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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2019, Article ID 8497980, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/8497980
Research Article

Subcutaneous Injection of Myrrh Essential Oil in Mice: Acute and Subacute Toxicity Study

1Wonkwang University, College of Pharmacy, Department of Oriental Pharmacy & Wonkwang Oriental Medicines Research Institute, Iksan, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea
2Department of Internal Medicine and Neuroscience, Gwangju Oriental Medical Hospital and Jangheung Integrative Medical Hospital, Wonkwang University, Republic of Korea
3Clinical Trial Center, Wonkwang University Gwangju Hospital, Gwangju, Republic of Korea

Correspondence should be addressed to Hyun-Ju Jung; rk.ca.ukw@401nuyh

Received 10 December 2018; Revised 24 January 2019; Accepted 4 February 2019; Published 3 March 2019

Academic Editor: Nativ Dudai

Copyright © 2019 Ramakanta Lamichhane et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Myrrh essential oil (MEO) is widely used as remedies for the different human ailment in different parts of the world. The misuse of this natural product in higher doses may lead to fever, inflammation, and liver and kidney problems. In this study, we performed the acute and subacute toxicity analysis of MEO in mice model after subcutaneous injection and evaluated the safe dose to prevent the possible risk and side effects. Initially (first phase study) higher dose of MEO (20, 40, and 80 μL) was injected, and later in the second phase study lower dose of MEO (1, 5, and 10 μL) was injected for three days in each group of mice. Blood samples were taken for the investigation of hematological parameters and activity of various enzymes. The liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, and heart were excised for histological study. The body weight and skin abnormalities were also evaluated. In the first phase study, the mice showed granuloma formation at the site of injection. The liver showed dilated sinusoids and enlarged central vein. In the spleen the distinction between red and white pulp was lost. The kidney showed the degeneration of glomerulus. The enzyme activity and body weight were also decreased by the higher dose. The WBC count also increased nearly by twofold. Pruritus and self-trauma were also evident. Later in the second phase study, the skin abnormalities (granuloma) and damage in the structure of tissue (in liver, spleen, and kidney) were absent along with no change in enzyme levels, blood parameters, and body weight compared to the control. The MEO was toxic to liver, spleen, and kidney in the higher doses. The safe volume of MEO useful for various studies in mice was evaluated. The safe use of MEO should be assured, it should not be misused, being considered as a natural remedy, and there should be awareness of its toxicity and side effects.