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Figure 6: FSM decreases diabetic rat retinal VEGF-α, GFAP, and VCAM-1 protein levels after 42-d treatment (72 d of total duration of diabetes). (a) VEGF-α, GFAP, and VCAM-1 representative western blots, with the respective loading control (β-actin); (b) relative density of immunoblot of VEGF-α; (c) relative density of immunoblot of GFAP; (d) relative density of immunoblot of Vcam-1. Values are presented as mean ± SD, n=3-4. p < 0.05, p < 0.01: untreated diabetic model group, CaD group, FSM high-dose, FSM medium-dose, and FSM low-dose group vs normal group; #p < 0.05, ##p < 0.01: CaD group, FSM high-dose, FSM medium-dose, and FSM low-dose group vs untreated diabetic model group.