maternity, renal infections, immune-deficiency, gastric ulcers [45, 46]
100Rumex nervosus Vahl.  
ShrubFyfa MountainsAl-athrubLea, Roo, SeePowSeeds roasted and used topically for the treatment of dysentery and snake bites; leaves and seeds are eaten raw; chewing of the leavesAppetizer, astringent, diarrhoea, diuretic, stoop bleeding, burns, dental pain, diabetes, dysentery, scorpion and snake bites0.06Diabetes, asthma, diarrhoea, diuretic, dental pain, wounds, dysentery, scorpion stings and snake bites, appetizing, astringent [5, 7, 47]
101Rumex vesicarius L.  
Annual or perennial, rhizomatous herbAl-Hashar MountainsAl-HommadSee, lea-The leaves and seeds are crushed and eaten rawWounds, spasm, muscle cramp, diuretic, dysentery, toothache, scorpion stings and snake bites0.07Toothache, antiemetic, leukaemia, breast, lung, central nervous system cancers, scorpion stings [6, 7, 13, 19]
102Emex spinosa (L.) Campd.  
Annual herbFyfa MountainsHambaazLea, Roo-The leaves and roots are edible (chewing)Dyspepsia, GIT disorders0.03Appetizer, dyspepsia, diuretic [13]
103Clematis wightiana Wall. ex Wight & Arn. (CERSH-016)ClimberFyfa MountainsThreeja, AlharyaWhoPasThe leaf paste in water is applied topicallySkin diseases, leprosy, cardiac depression, varicose veins, bone fracture, rheumatism0.03Rheumatism, headaches, varicose veins, syphilis, gout, bone problems [23]
104Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd (CERSH-113)TreeFyfa mountains and along watercoursesSeder, ArqLea, Fru, SeeDec, Inf.Decoction of the plant is used orally for GIT problems; crushed seed kernels are eaten raw; chewing fresh leaves to relieve mouth problemsScabies, measles, sores, wounds, lice, hair tonic, allergy, rabies, antidandruff; toothache, stomach ache, liver problems, headache, insect bites, leishmaniosis, spasm, rheumatism, urinary troubles, diabetes, anaemia0.08Duodenum and stomach ache, allergy, chest pain; scabies, itching, sores, wounds, bruises; insect bites, diabetes, spasm, strengthening hairs, antidandruff, mouth problems [4, 5, 7, 13, 21, 48]
105Rhizophora mucronata Lam.  
Small treeTihama plainsKindaleBar, Roo, lea, fru, flowDec, PasSoaking crushed plant in water and the water is taken orallyDiabetes, GIT diseases0.02Diabetes, diarrhoea, anti-inflammatory hepatitis [11]
106Ruta chalepensis L.
Perennial herbCultivated in gardens or wild in Fyfa MountainsEl - shathabLea, SteDecSoaking crushed leaves in water and the water is taken orallyHeadache, fever, ear pain, vitiligo, measles, snake bites, menstrual pain, skin diseases, rheumatism, GIT diseases0.08Snake bites, ear, neurological, diphtheria, respiratory diseases [7, 12, 14]
107Coffea arabica L 
Small treeCultivated on MountainsBoneSeePowHeat crushed seeds and apply topicallyFever, tonic, headache, malaria, kidney disorders, kidney inflammation0.03Haemorrhage, asthma, flu, atropine-poisoning, sores, stimulants fever, headache, jaundice, malaria, vertigo migraine, narcosis, nephritis [5]
108Salvadora persica L.  
Shrub or Small treeTihama plains and foothillsAl-ArakFru, RooCookRoots are used as toothbrush; fruits are eaten raw; cooked leaves for kidney problemsTeeth cleaning, kidney diseases and stones, spleen disorder, rheumatism, snake bites0.05Snake bites, epilepsy, rheumatism, skin diseases, toothbrush, gonorrhoea, spleen troubles, stomach ulcer [7]
109Dodonaea viscosa Jacq
Small treeFyfa MountainsShathLeaPas, PowLeaf powder is used for treating toothache; leaf paste is applied topically for skin problemRheumatism, toothache, wounds, burns, malaria, leishmaniosis0.03Toothache, burns, wounds leishmaniosis [4, 6, 7]
110Solanum incanum L 
ShrubFyfa Mountains 
And foothills
Nagum, Al-hadakFru, Roo, leaPas, Dec, PouLeaf paste is applied topically as poultice on skin diseases; decoction from berries, leaves and roots is taken orally; berries boiled in oil and the oil is used for earacheSever fever, malaria, leishmaniosis, earache, wounds, bruise, rashes, warts, dyspepsia, ulcers, carbuncles, stomach-ache, painful menstruation0.07Malaria, leishmaniosis, bruised fingers, wounds, onchocerciasis, earache, dyspepsia, pleurisy, rheumatism, pneumonia, haemorrhoids [5, 7, 12]
111Datura stramonium L.  
Annual herbCommon along watercoursesDaturah, /ain el bakarWhoPasLeaf paste is placed on bleeding wounds and skin diseases; leaves are dried, crushed, heated and applied topically to the sting pointHeadaches, epilepsy, rabies, asthma, earache, sores, vitiligo, pruritic, GIT diseases, wounds, scabies, hair-fall, cough, skin inflammation, rheumatism, bronchitis, scorpion stings0.08Dermatitis, sores and vitiligo, wounds, stomach ache, scorpion stings [4, 15, 21, 49]
112Hyoscyamus muticus L.  
ShrubTihama plainsAs -sakranLea, SeePas, Pou, Ext, BurA crushed leaves is applied topically as a poultice to relieve pain; whole plant is used as a smoke inhalant to treat various diseases, grind the leaves in water and wash the eyeAsthma, toothache, eyes problems, rheumatism, spasm0.03Eyes problems, muscles, asthma intoxicating effect [47]
113Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal 
ShrubFyfa MountainsSem Alfa’ar/AlobebLea, Fru, RooPas, Inf, Ext, PouPaste from berries and leaves are applied as a poultice to ulcers, skin diseases and eyes pain; soaking crushed root in water and the water is taken orally (gargle)Tranquilizer, intestinal worms and ulcers, dyspepsia, skin chronic inflammation, eye pain, asthma, bronchitis, urinary diseases, scorpion stings, aphrodisiac, toning up the uterus of women0.09Ulcers, chronic dermatitis, psoriasis, breast, colon and liver cancers, asthma, leukaemia, aphrodisiac, sexual disorders, eye pains bronchitis,, gynaecological disorders [57, 12, 13, 19]
114Tamarix nilotica Ehrenb 
Shrub or small treeTihama plainsTarfaaLea, seed’s oilPas, PouTopically to cure wounds and skin problemsWounds, anti-inflammatory, varicose veins0.04Dermatitis, leg varices [7, 13]
115Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst 
TreeTihama plains and Farasan IslandsAl -AthlBran, lea, Roo, BarDec, Bur, Pas, PouDecoction of the roots and branches is used orally, fumigation of the leaves is beneficial in flu; paste form bark is used topically on wounds.Astringent, cold, flu, tuberculosis, spleen diseases, stomach ache, hepatitis, leprosy, wound infection, eczema, smallpox, aphrodisiac, uterus problems0.06Astringent, wound, eczema, leprosy, smallpox stomach-ache, hepatitis, tuberculosis, cold, flu, spleen diseases, aphrodisiac, germicidal effect, tetanus [4, 5, 50]
116Grewia tenax (Forssk.) Fiori 
shrubTihama plains and Farasan IslandsKhadarWhoPas, PouThe roots are used to make a poultice.Hair loss, skin infection, central nervous system depression, liver problems, rheumatism, spasm0.03Stomach aches, skin and intestinal infections, cough, fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, jaundice, rheumatism, antibiotic properties [23]
117Urtica pilulifera L.  
Annual herbTihama plainsHourriguaLea, SteInfAn infusion of the plant is taken orallyScorpion stings, stop bleeding and epistaxis, diabetes, uterine haemorrhage, urinary tract infection, anaemia0.05Antidandruff, anti-asthmatic, colic diabetes, rheumatism, urinary tract infection [18]
118Cissus quadrangularis
ClimberTihama plainsSalaeLea, Roo, SteExtLeaves are extracted with olive oil and applied topically; fresh leaves are soften on coal and applied directly to skin problemsEar pain, menstrual pain, bone fracture, wounds, burns, snake bites0.05Wounds, snake bites, circumcision [10]
119Tribulus terrestris L.  
Annual herbTihama plains and abadel MountainsKotbahLeaDec, Pas, Pou.Soaking crushed plant in water and the water is taken orally; poultice for external useKidney pain, kidney stones, skin diseases, vitiligo0.08Renal colic, kidney stones, kidney diseases, skin pain [4, 10, 12, 13]
120Balanites aegyptiaca (van Tieghem) Blatter 
Shrub or treeTihama plainsHijlij/Seder Al-kadhibLea, RooPas, Inf.Leaf paste is applied topically; soaking crushed roots in water and the water is taken orally or insert the drops in the noseIntestinal worms, liver and spleen problems, scorpion stings, diabetes, epilepsy, schistosomiasis, tuberculosis0.07Wounds, haemorrhage, tuberculosis [12]
121Fagonia bruguieri DC 
ShrubTihama plainsShika’aLeaDecSoaking the leaves in boiled water and the water is applied topicallyBlood and heart tonic, skin inflammation, scabies, blisters, vitiligo, allergy0.03Blood and heart tonic, scabies, vitiligo, blisters dermatitis [4, 13]
122Zygophyllum simplex L.  
Annual herbTihama plains In saline soilsAl-Dhamran, KharmeelLea, Ste, fruJui, Pas, PouA juice from fresh leaves and stems is orally, poultice for external use and wash the eyeEye diseases, hypertension0.02Ophthalmia [13]
123Zygophyllum coccineum L.  
Perennial low shrub or herbTihama plains and Farasan IslandsHarmLea, Ste, fruJui, Pas, PouA juice from fresh leaves and stems is used orally, poultice for external useWounds, measles, smallpox, rheumatism, chickenpox, scorpion stings, hypertension, kidney stones, intestinal worms, cholera0.06Anthelmintic, diuretic, rheumatism, gout, cough, asthma, hypertension, flatulent colic, skin diseases [13]
124Zygophyllum album L.  
Perennial low shrubTihama plains and Farasan IslandsRitrit, HermLea, Ste, fruJui, Pas, PouA juice from fresh leaves and stems is taken orally, poultice for external useSevere fever, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, rheumatism0.04Diabetes, purgative, laxative, anti-virus and fungi, indigestion, asthma, diuretic, skin diseases, analgesic, rheumatism, antihistaminic [51]

Plant part(s) used: Aer, aerial parts; Bra, branches; Flow, flowers; Fru, fruits; Lat, latex; Res, resin; Lea, leaves; Roo, roots; Ste, stems; See, seeds; Bar, bark; and Who, whole plant.
Preparations: Dec, decoction; Inf, infusion; Pow, powder; Lat, latex is removed; Pas, paste; Pou, poultice; Ext, extract; Jui, juice; Lini, liniment; and Bur, burned.

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