Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2019 / Article

Review Article | Open Access

Volume 2019 |Article ID 8065376 | 10 pages | https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8065376

Efficacy and Safety of Safflower Yellow in Early Diabetic Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis

Academic Editor: Gioacchino Calapai
Received20 Sep 2018
Revised29 Dec 2018
Accepted19 Jan 2019
Published14 Feb 2019

Abstract

Background. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. In order to palliate renal function impairment and reduce kidney related mortality, it is crucial to treating DN patients at the early stage. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of conventional therapy combined with safflower yellow versus conventional therapy alone in early DN patients. Methods. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared safflower yellow plus conventional therapy with conventional therapy alone in early DN patients was conducted. Papers were searched using the electronic databases and reference lists. Two reviewers working independently extracted relevant data and carried out risk-of-bias assessments. Statistical analysis was undertaken in Review Manager 5.3. Results. Fourteen trials (1,072 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. Conventional therapy combined with safflower yellow was associated with a higher effective rate (RD, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.30) and a greater decline in urinary albumin excretion rates (SMD, -1.34; 95% CI, -1.77 to -0.92), fasting blood glucose (MD, -0.57; 95% CI, -0.98 to -0.16), serum creatinine (MD, -12.36; 95% CI, -14.66 to -10.06), and blood urea nitrogen (SMD, -0.93; 95% CI, -1.13 to -0.73) in the subgroup with a follow-up time > 15 days. The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between these two regimens (RD, -0.01; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.01). Findings were similar in the subgroup with a follow-up time < 15 days. Conclusions. Conventional therapy combined with safflower yellow had a more beneficial effect than conventional therapy alone in early DN patients. There were significant differences in effective rate, urinary albumin excretion rates, fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen between the two regimens and no significant difference in adverse events. More randomized controlled research using standardized protocols would be needed in the future to compare these two regimens.

1. Introduction

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), one of the most common microvascular complications in Diabetes Mellitus (DM), has become a major cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) [14]. The symptoms of DN include decreased glomerular filtration rate, small amounts of albuminuria, elevated arterial blood pressure, proteinuria and fluid retention, and renal failure. It is crucial to treating DN patients at the early stage to palliate renal function impairment and reduce kidney related mortality. Although interventions, such as diet control, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, have been shown to postpone the development of disease, mortality of DN remains high and has increased significantly from 2005 (299.4 thousand) to 2015 (417.8 thousand) [5].

Previous studies [612] have demonstrated that the inflammation pathways play important roles in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Anti-inflammatory drugs may delay the progression of DN from the level of cytokines [13]. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), safflower yellow, is associated with promoting blood circulation, antioxidation, and anti-inflammatory effect, and it has been used to protect renal function in daily clinical practice [14]. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of conventional therapy combined with safflower yellow compared with conventional therapy alone in early DN patients.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Data Sources and Search Strategy

We searched Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), the Chinese Biomedical Literature (CBM), and Wanfang from Jan. 1, 2000 to July 18, 2017. The keywords included in the search strategy were: safflower yellow, early diabetic nephropathy, and diabetic kidney disease. The references of included studies were traced to dig out more relevant studies. We also browsed ClinicalTrial.gov to collect trial results that have not been reported elsewhere.

2.2. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

RCTs, containing a control group and an intervention group, which fulfill the following criteria were eligible for inclusion:(1)Human studies on adult (≥18 years of age) male or female participants with early diabetic nephropathy.(2)Conventional therapy, including diabetes education, diet, exercise, snfglycemic and blood pressure control, was applied in the control group. Conventional therapy plus safflower yellow was applied in the experimental group.(3)Clinical outcomes (effective rate, urinary albumin excretion rates, fasting blood glucose, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen) were reported.(4)Accessible full-text articles.(5)Languages in Chinese or English.

Studies were excluded if they were(1)not RCTs;(2)with too long follow-up duration (e.g., 6 months);(3)not intravenous infusion administration;(4)duplicate publication.

2.3. Data Extraction and Risk-of-Bias Assessment

For each eligible trial, we collected the following information: first author, year of publication, follow-up time, intervention, sample size, patients’ baseline characteristics, and key efficacy and safety outcomes. Our primary efficacy outcome was the effective rate, which was the proportion of participants that became markedly improved or improved. “Markedly improved” means that the symptoms of hypertension, proteinuria, and edema disappeared or improved significantly, for example, urinary albumin excretion rates decreased by 1/2 or 40% and fasting blood glucose decreased by 1/3; renal function indexes were all in the normal range at the same time. “Improved” means that all the indexes did not decline as obviously as those mentioned above. Secondary efficacy outcomes included urinary albumin excretion rates (UAER), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum creatinine (Scr), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Safety outcome referred to the incidence of adverse events (nausea, headache, anaphylactic shock, fever, rash, arrhythmia, etc.).

Two authors independently assessed the quality of studies by using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool [15]. The following items were assessed: (1) selection bias: random sequence generation, allocation concealment; (2) performance bias: blinding of participants and personnel; (3) detection bias: blinding of outcome assessment; (4) attrition bias: incomplete outcome data; (5) reporting bias: selective reporting; (6) other biases.

2.4. Statistical Analysis

Meta-analysis was conducted when at least three studies reported relevant outcomes. For dichotomous outcomes, the risk difference (RD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. For continuous outcomes, the mean difference (MD) or the standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI were calculated. Data were pooled using the fixed effects model, but the random effects model was also considered to ensure the robustness of the model. The I2 statistic was used to quantify heterogeneity, with I2 values > 50% representing high heterogeneity. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Subgroup analysis was conducted for different follow-up time. Statistical analysis was undertaken in Review Manager 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, Denmark).

3. Results

3.1. Literature Search Results and Study Characteristics

As shown in Figure 1, we identified a total of 125 studies from the initial search, of which 41 studies were removed for duplication. After title and abstract screening, full-texts of the remaining 39 articles were retrieved for detailed review. Finally, 14 studies were included in the present meta-analysis.

Characteristics of the included studies were summarized in Table 1. These 14 studies involved a total of 1,072 DN patients, of whom 538 were treated with conventional therapy, and 534 were treated with conventional therapy plus safflower yellow. The mean age of each study’s participants ranged from 46.9 to 65.0 years. The follow-up time varied from 14 days to 12 weeks.


NumAuthors, publication year [reference]Number of participants (% female)Mean age (years)Follow-up time (days)InterventionOutcomes
Experimental groupControl group

1Li Z et al. 2012 [22]E: 30(28.33)
C: 30(28.33)
E: 61.3
C: 61.3
15Conventional treatment, Losartan potassium 50 mg, safflower yellow 100 mgConventional treatment, Losartan potassium 50 mg①②③④⑤

2Yang L H et al. 2010 [27]E: 30(46.67)
C: 30(40)
E: 58.3
C: 58.6
14Conventional treatment, safflower yellow 100 mgConventional treatment①②③⑥

3Qiu T L et al. 2013 [23]E: 42(42.86)
C: 44(43.18)
E: 51.6 ± 6.6
C: 52.7 ± 7.1
30Conventional treatment, safflower yellow 100 mgConventional treatment①②④⑤

4Gao Y et al. 2015 [16]E: 60(45)
C: 60(41.67)
E: 64.6 ± 5.7
C: 65.0 ± 5.8
28Conventional treatment, Benazepril 10mg, safflower yellow 100 mgConventional treatment, Benazepril 10mg①③④⑤

5Bao X J. 2017 [28]E: 40(45)
C: 40(42.5)
E: 50.45 ± 7.12
C: 49.74 ± 7.03
14Conventional treatment, Metformin 2g, safflower yellow 100 mgConventional treatment, Metformin 2g①②③④⑤⑥

6Zhang X Y. 2010 [29]E: 36(47.22)
C: 36(44.44)
E: 62
C: 64
28Conventional treatment, Irbesartan 150mg, safflower yellow 100 mgConventional treatment, Irbesartan 150mg②③④⑤⑥

7Gao Y et al. 2015 [17]E: 44(42)
C: 44(42)
E: 51.13 ± 7.42
C: 51.13 ± 7.42
28Conventional treatment, Telmisartan 80mg, safflower yellow 100 mgConventional treatment, Telmisartan 80mg②④⑤

8Xiao Y X. 2016 [30]E: 40(47.5)
C: 40(42.5)
E: 58.9 ± 13.2
C: 59.5 ± 12.4
28Conventional treatment, safflower yellow 100 mlConventional treatment①②⑥

9Guo D Z. 2008 [18]E: 37(48.65)
C: 39(48.72)
E: 46.9 ± 13.2
C: 47.3 ± 12.6
35Conventional treatment, Benazepril 10mg, safflower yellow 150mgConventional treatment, Benazepril 10mg①②

10Zhang M H. 2013 [24]E: 25(48)
C: 25(48)
E: 56 ± 8.6
C: 56 ± 8.6
28Conventional treatment, safflower yellow 150mgConventional treatment

11Fang Z F. 2015 [19]E: 45(46.67)
C: 45(51.11)
E: 56.0 ± 7.9
C: 55.8 ± 7.6
8 weeksConventional treatment, Valsartan 80mg, safflower yellow 100 mlConventional treatment, Valsartan 80mg①②⑥

12Bai X M. 2012 [31]E: 30(46.67)
C: 30(46.67)
E: 56 ± 7.9
C: 55.8 ± 7.6
30Conventional treatment, safflower yellow 200mgConventional treatment②③⑥

13Gao Y et al. 2015 [20]E: 30(40)
C: 30(40)
E: 59.5 ± 12.4
C: 59.5 ± 12.4
30Conventional treatment, safflower yellow 100mgConventional treatment②④⑤⑥

14Shi Z M 2015 [21]E: 45 (48.89)
C: 45(48.89)
51.5
51.5
12 weeksConventional treatment, Valsartan 80mg/d, safflower yellow 150mgConventional treatment, Valsartan 80mg/d②⑥

Conventional treatment includes diabetes education, diet, exercise, and glycemic and blood pressure control.
①Effective rate, % .
②UAER.
③FBG.
④Scr.
⑤BUN.
⑥Adverse event.
3.2. Risk-of-Bias Assessment

The results of the risk-of-bias assessment were provided in Figure 2. All of the fourteen selected papers were randomized controlled trials. Only six trials [1621] described the methods of randomization, such as the envelope method and the random figure table. None of the selected trials illustrated the allocation concealment and blinding. No subjects withdrew from the trial. Six trials [1618, 2224] did not report adverse events. In addition, there was insufficient information to identify whether there were other potential biases in the selected papers.

3.3. Meta-Analysis Result
3.3.1. Effective Rate of Safflower Yellow

Eight studies that reported the effective rate were analyzed under a fixed mode (n=652 subjects). The meta-analysis showed a significantly higher effective rate in safflower yellow group compared with that in control group (RD, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.30; p<0.00001; Figure 3). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between these studies (p=0.33; I2=12%).

3.3.2. UAER of Safflower Yellow

Thirteen trials (n=952 subjects) evaluated UAER (Figure 4). Pooled analysis demonstrated that UAER did decrease significantly in safflower yellow group compared with that in control group (SMD, -1.34; 95% CI, -1.77 to -0.92; p<0.00001 in the subgroup with a follow-up time > 15 days, and -4.54; 95% CI, -5.82 to -3.26; p<0.00001 in the subgroup with a follow-up time < 15 days). However, significant heterogeneity between studies was noted in each subgroup (I2=85% in the subgroup with a follow-up time > 15 days, and I2=82% in another subgroup).

3.3.3. FBG of Safflower Yellow

Six trials (n=452 subjects) measured FBG (Figure 5). Compared with control group, safflower yellow group was associated with a significant FBG reduction (MD, -0.57; 95% CI, -0.98 to -0.16; p=0.007 in the subgroup with a follow-up time > 15 days, and -0.90; 95% CI, -1.79 to -0.02; p=0.05 in another subgroup). Heterogeneity among the included studies was significant in the subgroup with a follow-up time < 15 days (p<0.00001, I2=95%), while it was not significant in another subgroup (p=0.13, I2=51%).

3.3.4. Scr of Safflower Yellow

As shown in Figure 6, the effect of safflower yellow on Scr was assessed in seven trials (n=566 subjects). Statistically significant Scr reduction was shown in safflower yellow group (MD, -12.36; 95% CI, -14.66 to -10.06; p<0.00001 in the subgroup with a follow-up time > 15 days, and -32.03; 95% CI, -36.70 to -27.37; p<0.00001 in another subgroup). Significant heterogeneity between studies was noted in each subgroup (I2=64% and I2=98%, respectively).

3.3.5. BUN of Safflower Yellow

Seven trials (n=566 subjects) examined BUN (Figure 7). We found that BUN was lower in safflower yellow group compared with that in control group, with a pooled SMD of -0.93 (95% CI, -1.13 to -0.73; p<0.00001) in the subgroup with a follow-up time > 15 days, and -3.01 (95% CI, -3.51 to -2.50; p<0.0001) in the subgroup with a follow-up time < 15 days, respectively. Significant heterogeneity between studies was noted in each subgroup (I2=85% and I2=91%, respectively).

3.3.6. Adverse Events

Eight included studies (n=592 subjects) reported adverse events. The incidence of adverse events did not differ between safflower yellow group and control group (RD, -0.01; 95% CI, -0.03 to 0.01; p=0.52; Figure 8). There was no evidence of heterogeneity between these studies (p=0.99; I2=0%).

4. Discussion

In this meta-analysis, conventional therapy combined with safflower yellow not only significantly reduced UAER, FBG, Scr, and BUN, but also was associated with a higher effective rate, compared with conventional therapy alone. For safety outcome, there was no statistical difference between these two regimens. Similar evidence has been produced in previous studies. Yang W J [25] conducted a meta-analysis (n=1,048 subjects) to assess the effect of safflower yellow on UAER and Scr in the elderly who suffered early diabetic nephropathy. The results demonstrated that safflower yellow significantly decreased UAER and Scr level. However, remarkable heterogeneity between selected studies was noted. Cui G N [26] carried out a pooled analysis to evaluate the effect of safflower yellow in a variety of medical conditions, including stable angina, unstable angina, coronary heart disease angina, brain infarction, and diabetic nephropathy (n=268 subjects for DN). The result indicated that safflower yellow reached a higher effective rate. Because of the significant heterogeneity, the author pointed out that meta-analysis could not be adopted to evaluate the efficacy outcome on UAER and FBG.

Our meta-analysis comprehensively estimated more clinical outcomes and included a larger sample size (n=1,072 subjects) than papers published before. Subgroup analysis was carried out to identify the influence of different follow-up time. Nevertheless, heterogeneity between included trials was still conspicuous, in line with previous studies.

There are several limitations of this meta-analysis. Firstly, all of the selected studies were published in Chinese, which might cause publication bias. Secondly, selected trials were all small-scale. Thirdly, the diagnostic criteria of “early diabetic nephropathy” were not entirely consistent: nine trials [1724, 27] adopted WHO recommended diabetes diagnostic criteria and Mogensen early diabetic nephropathy staging criteria; one trial [16] employed diabetes diagnostic criteria developed by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) in 2010 and diabetic nephropathy diagnosis developed by the Chinese Academy of TCM nephropathy branch in 2008; one trial [28] used early diabetic nephropathy diagnostic criteria from the eighth edition of Internal Medicine in China in 2013; three trials [2931] did not state in detail which diagnostic criteria were used. This might be an important factor for heterogeneity. Fourthly, the intervention of the control group in some trials was not uniform. There were some differences in the regimen claimed as “conventional therapy”. For example, the antihypertensive drugs differed among some trials [1619, 21, 22, 28, 29]. Moreover, there was a potential bias in studies [20, 23, 24, 27, 30, 31] that did not specify the drugs and dosage used in conventional therapies. However, subgroup analysis for different “conventional therapies” could not be applied because of insufficient information disclosure. Finally, concerning the results of the quality assessment, there were obvious shortcomings in the study design of included papers. Therefore, more rigorous randomized controlled trials would be needed in the future to confirm our findings.

5. Conclusions

In summary, our meta-analysis demonstrated that conventional therapy combined with safflower yellow had a more beneficial effect than conventional therapy alone in early DN patients. The differences between the two regimens were statistically significant on effective rate, UAER, FBG, Scr, and BUN, except for adverse events. However, the quality of the included studies was low. Therefore, more randomized controlled trials using standardized protocols would be required in the future to enhance our understandings of these two regimens.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China [Grant no. 71673298].

References

  1. J. Ahmad, “Management of diabetic nephropathy: recent progress and future perspective,” Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 343–358, 2015. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  2. E. Ritz, I. Rychlik, F. Locatelli, and S. Halimi, “End-stage renal failure in type 2 diabetes: a medical catastrophe of worldwide dimensions,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 795–808, 1999. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  3. H. J. Ma and G. Z. Wu, “Molecular Mechanisms in the Pathogenesis of Diabetic Nephropathy,” Progress in Modern Biomedicine, vol. 14, no. 16, pp. 3184–3187, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  4. F. Khoshjou and F. Dadras, “Mitochondrion and its role in diabetic nephropathy,” Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 355–358, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  5. GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators, “Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015,” in The Lancet, vol. 388, pp. 1459–1544, 10053 edition, 2016. View at: Google Scholar
  6. E. Galkina and K. Ley, “Leukocyte recruitment and vascular injury in diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 368–377, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  7. F. Y. Chow, D. J. Nikolic-Paterson, R. C. Atkins, and G. H. Tesch, “Macrophages in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy: potential role in renal fibrosis,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation: Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association, vol. 19, no. 12, pp. 2987–2996, 2004. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  8. D. Nguyen, F. Ping, W. Mu, P. Hill, R. C. Atkins, and S. J. Chadban, “Macrophage accumulation in human progressive diabetic nephropathy,” Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 226–231, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. V. Ninichuk, A. G. Khandoga, S. Segerer et al., “The role of interstitial macrophages in nephropathy of type 2 diabetic db/db mice,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 170, no. 4, pp. 1267–1276, 2007. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. J. Wada and H. Makino, “Inflammation and the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy,” Clinical Science, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 139–152, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. M. K. Arora and U. K. Singh, “Molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy: an update,” Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 58, pp. 259–271, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. A. K. H. Lim and G. H. Tesch, “Inflammation in Diabetic Nephropathy,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2012, no. 5, Article ID 146154, 12 pages, 2012. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. S. Y. Han, C. H. Kim, and S. H. Kis, “Spironolactone prevent diabetic nephropathy through an anti-inflammatory mechanism in type 2 diabetic rats,” Journals of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1362–1372, 2006. View at: Google Scholar
  14. C. T. Lin and G. D. Wu, “Clinical analysis of safflower yellow pigment in the treatment of chronic renal insufficiency,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Medicine, vol. 39, no. 01, pp. 48-49, 2011. View at: Google Scholar
  15. J. Higgins, “Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0,” The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011, http://www.cochranehandbook.org. View at: Google Scholar
  16. Y. Gao, L. Yuan, P. Zheng et al., “Effect of soffor yellow combined with benazepril on the renal function of patients with early diabetic nephropathy,” Progress in Modern Biomedicine, vol. 15, no. 22, pp. 4333–4336, 2015. View at: Google Scholar
  17. Y. Gao, L. Yuan, L. M. Zhang et al., “Analysis of 44 cases of early diabetic nephropathy treated by safflower yellow combined with telmisartan,” Guizhou Medical Journal, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 986–988, 2015. View at: Google Scholar
  18. D. Z. Guo, Y. H. Wang, Z. Q. Chen et al., “Clinical observation of safflower yellow powder injection combined with benazepril in treating 39 cases of diabetic nephropathy,” Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 360–363, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  19. Z. F. Fang, “Clinical study of valsartan combined with safflower yellow sodium in treatment of proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy,” Asia-Pacific Traditional Medicine, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 134-135, 2015. View at: Google Scholar
  20. Y. Gao, L. Yuan, Z. Q. Liu et al., “The application value of safflower yellow pigment in early diabetic nephropathy,” Shaanxi Medical Journal, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 297–299, 2015. View at: Google Scholar
  21. Z. M. Shi, “Effect of valsartan combined with safflower yellow on UAER and hs-CRP in diabetic nephropathy,” Modern Diagnosis and Treatment, vol. 26, no. 15, pp. 3431-3432, 2015. View at: Google Scholar
  22. Z. Li and W. L. Wang, “Clinical observation of safflower yellow combined with losartan potassium in treatment of early diabetic nephropathy,” Peoples Military Surgeon, vol. 55, no. S1, pp. 27-28, 2012. View at: Google Scholar
  23. T. L. Qiu, X. Wang, J. Yuan et al., “Observation on the Clinical Effect of Safflower Yellow Pigment Injection in the Adjuvant Treatment of Early Diabetic Nephropathy,” Progress in Modern Biomedicine, vol. 13, no. 30, pp. 5975–5977, 2013. View at: Google Scholar
  24. M. H. Zhang, “Clinical observation of safflower yellow injection combined with enalapril in treatment of type 2 diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of Gannan Medical University, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 938-939, 2014. View at: Google Scholar
  25. W. J. Yang, L. Li, and X. Y. Zhang, “Meta analysis of curative effect of safflower yellow injection on the elderly with early diabetic nephropathy,” Chinese Journal of Geriatrics, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 84–88, 2018. View at: Google Scholar
  26. G. N. Cui, Comprehensive evaluation of Safflower Yellow injection (sodium chloride injection of Safflower Yellow), Henan University of Chinese Medicine, 2015.
  27. L. H. Yang and G. Q Yang, “Clinical study of safflower yellow in treatment of early diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Proceeding of Clinical Medicine, vol. 19, no. 4B, pp. 502-503, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  28. X. J. Bao, J. Y. Li, Y. Peng et al., “Clinical observation of safflower yellow combined with metformin in the treatment of early diabetic nephropathy,” Hebei Medical Journal, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1508–1510, 2017. View at: Google Scholar
  29. X. Y. Zhang, “Clinical observation of safflower yellow combined with irbesartan in treatment of diabetic nephropathy,” Practical Clinical Medicine, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 24–26, 2010. View at: Google Scholar
  30. Y. X. Xiao and Y. F. Gu, “Influences of safflower yellow on inflammatory reaction and proteinuria of patients with diabetic nephropathy,” Journal of Chengde Medical College, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 194–196, 2016. View at: Google Scholar
  31. X. M. Bai, X. D. Li, J. Song et al., “Soflor Yellow on hs-CRP and IL-8 in Patients with Early Diabetic Nephropathy,” Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 698–700, 2012. View at: Google Scholar

Copyright © 2019 Xiuze Jin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

579 Views | 308 Downloads | 0 Citations
 PDF  Download Citation  Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder

Related articles

We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly and safely as possible. Any author submitting a COVID-19 paper should notify us at help@hindawi.com to ensure their research is fast-tracked and made available on a preprint server as soon as possible. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted articles related to COVID-19. Sign up here as a reviewer to help fast-track new submissions.