Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. The Changes in Rats with Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury Supplemented with Evening Primrose Oil: Behavioural, Morphologic, and Morphometric Analysis Tue, 23 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3476407/ Nerve crush injuries are commonly used models for axonotmesis to examine peripheral nerve regeneration. As evening primrose oil (EPO) is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid, studies have shown the potential role of EPO in myelination. Seventy-two healthy adult Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into three groups: normal group, control group, and experimental group. The result indicates that there was significant difference in toe-spreading reflex between the normal and the control groups (, ) and the normal and the EPO groups (, ) and significant difference between EPO and the control groups (, ). Regeneration of axons and myelin in nerve fibre in the EPO-treated group developed better and faster than in the control group. In the control group, the shape of the axon was irregular with a thinner myelin sheath. In the experimental group, the shape of the axons, the thickness of the myelin sheath, and the diameter of the axons were almost the same as in the normal group. In conclusion, EPO supplementation may be beneficial as a therapeutic option for disturbances of nerve interaction. Danial Ramli, Izzuddin Aziz, Masro Mohamad, Dauda Abdulahi, and Junedah Sanusi Copyright © 2017 Danial Ramli et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Radix Astragali and Its Split Components on Gene Expression Profiles Related to Water Metabolism in Rats with the Dampness Stagnancy due to Spleen Deficiency Syndrome Sun, 21 May 2017 08:07:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4946031/ Radix Astragali (RA) with slight sweet and warm property is a significant “qi tonifying” herb; it is indicated for the syndrome of dampness stagnancy due to spleen deficiency (DSSD). The purpose of this research was to explore effects of RA and its split components on gene expression profiles related to water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome for identifying components representing property and flavor of RA. The results indicated that RA and its split components, especially polysaccharides component, significantly increased the body weight and the urine volume and decreased the water load index of model rats. Our data also indicated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to water metabolism involved secretion, ion transport, water homeostasis, regulation of body fluid levels, and water channel activity; the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP5, AQP6, and AQP8 was improved; calcium, cAMP, MAPK, PPAR, AMPK, and PI3K-Akt signaling pathway may be related to water metabolism. In general, results indicate that RA and its split components could promote water metabolism in rats with the DSSD syndrome via regulating the expression of AQPs, which reflected sweet-warm properties of RA. Effects of the polysaccharides component are better than others. Wen-Xiao Zhao, Ning Cui, Hai-Qiang Jiang, Xu-Ming Ji, Xiao-Chun Han, Bing-Bing Han, Tong Wang, and Shi-Jun Wang Copyright © 2017 Wen-Xiao Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Massage Therapy in Children with Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Sun, 21 May 2017 07:59:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/5620568/ Objective. To systematically evaluate the efficacy of massage, a traditional treatment method of traditional Chinese medicine on children with asthma. Methods. Literatures from 5 databases using the date ranging from 1 January, 1990, to 13 December, 2016, were reviewed, which were all randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy on children with asthma and effect on lung function mainly by massage therapy. Results. 14 researches with 1299 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with control group, a better efficacy was found in treatment group, which focused on massage therapy. Compared with control group, there was remarkable increase on FEV1 as well as PEF in treatment group. Conclusion. All studies have shown that massage therapy has a significantly positive effect on children with asthma, improves the pulmonary function parameters of large airway, reduces the plasma concentrations of PAF and prostaglandin, and increases the levels of PAF-AH and DP1; therefore, it greatly improves pulmonary function. However, the limited research designs of included studies lead to high risk of bias. More randomized controlled trials with better methodological quality are needed to further confirm the effectiveness of massage. Ji Wu, Xi-Wen Yang, and Ming Zhang Copyright © 2017 Ji Wu et al. All rights reserved. Gastrodia elata Blume Rhizome Aqueous Extract Improves Arterial Thrombosis, Dyslipidemia, and Insulin Response in Testosterone-Deficient Rats Sun, 21 May 2017 06:50:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/2848570/ Testosterone deficiency deteriorates glucose and lipid metabolism with reducing muscle mass. We investigated whether the consumption of water extracts of Gastrodia elata Blume rhizome (GEB) rich in gastrodin would reduce the symptoms of testosterone deficiency and improve blood flow in orchidectomized (ORX) rats. ORX rats were given high-fat diets supplemented with either 1% cellulose (ORX-control), 0.3% GEB (GEB-L), or 1% GEB (GEB-H) for 8 weeks. Sham-operated rats were fed the same diet as OVX-control rats (normal-control). ORX-control rats had reduced serum testosterone levels by one-fifth, compared to normal-control rats. ORX-control rats exhibited decreased lean body mass, attenuated blood flow, and impaired cholesterol metabolism and glucose control due to decreased insulin secretory response. GEB increased serum insulin levels dose-dependently and GEB-H mostly enhanced dyslipidemia in ORX rats. GEB completely normalized arterial thrombosis time and blood flow in ORX rats. Interestingly, ORX-control rats showed attenuated hepatic insulin signaling but greater AMPK and CREB activities, which reduced triglyceride accumulation, compared to normal-control. GEB-H improved hepatic insulin signaling but maintained the AMPK and CREB activities in ORX rats. In conclusions, GEB ameliorated the impairment of cholesterol and glucose metabolism and blood flow in ORX rats. GEB may be a potential preventive measure for reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with testosterone deficiency. Min Jung Kim, Hye Jeong Yang, Bo Reum Moon, Ji Eun Kim, Kang Sung Kim, and Sunmin Park Copyright © 2017 Min Jung Kim et al. All rights reserved. Spatholobus suberectus Exhibits Antidiabetic Activity In Vitro and In Vivo through Activation of AKT-AMPK Pathway Thu, 18 May 2017 09:05:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6091923/ Glucose deposition in peripheral tissue is an important parameter for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Spatholobus suberectus (Ss) on glucose disposal in skeletal muscle cells and additionally explore its in vivo antidiabetic potential. Treatment of ethanolic extract of S. suberectus (EeSs) significantly enhanced the glucose uptake, mediated through the enhanced expression of GLUT4 in skeletal muscle via the stimulation of AKT and AMPK pathways in C2C12 cells. Moreover, EeSs have potential inhibitory action on -glucosidase activity and significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice, associated with increased expression of GLUT4 and AKT and/or AMPK-mediated signaling cascade in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, administration of EeSs significantly boosted up the antioxidant enzyme expression and also mitigated the gluconeogenesis enzyme such as PEPCK and G-6-Pase enzyme expression in liver tissue of STZ-induced diabetic mice model. Collectively, these findings suggest that EeSs have a high potentiality to mitigate diabetic symptoms through stimulating glucose uptake in peripheral tissue via the activation of AKT and AMPK signaling cascade and augmenting antioxidant potentiality as well as blocking the gluconeogenesis process in diabetic mice. Peijun Zhao, Md Badrul Alam, Seok-hyun Lee, Young-Jun Kim, Seul Lee, Hongyan An, Hee-Jeong Choi, Hyeong-U Son, Chul-Hong Park, Hyo-Hyun Kim, and Sang-Han Lee Copyright © 2017 Peijun Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Hesperidin Protects against Acute Alcoholic Injury through Improving Lipid Metabolism and Cell Damage in Zebrafish Larvae Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7282653/ Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a series of abnormalities of liver function, including alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Hesperidin, the major constituent of flavanone in grapefruit, is proved to play a role in antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and reducing multiple organs damage in various animal experiments. However, the underlying mechanism of resistance to alcoholic liver injury is still unclear. Thus, we aimed to investigate the protective effects of hesperidin against ALD and its molecular mechanism in this study. We established an ALD zebrafish larvae model induced by 350 mM ethanol for 32 hours, using wild-type and transgenic line with liver-specific eGFP expression Tg (lfabp10α:eGFP) zebrafish larvae (4 dpf). The results revealed that hesperidin dramatically reduced the hepatic morphological damage and the expressions of alcohol and lipid metabolism related genes, including cyp2y3, cyp3a65, hmgcra, hmgcrb, fasn, and fads2 compared with ALD model. Moreover, the findings demonstrated that hesperidin alleviated hepatic damage as well, which is reflected by the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA damage related genes (chop, gadd45αa, and edem1). In conclusion, this study revealed that hesperidin can inhibit alcoholic damage to liver of zebrafish larvae by reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA damage, regulating alcohol and lipid metabolism. Zhenting Zhou, Weichao Zhong, Haiyan Lin, Peng Huang, Ning Ma, Yuqing Zhang, Chuying Zhou, Yuling Lai, Shaohui Huang, Shiying Huang, Lei Gao, and Zhiping Lv Copyright © 2017 Zhenting Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of an Herbal Therapy in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 24-Week Randomized Phase III Trial Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4251747/ Objective. In the 24-week randomized, double-blind, double-placebo, parallel-controlled trial, we aimed to test the effects of herbal therapy with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods. A total of 324 patients with aMCI entered a 2-week placebo run-in period followed by 24 weeks’ treatment of either (a) herbal capsule (5 shenwu capsules/administration, 3 times/day) and placebo identical to donepezil tablets () or (b) donepezil (5 mg/day) and placebo identical to herbal capsule (). Results. Herbal therapy showed a significant improvement on the primary efficacy measure, measured by Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), and showed a mean decrease from baseline of 4.23 points at the endpoint, without a significant difference from the donepezil group. Secondary efficacy measurement of the Logical Memory II Delayed Story Recall subtest (DSR) showed modest improvement in those taking herbal capsule compared to baseline, and there was no significant difference from donepezil group. The frequency of adverse events was much less in the herbal therapy group than the donepezil. Conclusion. Herbal therapy demonstrated a significant improvement in cognition and memory, which were similar to the donepezil in patients with aMCI. Herbal therapy was safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration. This study is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT01451749. Jinzhou Tian, Jing Shi, Tao Li, Lin Li, Zhiliang Wang, Xiaobin Li, Zhu Lv, Qingshan Zheng, Mingqing Wei, and Yongyan Wang Copyright © 2017 Jinzhou Tian et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Analysis of Tongue Indices between Patients with and without a Self-Reported Yin Deficiency: A Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/1279052/ We investigated the hypothesis that Yin-deficient patients have a reddened tongue with less coating. We screened 189 participants aged 20 to 49 years, complaining of headache. To classify patients in terms of Yin deficiency, we used two self-reporting Yin-deficiency questionnaires (Yin-Deficiency Questionnaire and Yin-Deficiency Scale) and diagnosis by a doctor. Based on the tests, a total of 33 subjects were assigned to a Yin-deficient group and 33 subjects were assigned to a nondeficient control group. Tongue images were acquired using a computerized tongue diagnostic system, for evaluating tongue indices. The tongue coating percentage and tongue redness were calculated as the mean value of both the whole tongue area (WT ) and the tongue body area (TB ). The tongue coating percentage of the Yin-deficient group (34.79 ± 10.76) was lower than that of the nondeficient group (44.13 ± 14.08). The WT value of the Yin-deficient group (19.39 ± 1.52) was significantly higher than that of the nondeficient group (18.21 ± 2.06). However, the difference in the TB value between the two groups was not significant. In conclusion, we verified that Yin-deficient patients had less tongue coating and tended to have a more reddish tongue than nondeficient patients. Su-Ryun Kim, Woojin Choi, Inkwon Yeo, and Dong-Hyun Nam Copyright © 2017 Su-Ryun Kim et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Extraction Process for Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Kursi Wufarikun Ziyabit Using Response Surface Methodology and Quantitative Analysis of Main Components Wed, 17 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6761719/ By using extraction yield, total polyphenolic content, antidiabetic activities (PTP-1B and α-glycosidase), and antioxidant activity (ABTS and DPPH) as indicated markers, the extraction conditions of the prescription Kursi Wufarikun Ziyabit (KWZ) were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). Independent variables were ethanol concentration, extraction temperature, solid-to-solvent ratio, and extraction time. The result of RSM analysis showed that the four variables investigated have a significant effect () for , , , , and with value of 0.9120, 0.9793, 0.9076, 0.9125, and 0.9709, respectively. Optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of 39.28%, PTP-1B inhibition rate of 86.21%, α-glycosidase enzymes inhibition rate of 96.56%, and ABTS inhibition rate of 77.38% were derived at ethanol concentration 50.11%, extraction temperature 72.06°C, solid-to-solvent ratio 1 : 22.73 g/mL, and extraction time 2.93 h. On the basis of total polyphenol content of 48.44% in this optimal condition, the quantitative analysis of effective part of KWZ was characterized via UPLC method, 12 main components were identified by standard compounds, and all of them have shown good regression within the test ranges and the total content of them was 11.18%. Salamet Edirs, Ablajan Turak, Sodik Numonov, Xuelei Xin, and Haji Akber Aisa Copyright © 2017 Salamet Edirs et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture Stimulation at GB34 Restores MPTP-Induced Neurogenesis Impairment in the Subventricular Zone of Mice Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3971675/ Adult neurogenesis has recently been considered a new therapeutic paradigm of Parkinson’s disease. In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture restores 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine- (MPTP-) induced impaired neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ). Male C57BL/6 mice were given 30 mg/kg of MPTP intraperitoneally once a day for 5 days, after which they were intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and given acupuncture stimulation at HT7 or GB34 for 12 consecutive days. Dopaminergic neuronal survival in the nigrostriatal pathway and cell proliferation in the SVZ was then evaluated by immunostaining. MPTP administration induced dopaminergic neuronal death in the nigrostriatal pathway, which was suppressed by acupuncture stimulation at GB34. MPTP administration also suppressed the number of BrdU-positive cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein/BrdU-positive cells and increased the number of doublecortin/BrdU-positive cells in the SVZ, which were restored by acupuncture stimulation at GB34. These results indicate that acupuncture stimulation at GB34 restores MPTP-induced neurogenesis impairment. Hyongjun Jeon, Sun Ryu, Dongsoo Kim, Sungtae Koo, Ki-Tae Ha, and Seungtae Kim Copyright © 2017 Hyongjun Jeon et al. All rights reserved. Decreased Spontaneous Electrical Activity and Acetylcholine at Myofascial Trigger Spots after Dry Needling Treatment: A Pilot Study Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3938191/ Objective. The aims of this study are to investigate the changes in spontaneous electrical activities (SEAs) and in acetylcholine (ACh), acetylcholine receptor (AChR), and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) levels after dry needling at myofascial trigger spots in model rats. Materials and Methods. Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Thirty-six rats were assigned to three model groups, which underwent MTrSs modeling intervention. Twelve rats were assigned to the blank control (BC) group. After model construction, the 36 model rats were randomly subdivided into three groups according to treatment: MTrSs model control (MC) and two dry needling groups. One dry needling group received puncturing at MTrSs (DN-M), whereas the other underwent puncturing at non-MTrSs (DN-nM). Dry needling treatment will last for two weeks, once a week. SEAs and ACh, AChR, and AChE levels were measured after one-week rest of dry needling treatment. Results. The amplitudes and frequencies of endplate noise (EPN) and endplate spike (EPS) significantly decreased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Moreover, ACh and AChR levels significantly decreased, whereas AChE significantly increased after dry needling treatment in the DN-M group. Conclusion. Dry needling at the exact MTrSs is more effective than dry needling at non-MTrSs. Qing-Guang Liu, Lin Liu, Qiang-Min Huang, Thi-Tham Nguyen, Yan-Tao Ma, and Jia-Min Zhao Copyright © 2017 Qing-Guang Liu et al. All rights reserved. Herbal Medicine Treatment for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review Tue, 16 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/8614680/ Objective. To summarize and evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children. Methods. Thirteen electronic databases were searched from their inception to November 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the efficacy of herbal medicines alone or in combination with other Traditional Chinese Medicine treatments for ASD in children were included. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used and other data analyses were performed using RevMan (Version 5.3). Results. Ten RCTs involving 567 patients with ASD were included for qualitative synthesis. In conjunction with conventional therapy, herbal medicines significantly improved the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score, but the results of effects on total effective rate (TER) were different between the included studies. The use of herbal medicines with integrative therapy improved the CARS score and TER. In the studies that documented adverse events, no serious events were associated with herbal medicines. Conclusions. The efficacy of herbal medicines for the treatment of ASD appears to be encouraging but was inconclusive owing to low methodological quality, herbal medicine diversity, and small sample size of the examined studies. Miran Bang, Sun Haeng Lee, Seung-Hun Cho, Sun-Ae Yu, Kibong Kim, Hsu Yuan Lu, Gyu Tae Chang, and Sang Yeon Min Copyright © 2017 Miran Bang et al. All rights reserved. Compounds from Cynomorium songaricum with Estrogenic and Androgenic Activities Suppress the Oestrogen/Androgen-Induced BPH Process Mon, 15 May 2017 08:33:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6438013/ Objective. To investigate the phytoestrogenic and phytoandrogenic activities of compounds isolated from CS and uncover the role of CS in prevention of oestrogen/androgen-induced BPH. Methods. Cells were treated with CS compounds, and immunofluorescence assay was performed to detect the nuclear translocation of ERα or AR in MCF-7 or LNCaP cells; luciferase reporter assay was performed to detect ERs or AR transcriptional activity in HeLa or AD293 cells; MTT assay was performed to detect the cell proliferation of MCF-7 or LNCaP cells. Oestrogen/androgen-induced BPH model was established in rat and the anti-BPH, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activities of CS in vivo were further investigated. Results. The nuclear translocation of ERα was stimulated by nine CS compounds, three of which also stimulated AR translocation. The transcriptional activities of ERα and ERβ were induced by five compounds, within which only ECG induced AR transcriptional activity as well. Besides, ECG stimulated the proliferation of both MCF-7 cells and LNCaP cells. CS extract suppressed oestrogen/androgen-induced BPH progress in vivo by downregulation of E2 and T level in serum and alteration of the expressions of ERα, ERβ, and AR in the prostate. Conclusion. Our data demonstrates that compounds from CS exhibit phytoestrogenic and phytoandrogenic activities, which may contribute to inhibiting the oestrogen/androgen-induced BPH development. Xueni Wang, Rui Tao, Jing Yang, Lin Miao, Yu Wang, Jose Edouard Munyangaju, Nuttapong Wichai, Hong Wang, Yan Zhu, Erwei Liu, Yanxu Chang, and Xiumei Gao Copyright © 2017 Xueni Wang et al. All rights reserved. The Significant Pathways and Genes Underlying the Colon Cancer Treatment by the Traditional Chinese Medicine PHY906 Mon, 15 May 2017 06:48:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/8753815/ Background. We attempted to explore the molecular mechanism underlying PHY906 intervention of colon cancer. Methods. The microarray data of tumors treated by PHY906 and PBS alone were downloaded from the public Gene Expression Omnibus database. The dataset was further analyzed for the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their related biological functions were analyzed, followed by function and pathways. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and the significant nodes were screened by network centralities and then the significant modules analysis. Besides, they were clustered and transcriptional factors (TFs) were predicted. Results. The gene expression patterns changed induced by PHY906 treatment, including 414 upregulated and 337 downregulated DEGs. The biological process of response to steroid hormone stimulus and regulation of interferon-gamma production were significantly enriched by DEGs. Ezh2 (enhancer of zeste 2) was found to be the key node in PPI network. There are 12 significant TFs predicted for module 1 genes and 3 TFs for module 2 genes. Conclusions. PHY906 treatment may function in protecting the epithelial barrier against tumor cell invasion by modulating IFN-γ level and mediating cancer cell death by activating the response to steroid hormone stimulus and activating the response to steroid hormone stimulus. E2f1, Hsfy2, and Nfyb may be therapeutic targets for colon cancer. PHY906 showed treatment efficacy in modulating cell apoptosis by intervening interferon-gamma production and response to steroid hormone stimulus. Ezh2 and its TFs such as E2f1, Hsfy2, and Nfyb may be the potential therapeutic targets for anticancer agents development. Ziyuan Su, Changyu Zhou, Shaoyou Qin, Erna Jia, and Zhenting Wu Copyright © 2017 Ziyuan Su et al. All rights reserved. Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction Combined with Conventional Treatment for Treating Postsurgical Gastrointestinal Dysfunction Mon, 15 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/1987396/ Aim. To assess the current clinical evidence of the effectiveness of Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction (DCQD) for the treatment of Postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction (PGD). Methods. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) of Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction (DCQD) to PGD were searched from available major electronic databases to September 2016. The intervention must be a modified DCQD or DCQD integrated to Western Medicine (WM) compared with WM or placebo or blank. The main outcome index was clinical effectiveness and improvement of major symptoms. Data extraction, data analysis, and methodological quality assessment are conducted according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, version 5.0.2. RevMan 5.3 software was applied to our data analyses. Results. Seven RCTs involving 494 participants were recruited and identified. The methodological quality of all trials were assessed and generally of low-level. Those studies were published between 2004 and 2013. All 7 studies which used herbals (modified DCQD) integrate WM in test group compared with WM as the intervention and only one study (Sunyouxu 2013) integrates placebo to Western Medicine as the control group intervention. The treatment course was 1 week to 2 weeks. Evaluation of intervention effectiveness consists of the clinical effective rate indicator and the PGD symptoms indicator including time of borborygmus, time of gastrointestinal exhaust, and time of defecate. The clinical effectiveness results are beneficial to the test group. Conclusion. DCQD could improve PGD symptoms and promotion clinical effectiveness. Wei Jin, Qingjie Li, Xiaoqiong Luo, Juan Zhong, Yang Song, and Yiwei Li Copyright © 2017 Wei Jin et al. All rights reserved. Elephantorrhiza elephantina: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of an Important Medicinal Plant Species in Southern Africa Sun, 14 May 2017 07:19:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6403905/ Elephantorrhiza elephantina is used in southern Africa as traditional remedy for a wide range of human diseases and ailments including dermatological diseases, gastrointestinal system disorders, sexual dysfunction, sexually transmitted infections, and wounds. The rhizome decoction of E. elephantina is widely used by small-scale farmers in Botswana and South Africa as ethnoveterinary medicine for cattle, goats, horses, pigs, poultry, and sheep. Several classes of phytochemical compounds including anthocyanidins, anthraquinones, esters, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, glycosides, polysterols, saponins, sugars, tannins, and triterpenoids have been isolated from E. elephantina. Scientific studies on E. elephantina indicate that it has a wide range of biological activities including anthelmintic, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive, antiplasmodial, antioxidant, antibabesial, and antirickettsial activities. Elephantorrhiza elephantina is a valuable source of traditional medicine in southern Africa that it is worth additional research attention because of its wide ethnomedicinal applications and promising biological activities. However, the current health-related information on E. elephantina is not sufficiently explored as diverse studies on its chemical and pharmacological activities are required to understand its mechanism of action and to characterize the metabolites responsible for these activities. Alfred Maroyi Copyright © 2017 Alfred Maroyi. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Determination of 8 Compounds in Gancao-Ganjiang-Tang by HPLC-DAD and Analysis of the Relations between Compatibility, Dosage, and Contents of Medicines Sun, 14 May 2017 07:04:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4703632/ Gancao-Ganjiang-Tang (GGT) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription and is a representative prescription for recuperating depleted Yang in Treatise on Febrile Diseases. The TCM theory believes that the efficacy of medicinal herbs is decided by the multicompounds which consist of different kinds of chemical constituents with bioactivities, but not by a monomeric constituent. From ancient times until today, GGT have 5 different kinds of compatibilities that can be verified. In this study, a HPLC-DAD method was established for the simultaneous determination of 8 compounds including 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 6-shogaol, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritin, isoliquiritigenin, and glycyrrhizic acid in the five GGT. The total contents of the 8 compounds in GGT varied from 555.56 to 956.33 μg/mL. The effects showed that the dosage and compatibility of medicinal herbs have influenced the content of chemical compounds of TCM prescription while the content of chemical compounds has acted on clinical efficacy. Quality evaluation and active essence screening of TCM (including single herb and prescription) should be based on the TCM theory and clinical effectiveness. The method was proven to be suitable for quality control of GGT. Yanfang Yang, Guijun Zhang, Qiyu Sun, Liang Liu, Hui Peng, Jingjuan Wang, and Li Xiang Copyright © 2017 Yanfang Yang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Acupuncture on Endometrial Angiogenesis and Uterus Dendritic Cells in COH Rats during Peri-Implantation Period Sun, 14 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3647080/ This study was to explore the mechanism of acupuncture on regulating the endometrial angiogenesis and uterus dendritic cells (uDCs) during the peri-implantation period. Rats, in early pregnancy, were randomized into five groups: normal (N), model (M), acupuncture (A), progesterone (P), and A + P groups. The COH model was established using pregnant mare serum, combined with human chorionic gonadotrophin. Endometrium was collected on days 4, 6, and 8 (D4, D6, and D8) of gestation. Compared with group M, both VEGF and FGF-2 protein and mRNA levels were significantly lower on D4 and higher on D6 and D8 (), except for VEGF of group P on D8; the proportion of uterus dendritic cells (uDCs) in the endometrium was significantly lower on D4 and D6 and higher on D8 (). In vitro, except for the proliferation of group P on D8, proliferation, tube formation, and migration of uDCs were significantly decreased on D4 and increased on D8 (). In addition, acupuncture or progesterone regulated the secretion levels of VEGF, IL-15, and IL-18 secreted by uDCs instead of soluble sFLT-1. In conclusion, acupuncture may regulate angiogenesis of the endometrium and the number and roles of uDCs after COH, and the specific mechanism may be different with progesterone. Haoxu Dong, Zhiyan Zhong, Wei Chen, Xiao Wu, Qing Zhang, Guangying Huang, and Wei Yang Copyright © 2017 Haoxu Dong et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Composition and Hypotensive Effect of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Thu, 11 May 2017 08:59:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/1591762/ Campomanesia xanthocarpa is known in Brazil as Guabiroba and is popularly used for various diseases, such as inflammatory, renal, and digestive diseases and dyslipidemia. The aim of the study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the effects of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa on the blood pressure of normotensive rats, analyzing the possible action mechanism using experimental and in silico procedures. The extract was evaluated for total phenolic compounds and total flavonoid content. The chemical components were determined by HPLC analyses. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate were measured with extract and drugs administration. The leaves of C. xanthocarpa presented the relevant content of phenolics and flavonoids, and we suggested the presence of chlorogenic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, and theobromine. The acute administration of aqueous extract of C. xanthocarpa has a dose-dependent hypotensive effect in normotensive rats, suggesting that the action mechanism may be mediated through the renin-angiotensin system by AT1 receptor blockade and sympathetic autonomic response. Docking studies showed models that indicated an interaction between chlorogenic acid and quercetin with the AT1 receptor (AT1R) active site. The findings of these docking studies suggest the potential of C. xanthocarpa constituents for use as preventive agents for blood pressure. Liane Santariano Sant’Anna, Liara Merlugo, Catrine Santos Ehle, Jessica Limberger, Maquelen Blanco Fernandes, Marí Castro Santos, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro Mendez, Fávero Reisdorfer Paula, and Cleci Menezes Moreira Copyright © 2017 Liane Santariano Sant’Anna et al. All rights reserved. Schisandrae Fructus Reduces Symptoms of 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide-Induced Ovarian Failure in Mice Thu, 11 May 2017 08:02:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/2564787/ Menopause is associated with a decrease in the level of sex hormones such as ovarian estradiol and progesterone and can cause various symptoms such as depression, hot flash, fatigue, heart palpitations, and headache. Furthermore, there is a risk of developing complications such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, and ovarian cancer. Schisandrae Fructus (SF) is widely used in Korean medicine as a cure for such complications. This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic effects of SF against menopause symptoms associated with follicle depletion caused by the industrial chemical 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) in mice. VCD directly targets the preantral follicles. Mice were injected with VCD (160 mg/kg intraperitoneally) daily for 15 days and then with SF dosage 3 times/week for six weeks. To evaluate the effects of SF, body weight, tail skin temperature, uterine weight, lipid profile, and osteocalcin levels were measured. A decrease in body weight and tail skin temperature and an increase in uterine weight were observed upon SF treatment. Moreover, SF treatment significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglyceride, osteocalcin, and low-density lipoprotein levels and low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratio. These results suggest the potential use of SF in the treatment of menopausal symptoms in women. Dasom Shin, Jinhee Ha, Seong Bin Hong, Geun-Hyung Kang, Deok-Sang Hwang, and Hyunsu Bae Copyright © 2017 Dasom Shin et al. All rights reserved. Active Ingredients of Epimedii Folium and Ligustri Lucidi Fructus Balanced GR/HSP90 to Improve the Sensitivity of Asthmatic Rats to Budesonide Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7961231/ This study aimed to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms of active ingredients of Epimedii Folium (EF) and Ligustri Lucidi Fructus (LLF) combined with Budesonide (Bun) in asthmatic rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups, including normal group, asthma model group, Bun group, group of active ingredients of EL and LLF (EL), and group of coadministration of Bun with EL (Bun&EL). The asthmatic model was prepared by ovalbumin sensitizing and challenging. Lymphocyte apoptosis, GR protein and binding, and the protein and mRNA of GRα, GRβ, and HSP90 were tested. The results showed that Bun&EL ① markedly increased lymphocyte apoptosis, GR and HSP90 protein, and GR binding in BALF and ② enhanced the expressions of GRα and HSP90 and the ratio of GRα to GRβ or to HSP90 both in protein and in mRNA levels in lung, ③ while decrease occurred in GRβ mRNA and the mRNA ratio of GRβ to HSP90 compared with asthma or Bun group. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between GRα and GRβ in protein level, or between GRα and HSP90 both in protein and in mRNA levels. EL may effectively enhance the sensitivity of asthmatic rats to Bun via balancing GR/HSP90. And these findings will be beneficial for the treatment of asthma in the future. Xiufeng Tang, Xiaoxi Li, Honglei Nian, Yan Yang, Yuheng Chen, Xiujuan Wang, Liping Xu, Xinwei Yang, and Renhui Liu Copyright © 2017 Xiufeng Tang et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Anticancer Effects of Salvia miltiorrhiza Alcohol Extract on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells” Thu, 11 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4695951/ Wen-Hung Wang, Yu-Hsuan Kuo, Ling-Ya Chu, Chia-Ying Lee, Yu-Chang Tyan, Zong-Shiow Chen, and Wan-Chi Tsai Copyright © 2017 Wen-Hung Wang et al. All rights reserved. Apigenin Inhibits Human SW620 Cell Growth by Targeting Polyamine Catabolism Wed, 10 May 2017 08:14:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3684581/ Apigenin is a nonmutagenic flavonoid that has antitumor properties. Polyamines are ubiquitous cellular polycations, which play an important role in the proliferation and differentiation of cancer cells. Highly regulated pathways control the biosynthesis and degradation of polyamines. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the metabolism, and spermidine/spermine-N1-Acetyl transferase (SSAT) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of polyamines. In the current study, the effect of increasing concentrations of apigenin on polyamine levels, ODC and SSAT protein expression, mRNA expression, cell proliferation and apoptosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was investigated in SW620 colon cancer cells. The results showed that apigenin significantly reduced cell proliferation, decreased the levels of spermidine and spermine, and increased previously downregulated putrescine contents. Apigenin also enhanced SSAT protein and mRNA levels and the production of reactive oxygen species in SW620 cells, though it had no significant effect on the levels of ODC protein or mRNA. Apigenin appears to decrease the proliferation rate of human SW620 cells by facilitating SSAT expression to induce polyamine catabolism and increasing ROS levels to induce cell apoptosis. Jing Wang, TongMing Li, Linquan Zang, Xuediao Pan, Sujun Wang, Yanyan Wu, and Guixiang Wang Copyright © 2017 Jing Wang et al. All rights reserved. Astragalus Extract Mixture HT042 Improves Bone Growth, Mass, and Microarchitecture in Prepubertal Female Rats: A Microcomputed Tomographic Study Wed, 10 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/5219418/ Astragalus extract mixture HT042 is a standardized multiherbal mixture comprising Astragalus membranaceus, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and Phlomis umbrosa, which has proven to promote children’s height growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HT042 on longitudinal bone growth, bone mass, and bone microstructure in growing rats using a high-resolution microcomputed tomography system. Four-week-old female rats were fed an HT042-containing diet for 2 weeks. Tibial length was measured at baseline and weekly in vivo. At the end of the study, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microarchitectural parameters were estimated in the trabecular and cortical bone of the tibia. Tibial length gain was significantly increased by HT042 compared to that reported with the control diet. In the proximal tibial metaphysis, HT042-treated rats had significantly higher trabecular vBMD, bone volume fraction, and trabecular number and lower trabecular separation, trabecular pattern factor, and structure model index values than control rats did. Total cross-sectional area and bone area of the cortical bone in the tibial diaphysis also increased. These findings suggest that HT042 increases longitudinal bone growth rate, improves trabecular bone mass, and enhances the microarchitecture of trabecular and cortical bone during growth. Jungbin Song, Sung Hyun Lee, Donghun Lee, and Hocheol Kim Copyright © 2017 Jungbin Song et al. All rights reserved. The Efficacy of Acupuncture for the Treatment of Cervical Vertigo: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Tue, 09 May 2017 10:01:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7597363/ Objective. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of cervical vertigo (CV). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding effectiveness of acupuncture for treating CV were searched in 7 comprehensive databases prior to April 2016. The data analysis was performed by using RevMan version 5.3. Results. A total of 10 studies with 914 participants were included. Results showed that acupuncture was more effective than conventional medicine therapy (CMT) in effectiveness, improvement rate of vertigo and headache, and increased average blood flow velocity of vertebral-basilar artery. In the subgroup analysis, the results did not change in different acupuncture methods and drug categories substantially. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the results of this meta-analysis were stable. Meanwhile, the long-term safety of acupuncture for CV still remains uncertain. GRADE analysis indicated that the quality of evidence for all outcomes was from very low to low which limited the value of the meta-analysis. Conclusion. Based on the systematic review, acupuncture appeared to be a promising therapeutic approach for CV based on low or very low quality of evidence. However, large-scale and high-quality trials are required to provide stronger evidence for the conclusion. Zhuanzhuan Hou, Shibing Xu, Qinglin Li, Libing Cai, Weigang Wu, Huida Yu, and Huade Chen Copyright © 2017 Zhuanzhuan Hou et al. All rights reserved. Medical Benefits of Honeybee Products Tue, 09 May 2017 09:58:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/2702106/ José Maurício Sforcin, Vassya Bankova, and Andrzej K. Kuropatnicki Copyright © 2017 José Maurício Sforcin et al. All rights reserved. Investigating Potential Modes of Actions of Mimusops kummel Fruit Extract and Solvent Fractions for Their Antidiarrheal Activities in Mice Tue, 09 May 2017 09:56:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4103410/ Background. Fruits of Mimusops kummel A. DC. (Sapotaceae) are traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea. The present study aimed at investigating modes of actions of this fruits for antidiarrheal action to guide future drug development process. Methods. Fractions of chloroform, n-butanol, and water were obtained from 80% methanol extract, which was prepared by maceration. Antidiarrheal activities and the modes of actions were investigated in mice. Results. In castor oil induced diarrheal model, the extract delayed onset of diarrhea and reduced number and weight of feces at all tested doses significantly. In this model all fractions significantly delayed onset of diarrhea at all tested doses. Charcoal meal test showed that the extract and all the fractions produced a significant antimotility effect at all tested doses. Enteropooling test showed that the extract as well as n-butanol and aqueous fractions at all tested doses produced a significant decline in volume and weight of intestinal contents, whereas chloroform fraction had substantial effect only at high dose. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that the extract and solvent fractions produced antidiarrheal activities due to dual inhibitory effect, intestinal motility, and fluid secretion, with the aqueous fraction being the most active among fractions in three models. Mulugeta Molla, Negero Gemeda, and Solomon M. Abay Copyright © 2017 Mulugeta Molla et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid against Triptolide-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats Tue, 09 May 2017 08:39:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3470320/ Triptolide (TP) is the major active component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TWHF) and possesses multiple pharmacological effects. However, hepatotoxicity of TP which is one of the toxic properties slows its progression in clinical application. 18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) is the main bioactive ingredient of Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.), a herbal medicine famous for its detoxification. This study aims to investigate whether GA possesses protective effect against TP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. TP interference markedly elevated serum levels of ALT, AST, and ALP, caused evident liver histopathological changes, and elevated hepatic TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ as well as nuclear translocation of NF-κB. TP also significantly elevated liver MDA and declined hepatic activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px. Assay of TUNEL and apoptosis proteins (Bax, Bcl-2, and active caspase-3) showed that TP induced severe hepatocellular apoptosis. In contrast, low-dose GA (50 mg/kg) significantly reversed TP-induced changes above. However, high-dose GA (100 mg/kg) had no such effect. Overall, these findings indicated that low-dose GA but not high-dose GA exhibited a protective effect against TP-induced hepatotoxicity in rats by anti-inflammation, antioxidation, and antiapoptosis, which suggests that the doses of GA/Licorice should be carefully considered when used together with TWHF or TWHF preparations. Guanghua Yang, Lan Wang, Xiuting Yu, Yanfeng Huang, Chang Qu, Zhenbiao Zhang, Dandan Luo, Ji Lin, Lian Zhou, Ziren Su, Xiaojun Zhang, and Haiming Chen Copyright © 2017 Guanghua Yang et al. All rights reserved. Antidiabetic Compounds in Syzygium cumini Decoction and Ready to Serve Herbal Drink Tue, 09 May 2017 06:56:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/1083589/ Herbal beverages with desirable sensory attributes are an ideal way to offer consumers with phytochemicals having specific health promoting functionalities. Syzygium cumini bark decoction is used in treating diabetes mellitus in Ayurveda medicine. This work attempted to prove the presence of antidiabetic compounds in the S. cumini decoction and the ready to serve (RTS) herbal drink developed using the decoction. Activity guided fractionation of the decoction of the S. cumini was carried out by sequential extraction with organic solvents of different polarities. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) with authentic compounds and HPLC were performed for identification and confirmation of the compounds in the decoction and the RTS herbal drink. Presence of gallic and ellagic acids in the decoction and RTS herbal drink was proven and confirmed with HPLC. The LC UV-VIS spectra of the two compounds were identical with the corresponding spectra of the library. Further, gallic acid and umbelliferone were determined as the active compounds in the decoction by TLC and were confirmed by cochromatography with authentic compounds. The present investigation confirmed the presence of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and umbelliferone which are proven to have antidiabetic activities in the decoction and the RTS herbal drink prepared with the decoction. P. R. D. Perera, S. Ekanayake, and K. K. D. S. Ranaweera Copyright © 2017 P. R. D. Perera et al. All rights reserved. Barley Seedling Extracts Inhibit RANKL-Induced Differentiation, Fusion, and Maturation of Osteoclasts in the Early-to-Late Stages of Osteoclastogenesis Mon, 08 May 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6072573/ The number of patients with osteoporosis is increasing worldwide, and a decrease in bone mass is a main risk factor for fracture. The prevention of bone loss is critical for improving the quality of life for patients. However, the long-term use of antiosteoporotic agents is limited due to their side effects. Barley has been traditionally ingested for thousands of years as a safe, natural food with pharmaceutical properties, and its seedling can enhance the biological activity of the medicinal components found in food. This study aimed to clarify the antiresorptive activity of barley seedling and its mode of action. Barley seedling extracts (BSE) dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation with alteration of IκB degradation, c-Fos, and NFATc1 molecules in the early-to-middle stages of osteoclastogenesis. In the late phase of osteoclastogenesis, BSE also prevented DC-STAMP and cathepsin K, which are required for cell fusion and bone degradation, such as osteoclast function. In conclusion, barley seedling from natural foods may provide long-term safety and be useful for the prevention or treatment of osteoclast-mediated bone metabolic diseases, including osteoporosis. Sik-Won Choi, Shin-Hye Kim, Kwang-Sik Lee, Hyeon Jung Kang, Mi Ja Lee, Kie-In Park, Jin Hwan Lee, Ki Do Park, and Woo Duck Seo Copyright © 2017 Sik-Won Choi et al. All rights reserved.