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Figure 5: FSM decreases diabetic rat retinal VEGF-α, GFAP, and VCAM-1 mRNA levels after 42-d treatment (72 d of total duration of diabetes). The mRNA levels were assessed by FQ-PCR. (a) Values of VEGF-α. (b) Values of GFAP. (c) Values of VCAM-1. Data are presented as percentage of control and values are presented as mean ± SD, n=3-4. p < 0.05, p < 0.01: untreated diabetic model group, CaD group, FSM high-dose, FSM medium-dose, and FSM low-dose group vs normal group; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01: CaD group, FSM high-dose, FSM medium-dose, and FSM low-dose group vs untreated diabetic model group.