Modifications in gut microbiota after Ligustrum robustum (baseline and 12 wk). (a)-(b) 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and taxonomy classification of the gut microbiota at the phylum levels. (c) Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of the microbial community structure before and after Ligustrum robustum drinking (N=28). The analysis was based on the abundances of all class of bacteria acquired by high-throughput sequencing by unweighted UniFrac analysis. The bacterial community of baseline was represented in red circle and 12 wk in blue triangle. (d) Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) identified taxa most characteristic (increased and decreased abundance) at 12 wk. c_, class; o_, order; f_, family; g_, genus; WK0, baseline; WK12, 12 wk.