Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2019, Article ID 7219740, 11 pages
Research Article

Safflower Yellow B Protects Brain against Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury through AMPK/NF-kB Pathway

1Department of Anesthesiology, Shenzhen University General Hospital, Shenzhen University Clinical Medical Academy, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518055, China
2Department of Anesthesiology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037, China
3Department of Pain Medicine, Nantong Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nantong 226001, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Yanyan Sun; nc.ude.uzs@nusyy

Shibin Du and Youliang Deng contributed equally to this work.

Received 18 July 2018; Accepted 15 January 2019; Published 3 February 2019

Academic Editor: Shan-Yu Su

Copyright © 2019 Shibin Du et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Inflammation had showed its important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia and secondary damage. Safflower yellow B (SYB) had neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress-induced brain injuries, but the mechanisms were still largely unknown to us. In this study, we tried to investigate the anti-inflammation effects of SYB and the possible roles of AMPK/NF-κB signaling pathway on these protective effects. In vivo, brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h and reperfusion for 20 h. Neurofunctional evaluation, infarction area, and brain water contents were measured. Brain injury markers and inflammatory cytokines levels were measured by ELISA kits. In vitro, cell viability, apoptosis, and LDH leakage were measured after I/R in PC12 cells. The expression and phosphorylation levels of AMPK, NF-κB p65, and P-IκB-α in cytoplasm and nuclear were measured by Western blotting. SiRNA experiment was performed to certify the role of AMPK. The results showed SYB reduced infarct size, improved neurological outcomes, and inhibited brain injury after I/R. In vitro test, SYB treatment alleviated PC12 cells injury and apoptosis and inhibited the inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, and COX-2) in a dose-dependent manner. SYB treatment induced AMPK phosphorylation and inhibited NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation both in brain and in PC12 cells. Further studies also showed that the inhibition of NF-κB activity of SYB was through AMPK. In conclusion, SYB protected brain I/R injury through reducing expression of inflammatory cytokines and this effect might be partly due to the inhibition of NF-κB mediated by AMPK.