(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Figure 1: BKFE protects PA-induced lipotoxicity in SV40 MES13 cells. (a) SV40 MES13 cells were treated with the indicated concentrations of PA for 24 h. (b) Cells were treated with the indicated concentrations of BKFE for 24 h. (c) Cells were pretreated with 0.5-40 μg/ml BKFE for 1 h, and then further incubated with 100 μM PA for 24 h. Cell viability was determined by the CCK assay (three independent experiments). (d) Morphology of cells in the control (CON), 100 μM palmitate-treated (PA), 20 μg/ml BKFE-treated (BKFE), and 20 μg/ml BKFE-pretreated (1 h) and 100 μM palmitate-treated (24 h) (BKFE+PA) groups was examined by light microscopy (original magnification, ×40). p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001.