Table 3: Effect of ginger on degenerative disease (human studies).

Related diseaseConstituentEffectsReferences

Type 2 diabetes mellitusFresh ginger rhizomes(i) Reduced the levels of triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
(ii) Reduced insulin
Mahluji et al. [73]
Powdered ginger rhizomes(i) Decreased TG level and total serum cholesterol
(ii) No effect on LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
(iii) Increased activity of hepatic cholesterol hydroxylase enzymes
Arablou et al. [50]
Powdered ginger capsule(i) Decreased the levels of glucose, malondialdehyde (MDA), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and insulin resistance
(ii) Improved total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and serum paraoxonase-1 (PON-1)
Shidfar et al. [43]

OsteoarthritisPowdered ginger capsule(i) Decreased the level of tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-beta (IL-β)Mozaffari-khosravi et al. [74]
Powdered ginger capsule(i) Reduced the level of nitrite oxide (NO)
(ii) Reduced hs-C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)
Naderi et al. [111]
Powdered ginger capsule(i) Reduced stiffness, pain, and difficulty in patients with knee osteoarthritisZakeri et al. [112]

Cardiovascular diseasePowdered ginger capsule(i) Reduced blood pressure in patients with hypertension and coronary heart diseaseWang et al. [118]