Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine / 2020 / Article / Tab 3

Research Article

Inner Engineering Practices and Advanced 4-day Isha Yoga Retreat Are Associated with Cannabimimetic Effects with Increased Endocannabinoids and Short-Term and Sustained Improvement in Mental Health: A Prospective Observational Study of Meditators

Table 3

Changes in blood biomarkers (endocannabinoids and BDNF) following a 4-day Bhava Spandana Program meditation retreat.

BiomarkerNBaseline before retreatImmediately after retreatChange valueEffect sizeParticipants (%) with >20 (%) increase
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)

Anandamide (ng/mL)1420.58 (0.16)0.75 (0.21)0.17 (0.22)<0.0010.7759
2-AG (ng/mL)1422.2 (1.6)4.2 (3.1)2.0 (2.8)0.7171
1-AG (ng/mL)1424.4 (3.3)14.3 (11.3)9.8 (10.6)0.9292
Total AG (ng/mL)1426.6 (4.8)18.5 (14.2)11.9 (13.2)0.9089
DEA (ng/mL)1420.21 (0.07)0.27 (0.09)0.06 (0.07)0.8660
OLA (ng/mL)14222.4 (36.5)30.9 (45.4)8.5 (50.7)0.0480.1752
BDNF (pg/mL)14217152 (8048)23097 (5526)5945 (8414)<0.0010.7153

1-AG = 1-arachidonoylglycerol (degradation product of 2-arachidonoylglycerol); 2-AG = arachidonoylglycerol (unstable in plasma without pH adjustment); total AG = sum of 1-arachidonoylglycerol and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (this is the value that should be used for the estimation of endocannabinoid 2-AG); BDNF = brain-derived neurotrophic factor; DEA = docosatetraenoylethanolamide (novel endocannabinoid); OLA = oleamide (novel endocannabinoid).

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