Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2020 / Article / Tab 2

Research Article

Inner Engineering Practices and Advanced 4-day Isha Yoga Retreat Are Associated with Cannabimimetic Effects with Increased Endocannabinoids and Short-Term and Sustained Improvement in Mental Health: A Prospective Observational Study of Meditators

Table 2

Results of psychological surveys before and after a 4-day Bhava Spandana Program meditation retreat.

Psychological parameterBaseline before retreatImmediately after retreat1-month after retreat
NMean (SE)NMean (SE)NMean (SE)

CES-D (depression)34810.26 (0.47)3237.55 (0.32)a3087.67 (0.37)a
Anxiety scale3421.93 (0.04)3121.48 (0.03)a3001.54 (0.04)a
MAAS (mindfulness)3464.14 (0.05)3204.77 (0.05)a3014.80 (0.05)a
Happiness score3426.20 (0.10)3128.23 (0.08)a2917.62 (0.09)a
PWB (well-being) total342187.3 (1.5)312203.0 (1.3)a293203.4 (1.4)a
 PWB autonomy30.08 (0.34)33.14 (0.32)a33.93 (0.31)a,b
 PWB environmental mastery28.49 (0.28)30.88 (0.25)a30.99 (0.26)a
 PWB personal growth35.23 (0.28)37.18 (0.23)a37.27 (0.25)a
 PWB positive relations31.99 (0.34)34.91 (0.30)a34.73 (0.32)a
 PWB purpose in life30.30 (0.30)32.12 (0.27)a31.85 (0.28)a
 PWB self-acceptance31.20 (0.38)34.79 (0.31)a34.77 (0.33)a

aSignificantly different from baseline value (), bSignificantly different from immediately after-retreat value (). All changes were statistically significant even after adjusting for multiple testing. CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression; MAAS = Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale; N = number of participants; PWB = psychological well-being; SE = standard error.

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