Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Potent Antiarthritic Properties of Phloretin in Murine Collagen-Induced Arthritis Sun, 04 Dec 2016 11:02:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9831263/ In the exploration of potential therapeutic agents for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), DBA/1J mice are used as the RA model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Phloretin, a flavonoid compound extracted from Prunus mandshurica, has been found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential candidate for treatment of RA. The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of phloretin on CIA mice. CIA mice were dosed daily with phloretin at either 50 or 100 mg/kg among two treatment groups. CIA treated mice showed mitigation of clinical symptoms of RA in addition to reduced inflammation of hind-limbs compared to mice who did not receive phloretin. Histological analysis showed that phloretin suppressed the severity of RA and effectively mitigated joint inflammation and cartilage- and bone-destruction via reducing proinflammatory cytokine productions (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-17). This was at least partially mediated by causing inadequate splenocyte activation and proliferation. Moreover, phloretin-treated CIA mice showed decreased oxidative stress and diminished levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in paw tissues as well as reduced productivity of anti-collagen antibodies in serum. We have concluded that phloretin could be a potent and effective antiarthritis agent, demonstrating anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immunomodulatory effects in CIA mice. Shun-Ping Wang, Shih-Chao Lin, Shiming Li, Ya-Hsuan Chao, Guang-Yuh Hwang, and Chi-Chen Lin Copyright © 2016 Shun-Ping Wang et al. All rights reserved. The Roles of Exercise and Yoga in Ameliorating Depression as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Decline Thu, 01 Dec 2016 12:04:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4612953/ Currently, there are no effective pharmaceutical treatments to reduce cognitive decline or prevent dementia. At the same time, the global population is aging, and rates of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are on the rise. As such, there is an increasing interest in complementary and alternative interventions to treat or reduce the risk of cognitive decline. Depression is one potentially modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. Notably, exercise and yoga are two interventions known to both reduce symptoms of depression and improve cognitive function. The current review discusses the efficacy of exercise and yoga to ameliorate depression and thereby reduce the risk of cognitive decline and potentially prevent dementia. Potential mechanisms of change, treatment implications, and future directions are discussed. Danielle C. Mathersul and Simon Rosenbaum Copyright © 2016 Danielle C. Mathersul and Simon Rosenbaum. All rights reserved. The Role of Hippocampal Estradiol Receptor-α in a Perimenopausal Affective Disorders-Like Rat Model and Attenuating of Anxiety by Electroacupuncture Thu, 01 Dec 2016 06:48:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4958312/ Hormone replacement therapy is the principal treatment for perimenopausal affective disorders which can cause severe side effects. The present study compared the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and estradiol treatment on perimenopausal affective disorders at the behavioral and cellular levels. In this randomized experimental in vivo study, adult female rats were divided into intact, ovariectomy, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), and ovariectomy and CUS combination groups. After week 6, all groups were subdivided to three subgroups of control, EA, and estradiol treatment. The behavioral parameters in the open field and the elevated plus maze tests were assessed before and after treatments. Alterations of serum steroid hormones and changes of estradiol receptor-α (ER-α) immunofluorescence neurons in the hippocampus sections were evaluated. EA treatment caused more antianxiety effects than estradiol treatment in CUS group (). Notably, estradiol and EA treatments had better significant behavioral effects when the models were not estrogen-deficient. Importantly, within each group, compared to the control group, the numbers of ER-α-positive neurons were significantly larger in EA subgroups. Therefore, EA had antianxiety effects on perimenopausal affective disorders caused by CUS but not by estrogen deficiency and upregulation of hippocampus ER-α neurons may contribute to its mechanism of action. Xun Wang, Yongheng Huang, Shiwen Yuan, Amin Tamadon, Shulan Ma, and Yi Feng Copyright © 2016 Xun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness and Safety of Electroacupuncture on Poststroke Urinary Incontinence: Study Protocol of a Pilot Multicentered, Randomized, Parallel, Sham-Controlled Trial Wed, 30 Nov 2016 14:21:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5709295/ This pilot multicentered, randomized, parallel, sham-controlled trial is intended to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture therapy for poststroke patients with urinary incontinence. Forty stroke survivors aged >19 years will be recruited in 2 hospitals in the Republic of Korea. Patients who experienced stroke within 2 years and satisfy criteria of urinary frequencies ≥2 with either 3 to 4 points on the Patient Perception of Intensity of Urgency Scale or 13 points or more on the Korean version of the International Prostate Symptom Scale (K-IPSS) will be identified, along with other eligibility criteria. Patients will be randomly allocated to either a treatment or control group to receive 10 sessions of electroacupuncture or sham therapies, respectively. Patients and outcome assessors will be blinded. The primary outcome is the change of Total Urgency and Frequency Score between the baseline and the trial endpoint. The K-IPSS, the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire for Urinary Incontinence Short Form, and the Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Outcome Score will be evaluated for effectiveness assessment. Adverse events will be reported after every session. The Blinding Index will also be calculated. Data will be statistically analyzed with 0.05 significance levels by 2-sided testing. Seungwon Shin, Jiwon Lee, Ami Yu, Junghee Yoo, and Euiju Lee Copyright © 2016 Seungwon Shin et al. All rights reserved. Tai Chi Can Improve Postural Stability as Measured by Resistance to Perturbation Related to Upper Limb Movement among Healthy Older Adults Wed, 30 Nov 2016 12:28:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9710941/ Purpose. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of Tai Chi (TC) training on postural control when upright standing was perturbed by upper limb movement. Methods. Three groups, TC, Brisk walk (BW), and sedentary (SE), of thirty-six participants aged from 65 to 75 years were recruited from local community centers. Participants performed static balance task (quiet standing for 30 s with eyes open and closed) and fitting task (two different reaching distances X three different opening sizes to fit objects through). During tasks, the COP data was recorded while standing on the force plate. Criteria measures calculated from COP data were the maximum displacement in anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions, the 95% confidence ellipse area (95% area), and the mean velocity. Results. No significant effect was observed in the static balance task. For fitting tasks, the group effect was observed in all directions on COP 95% area () and the TC group showed reduced area. The tests of subject contrasts showed significant trends for reaching different distances and fitting different openings conditions in all directions, the 95% area, and the mean velocity (). Conclusion. Compared to the other two groups, long-term TC exercise helps in reducing the effects of upper body perturbation as measured by posture sway. Jiahao Pan, Cuixian Liu, Shuqi Zhang, and Li Li Copyright © 2016 Jiahao Pan et al. All rights reserved. Pinoresinol Diglucoside Alleviates oxLDL-Induced Dysfunction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Wed, 30 Nov 2016 11:32:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3124519/ Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Deposition of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is one of the initiators and promoters of atherosclerosis. Eucommia lignans were shown to possess antihypertensive effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of pinoresinol diglucoside (PD), a Eucommia lignan, on oxLDL-induced endothelial dysfunction. HUVECs were treated with oxLDL and/or PD followed by assessing radical oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, nitrogen oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity with specific assays kits, mRNA levels with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and protein levels with western blot. PD abolished oxLDL-induced ROS and MDA production, apoptosis, upregulation of lectin-like oxidized LDL recptor-1 (LOX-1), intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB), and activation of p38MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinases)/NF-κB signaling. Meanwhile, PD alleviated oxLDL-caused inhibition of SOD activity, eNOS expression, and NO production. These data demonstrated that PD was effective in protecting endothelial cells from oxLDL-caused injuries, which guarantees further investigation on the clinical benefits of PD on cardiovascular diseases. Jinpeng Yao, Zhipeng Zou, Xiangfen Wang, Xiaoping Ji, and Jun Yang Copyright © 2016 Jinpeng Yao et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the In Vivo Therapeutic Effects of Radix Paeoniae Rubra Ethanol Extract with the Hypoglycemic Activities Measured from Multiple Cell-Based Assays Tue, 29 Nov 2016 14:29:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3262790/ Background. Radix Paeoniae Rubra (Chi Shao) contains several phytochemicals with hypoglycemic actions. Current research aims to explore potential insulinotropic effects and long-term therapeutic efficacy of such herb against type 2 diabetes. Methods. Composition analysis for the ethanol extract (PRExt) was executed by high performance liquid chromatography. Polyphenol-enriched fraction was characterized by high pressure size exclusion chromatography. Multiple cell platforms were employed to evaluate hypoglycemic bioactivities. In animal experiments, blood glucose, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-index assessment, glucose tolerance test, and in vivo glucose uptake were all measured. Additional effects of PRExt on obesity and hepatic steatosis were evaluated by serum and histological analysis. Results. PRExt provides multiple hypoglycemic effects including the enhancement of glucose-mediated insulin secretion. Pentagalloylglucose and polyphenol-enriched fraction are two insulinotropic constituents. Moreover, PRExt intraperitoneal injection causes acute hypoglycemic effects on fasted db/db mice. Oral administration of PRExt (200 mg/kg b.w.) gradually reduces blood glucose in db/db mice to the level similar to that in C57J/B6 mice after 30 days. The improvement of glucose intolerance, HOMA-index, and in vivo glucose uptake is evident in addition to the weight loss effect and attenuation of hepatic steatosis. Conclusion. PRExt is an effective antidiabetic herbal extract with multiple hypoglycemic bioactivities. Chia-Chuan Chang, Wei Yuan, Yun-Lian Lin, Ren-Shyan Liu, Yi-Chen Juan, Wan-Hua Sun, Huey Jen Tsay, Hsiu-Chen Huang, Yu-Ching Lee, and Hui-Kang Liu Copyright © 2016 Chia-Chuan Chang et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Chinese Medicine Huannao Yicong Decoction Extract Decreases Tau Hyperphosphorylation in the Brain of Alzheimer’s Disease Model Rats Induced by Aβ1–42 Tue, 29 Nov 2016 06:20:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6840432/ Objective. Huannao Yicong Decoction (HYD, 还脑益聪方) has been shown to improve the learning and memory capabilities of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) subjects. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be determined. Methods. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally and randomly into five different groups including control, positive control, and HYD granules of low dose, medium dose, and high dose by daily gavage. The sham-treated rats were also given the same volume of sterile water by gavage. Twelve SD rats were treated with the same amount of physiological saline. Twelve weeks later, learning and memory capabilities, Aβ content of the right brain and the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), total tau protein kinase (TTBK1), and cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (CDK-5) were tested. Results. Our results showed that high dose HYD treatment significantly improved the learning and memory capability of the AD rats and decreased the expression of TTBK1, GSK-3β, and CDK-5 in the hippocampal CA1 region. Conclusions. HYD treatment for 12 weeks significantly improved spatial learning and memory and effectively inhibited Aβ deposition, likely via reducing tau protein kinase expression and thus tau hyperphosphorylation and inflammatory injury. Taken together, these results suggest that HYD could be an effective treatment for AD. Yu Cao, Xingxing Jia, Yun Wei, Meixia Liu, Jiangang Liu, and Hao Li Copyright © 2016 Yu Cao et al. All rights reserved. Perception Study of Traditional Korean Medical Students on the Medical Education Using the Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:17:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6042967/ Background. In Korea, a few studies regarding traditional Korean medicine (TKM) education have been conducted. The aim of this study is to evaluate students’ perceptions regarding TKM education in Korea and compare them with those of other countries using a quantitative scale, Dundee Ready Educational Environment Measure (DREEM). Materials and Methods. We conducted a survey using DREEM in a TKM college. Totally, 325 students responded to this survey and we performed the descriptive statistics of scores in all items, subscales, and total. Additionally, subgroup comparisons according to gender, school year, and academic achievement were analyzed. Results. Mean overall DREEM score was 94.65 out of 200, which is relatively low compared to previous studies. Particularly, perceptions regarding subscales of learning, atmosphere, and self-perceptions were interpreted as problematic. There was no statistically significant difference between genders in spite of some differences among groups based on school year or academic achievement. Conclusions. We could examine students’ perceptions regarding TKM education at a TKM college using DREEM for which validity and reliability were verified. TKM education was perceived relatively poor, but these quantitative indicators suggested which parts of education need improvement. We expect DREEM to be used widely in TKM or traditional medical education field. Hyunho Kim, Hanyoung Jeong, Pyeongjin Jeon, Seungju Kim, Young-Bae Park, and Yeonseok Kang Copyright © 2016 Hyunho Kim et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Protective Effect of Phikud Navakot Extraction on Erythrocyte Mon, 28 Nov 2016 10:05:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1961327/ Phikud Navakot (PN), Thai herbal remedy in National List of Essential Medicines, has been claimed to reduce many cardiovascular symptoms especially dizziness and fainting. Apart from blood supply, erythrocyte morphology, in both shape and size, is one of the main consideration factors in cardiovascular diseases and may be affected by vascular oxidative stress. However, little is known about antioxidative property of PN on erythrocyte to preserve red blood cell integrity. In this study, 1,000 μM hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress was conducted on sheep erythrocyte. Three doses of PN (1, 0.5, and 0.25 mg/mL) and 10 μM of ascorbic acid were compared. The released hemoglobin absorbance was measured to demonstrate hemolysis. Electron microscopic and immunohistochemical studies were also performed to characterize dysmorphic erythrocyte and osmotic ability in relation to aquaporin- (AQP-) 1 expression, respectively. The results revealed that all doses of PN and ascorbic acid decreased the severity of dysmorphic erythrocyte, particularly echinocyte, acanthocyte, knizocyte, codocyte, clumping, and other malformations. However, the most effective was 0.5 mg/mL PN dosage. In addition, hydrostatic pressure may be increased in dysmorphic erythrocyte in association with AQP-1 upregulation. Our results demonstrated that PN composes antioxidative effect to maintain the integrity and osmotic ability on sheep erythrocyte. Kanchana Kengkoom and Sumate Ampawong Copyright © 2016 Kanchana Kengkoom and Sumate Ampawong. All rights reserved. Acupuncture for Smoking Cessation in Hong Kong: A Prospective Multicenter Observational Study Mon, 28 Nov 2016 09:29:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2865831/ This was a prospective multicenter observational study, aiming to explore the effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation in Hong Kong. From March of 2010 to August of 2015, a total of 5202 smokers were recruited based on inclusion criteria and treated with acupuncture for 8 weeks. As a result, 2940 subjects finished the study with a drop-out rate of 43.48%. The self-reported 7-day point abstinence rate was 34.00% in Week 8 and 18.40% in Week 52. The exhaled carbon monoxide level and the number of cigarettes smoked per day were reduced significantly after treatment. The time to relapse was calculated to be 38.71 days. In addition, “cigarettes smoked per day,” “Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence,” “total sessions of acupuncture,” “whether finished 8 acupuncture treatments in the first month,” and “total sessions of acupuncture” were believed to be essential factors for abstinence success. It was concluded that acupuncture was a safe method for smoking cessation and was effective in helping smokers to quit; therefore, acupuncture could be considered as one of the methods to help smokers quit. Further studies regarding the effect differences between acupuncture and medications were needed to clarify the overall benefits of acupuncture. Ying-ying Wang, Zhao Liu, Yuan Wu, Ou Zhang, Min Chen, Ling-ling Huang, Xiu-qing He, Guan-yi Wu, and Jin-sheng Yang Copyright © 2016 Ying-ying Wang et al. All rights reserved. Conifer Green Needle Complex in Patients with Precancerous Gastric Lesions: An Observational Pilot Study Mon, 28 Nov 2016 09:07:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3848409/ Objectives. Helicobacter pylori infection is common and can lead to precancerous gastric lesions. Standard antibiotic therapy has a failure rate of more than 25% from antibiotic resistance. The primary aim of this observational pilot study was to test the feasibility of a large-scale clinical trial of Conifer Green Needle Complex (CGNC) to treat precancerous gastric lesions. Secondary aims were to investigate H. pylori infection, stomach function, and histopathology of the gastric mucosa. Methods. A tablet form of CGNC (extracted from Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies (L) Karst) was prescribed to 26 patients with precancerous gastric lesions (two tablets, 100 mg CGNC/tablet, three times per day for six months). Another 24 patients received no treatment. Results. Compared with control patients, CGNC-treated patients showed total or partial regression (using the quantitative Rome III diagnostic criteria) of dyspeptic symptoms (92.3%, ), eradication of H. pylori infection (57.1%, ), a reduction in endoscopic signs of gastritis (92.3%, ), an increase of pepsinogen-pepsin in the gastric juice (57.7%, ), and total regression or reduction in the degree of intestinal metaplasia (46.2%, ) and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration (53.8%, ). Conclusions. This study justifies a randomised-controlled trial with CGNC in patients with atrophic gastritis. Vladimir Bespalov, Alexander Sherbakov, Viktor Novik, Valentin Kalinovsky, Kamran Shamsi, and Vagif Soultanov Copyright © 2016 Vladimir Bespalov et al. All rights reserved. Paeoniflorin Attenuated Oxidative Stress in Rat COPD Model Induced by Cigarette Smoke Mon, 28 Nov 2016 09:07:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1698379/ Paeoniflorin (PF), a monoterpene glucoside, might have an effect on the oxidative stress. However, the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we made the COPD model in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by exposing them to the smoke of 20 cigarettes for 1 hour/day and 6 days/week, for 12 weeks, 24 weeks, or 36 weeks. Our findings suggested that smoke inhalation can trigger the oxidative stress from the very beginning. A 24-week treatment of PF especially in the dosage of 40 mg/kg·d can attenuate oxygen stress by partially quenching reactive oxygen species (ROS) and upregulating antioxidant enzymes via an Nrf2-dependent mechanism. Jinpei Lin, Fei Xu, Genfa Wang, Lingwen Kong, Qingli Luo, Yvbao Lv, Jiaqi Liu, Ying Wei, Lulu Li, Hongying Zhang, and Jingcheng Dong Copyright © 2016 Jinpei Lin et al. All rights reserved. Shugan Xiaozhi Decoction Attenuates Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis by Enhancing PPAR and L-FABP Expressions in High-Fat-Fed Rats Mon, 28 Nov 2016 09:05:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7870189/ This study aimed to investigate the effects of Shugan Xiaozhi decoction (SX) on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced by high-fat diet in rats. The rats were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely, control, model, fenofibrate, and three different dosage of SX (10, 20, and 40 g/kg/day, p.o.). After establishing the NASH model, at 8 weeks of the experiment, treatments were administrated intragastrically to the fenofibrate and SX groups. All rats were killed after 4 weeks of treatment. Compared with the model group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) serum in the serum were significantly reduced in all SX treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner. Evidence showed that SX could protect the liver by upregulating the gene and protein expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) in a dose-dependent manner. Chemical constituents of SX were further analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS) and 30 chemicals in the ethanolic extract were tentatively identified. To conclude, our results clearly indicated that SX could protect liver functions and relieve hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Yu-feng Xing, Zhen Zhang, Wen-Jun Fu, Da-qiao Zhou, Ailsa Chui-ying Yuen, Daniel Kam-wah Mok, Chi-on Chan, and Guang-dong Tong Copyright © 2016 Yu-feng Xing et al. All rights reserved. Cerebral Targeting of Acupuncture at Combined Acupoints in Treating Essential Hypertension: An Rs-fMRI Study and Curative Effect Evidence Mon, 28 Nov 2016 07:41:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5392954/ The study attempted to explore that the synergistic effect of acupoints combination is not a simple superposition of single acupoint’s effect by comparing and analyzing the changes of blood pressure (BP), SF-36, and brain regions after acupuncture treatment. 47 patients were randomly divided into LR3+KI3 group, LR3 group, and KI3 group. Subjects received Rs-fMRI scan, BP measurement, and SF-36 questionnaires before and after treatment and short-term acupuncture treatment. After treatment, there were no significant differences in BP and SF-36 among 3 groups, compared to the case before treatment, SBP of 3 groups decreased, and DBP significantly decreased while vitality and mental health significantly increased in LR3+KI3 group. Both number and scopes of changes of brain regions in LR3+KI3 group were the largest, which mainly included BAs 3, 4, 8, 19, 21, 24, 32, 44, and 45. In conclusion, acupuncture at LR3+KI3 may auxiliarily reduce BP and improve the vitality and mental health of patients, and the changes of brain regions were related to somatesthesia, movement, vision, audition, emotion and mood, language, memory, etc. BAs 4, 9, 10, 24, 31, 32, and 46 may be the targeting brain areas of acupuncture in assisting hypotension. It is suggested that acupoints combination of LR3+KI3 maybe generates a synergistic effect, and it is not simple sum of single acupoint effect. Yanjie Wang, Yu Zheng, Shanshan Qu, Jiping Zhang, Zheng Zhong, Jialing Zhang, Huanlin Huang, Miaokeng Li, Yiwen Xu, Junqi Chen, Lei Wang, Genevieve Zara Steiner, Chunzhi Tang, and Yong Huang Copyright © 2016 Yanjie Wang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Loquat Leaf Extract on Muscle Strength, Muscle Mass, and Muscle Function in Healthy Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Trial Thu, 24 Nov 2016 14:31:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4301621/ Ursolic acid (UA) is the major active component of the loquat leaf extract (LLE) and several previous studies have indicated that UA may have the ability to prevent skeletal muscle atrophy. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of the LLE on muscle strength, muscle mass, muscle function, and metabolic markers in healthy adults; the safety of the compound was also evaluated. We examined the peak torque/body weight at 60°/s knee extension, handgrip strength, skeletal muscle mass, physical performance, and metabolic parameters at baseline, as well as after 4 and 12 weeks of intervention. Either 500 mg of LLE (50.94 mg of UA) or a placebo was administered to fifty-four healthy adults each day for 12 weeks; no differences in muscle strength, muscle mass, and physical performance were observed between the two groups. However, the right-handgrip strength of female subjects in the LLE group was found to be significantly better than that of subjects in the control group (). Further studies are required to determine the optimal dose and duration of LLE supplementation to confirm the first-stage study results for clinical application. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier is NCT02401113. Young Hye Cho, Sang Yeoup Lee, Cheol Min Kim, Nam Deuk Kim, Sangmin Choe, Chang-Hyung Lee, and Jin-Hong Shin Copyright © 2016 Young Hye Cho et al. All rights reserved. Anticancer Activity, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic and Flavonoids Content of Wild Tragopogon porrifolius Plant Extracts Thu, 24 Nov 2016 09:36:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9612490/ Tragopogon porrifolius, commonly referred to as white salsify, is an edible herb used in folk medicine to treat cancer. Samples of Tragopogon porrifolius plant grown wild in Palestine were extracted with different solvents: water, 80% ethanol, and 100% ethanol. The extracts were analyzed for their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity (AA). Four different antioxidant assays were used to evaluate AA of the extracts: two measures the reducing power of the extracts (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant power (CUPRAC)), while two other assays measure the scavenging ability of the extracts (2,2-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid (ABTS)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Anticancer activity of the plant extracts were also tested on HOS and KHOS osteosarcoma cell lines. The results revealed that the polarity of the extraction solvent affects the TPC, TFC, and AA. It was found that both TPC and AA are highest for plant extracted with 80% ethanol, followed by water, and finally with 100% ethanol. TFC however was the highest in the following order: 80% ethanol > 100% ethanol > water. The plant extracts showed anticancer activities against KHOS cancer cell lines; they reduced total cell count and induced cell death in a drastic manner. Fuad Al-Rimawi, Suzi Rishmawi, Sharehan H. Ariqat, Mahmoud F. Khalid, Ismail Warad, and Zaidoun Salah Copyright © 2016 Fuad Al-Rimawi et al. All rights reserved. The Construction of Unsmooth Pulse Images in Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on Wave Intensity Technology Thu, 24 Nov 2016 07:06:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2468254/ Unsmooth pulse is one of the most important pulses in TCM diagnostics. We constructed the wave intensity (WI) images of unsmooth pulse based on the pressure wave (P), flow velocity wave (U), and WI by ALOKA Prosound α 10 Color Doppler. The characteristic of Cunkou normal pulse could be summarized as follows: compared to Renying pulse, its W1 amplitude is smaller and NA wave is more obvious, while the W2 wave is indistinct or even invisible, and the R-1st is longer than that of Renying pulse. The principal U wave of Renying pulse looks like “Λ” shape, while it looks like an arched blunt “∩” shape in Cunkou pulse, and the amplitude of U wave in Cunkou pulse is smaller. The direction of the principal U wave in Cunkou unsmooth pulse is up, which shows hoof boots “h” shape with high amplitude and a significant notch on declined branch; the amplitude of predicrotic wave in unsmooth pulse P wave is significantly higher, which could be even higher than that of h1, resulting in early appearance of h3 or integrating with h1, which forms a wide and blunt peak. Unsmooth pulse shows poorer vascular elasticity and greater vascular stiffness. Jie-wei Luo, Si-wei Guo, Shuang-shuang Cao, Ning Lin, Zhen-sheng Ye, Shi-chao Wei, Xing-yu Zheng, Miao-miao Guo, Xiao-rong Meng, and Fang-meng Huang Copyright © 2016 Jie-wei Luo et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Chinese Medicine QPYF as Preventive Treatment for Clostridium difficile Associated Diarrhea in a Mouse Model Thu, 24 Nov 2016 06:33:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3759819/ Traditional Chinese medicine QPYF has a good effect for treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to test its efficacy to prevent Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) in a mouse model. C57BL/6 mice were infected with Clostridium difficile VPI 10463 after exposure to antimicrobial mixture. QPYF was administered from 7 days prior to Clostridium difficile infection to 20 days after infection, and its effect was compared with no treatment and receiving placebo. The mice were monitored for 20 days and the percent survival, disease activity index, weight loss, colon histopathology, and the levels of toxins in the feces were measured. The expressions of TNF α, MCP-1, NF-κB p65, and phospho-NF-κB p65 in the colon were presented by immunohistochemistry. The survival rate of QPYF group (93.75%) was higher than that of model control group (65%). The mice treated with QPYF had a lower weight loss and disease activity index, compared to the mice with placebo. A significantly lower level of histopathology scores, toxins in the feces, and TNF α, MCP-1, NF-κB p65, and phospho-NF-κB p65 were detected for QPYF-treated mice. Traditional Chinese medicine QPYF showed a good preventive effect for CDAD in a mouse model. Guo Ya-Nan, Wang Jun, Zhang Hao-Jun, Jia Hong-Bing, Li Ping, and Liu Xin-Zhu Copyright © 2016 Guo Ya-Nan et al. All rights reserved. Fever: Views in Anthroposophic Medicine and Their Scientific Validity Thu, 24 Nov 2016 06:19:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3642659/ Objective. To conduct a scoping review to characterize how fever is viewed in anthroposophic medicine (AM) and discuss the scientific validity of these views. Methods. Systematic searches were run in Medline, Embase, CAMbase, and Google Scholar. Material from anthroposophic medical textbooks and articles was also used. Data was extracted and interpreted. Results. Most of the anthroposophic literature on this subject is in the German language. Anthroposophic physicians hold a beneficial view on fever, rarely suppress fever with antipyretics, and often use complementary means of alleviating discomfort. In AM, fever is considered to have the following potential benefits: promoting more complete recovery; preventing infection recurrences and atopic diseases; providing a unique opportunity for caregivers to provide loving care; facilitating individual development and resilience; protecting against cancer and boosting the anticancer effects of mistletoe products. These views are discussed with regard to the available scientific data. Conclusion. AM postulates that fever can be of short-term and long-term benefit in several ways; many of these opinions have become evidence-based (though still often not practiced) while others still need empirical studies to be validated, refuted, or modified. David D. Martin Copyright © 2016 David D. Martin. All rights reserved. Calycosin and Formononetin Induce Endothelium-Dependent Vasodilation by the Activation of Large-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels (BKCa) Wed, 23 Nov 2016 14:18:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5272531/ Calycosin and formononetin are two structurally similar isoflavonoids that have been shown to induce vasodilation in aorta and conduit arteries, but study of their actions on endothelial functions is lacking. Here, we demonstrated that both isoflavonoids relaxed rat mesenteric resistance arteries in a concentration-dependent manner, which was reduced by endothelial disruption and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition, indicating the involvement of both endothelium and vascular smooth muscle. In addition, the endothelium-dependent vasodilation, but not the endothelium-independent vasodilation, was blocked by inhibitor iberiotoxin (IbTX). Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we showed calycosin and formononetin induced dose-dependent outwardly rectifying K+ currents using whole cell patch clamp. These currents were blocked by tetraethylammonium chloride (TEACl), charybdotoxin (ChTX), or IbTX, but not apamin. We further demonstrated that both isoflavonoids significantly increased nitric oxide (NO) production and upregulated the activities and expressions of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS). These results suggested that calycosin and formononetin act as endothelial activators for mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation through enhancing endothelium hyperpolarization and NO production. Since activation of plays a role in improving behavioral and cognitive disorders, we suggested that these two isoflavonoids could provide beneficial effects to cognitive disorders through vascular regulation. Hisa Hui Ling Tseng, Chi Teng Vong, George Pak-Heng Leung, Sai Wang Seto, Yiu Wa Kwan, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, and Maggie Pui Man Hoi Copyright © 2016 Hisa Hui Ling Tseng et al. All rights reserved. Serum MicroRNA Profiling and Bioinformatics of Patients with Spleen-Deficiency Syndrome Wed, 23 Nov 2016 14:14:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8726720/ To investigate serum microRNA (miRNA) profile and bioinformatics of patients with spleen-deficiency syndrome (SDS) and explore pathogenesis of SDS patients from miRNA levels, 10 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), within which 5 patients were with SDS and the remaining were with blood stasis syndrome (BSS), and 5 healthy volunteers were recruited. Serum miRNA profiles of SDS patients were identified by quantitative PCR array. Target prediction and functional annotation for miRNAs were performed by miRSystem database. The present study identified 11 candidate serum miRNAs for SDS patients, and their targets were significantly enriched in 18 KEGG pathways and 7 GO molecular functions. Those enriched KEGG pathways included (1) metabolisms of carbohydrate, protein, amino acid, and fatty acid, (2) signaling pathways of insulin, ErbB, chemokine, calcium, and type II diabetes mellitus, (3) invasions of bacterium, Escherichia coli, and Shigella (Shigellosis), and (4) endocytosis and phagocytosis. Those enriched GO molecular functions were mainly involved in transcription regulation and regulation of metabolism. Our findings might elucidate the pathogenesis of SDS patients with disorders of substance metabolism and hypoimmunity from miRNA levels, as well as providing some miRNA biomarkers for clinical syndrome differentiation of SDS. Ze-Min Yang, Long-Hui Chen, Min Hong, Ying-Yu Chen, Xiao-Rong Yang, Si-Meng Tang, Qian-Fa Yuan, Zhen-Yu He, and Wei-Wen Chen Copyright © 2016 Ze-Min Yang et al. All rights reserved. Protocol for Acupuncture Treatment of Lateral Elbow Pain: A Multisite Randomised Controlled Trial in China, Hong Kong, Australia, and Italy Wed, 23 Nov 2016 14:06:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1868659/ Background. Lateral elbow pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal pains associated with the upper limb and has an estimated population incidence of 1–3%. Methods/Design. This study protocol is for a multisite randomised controlled study and is designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of chronic (over three months’ duration) lateral elbow pain. Four study sites, in the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Italy, and Australia, will recruit 24 participants each. A total of 96 participants will be randomised to either an acupuncture group or a sham laser control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire with secondary outcome measures of Pain-Free Grip Strength Test, Muscle Tension Test, and a pain visual analogue scale. Discussion. Key features for conducting a multisite international acupuncture randomised clinical trial have been detailed in this protocol. Trial Registration. This trial is registered at Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12613001138774 on 11 October, 2013. Christopher Zaslawski, Christine Berle, Marcus Gadau, Wei Hong Li, Tie Li, Fu Chun Wang, Sergio Bangrazi, Lei Li, Stefano Liguori, Yan Song Liu, Yuan Sheng Tan, and Shi Ping Zhang Copyright © 2016 Christopher Zaslawski et al. All rights reserved. The Needs and Priorities for Government Grants for Traditional Korean Medicine: Comparing the Public and Traditional Korean Medicine Doctors Wed, 23 Nov 2016 14:05:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2625079/ This study was conducted to compare the need for research and development (R&D) of Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM) perceived by the public and Traditional Korean Medicine doctor (KMD) in. Survey data from 2462 people and KMD were utilized for this study. Overall, 25.10% of the public and 90.91% of KMD answered that government grants for TKM R&D were “extremely necessary.” The majority of respondents reported that grants were needed “for the advancement of science and technology in TKM” (public, 46.28%; KMD, 34.08%). Research regarding herbal medicine was the top priority of TKM R&D in both groups. However, “research facilities and training for researchers (27.85%)” was a close second priority of the public, but not KMD. Moreover, the public believed that safety from adverse effects and toxicity was a more important area of R&D in each discipline, but KMD did not find these to be important. The public and KMD generally agreed on the need for government grants for TKM R&D, but the public was more interested in safety than KMD. Therefore, government policy decision makers must consider opinions of both the public and KMD when planning government grants. Min Kyung Hyun Copyright © 2016 Min Kyung Hyun. All rights reserved. Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Treatments with Traditional Chinese Medicine Wed, 23 Nov 2016 13:45:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9627258/ The prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia caused by cerebrovascular disease is likely to increase with the global aging population. Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a wide spectrum term used to include a diverse heterogeneous group of cognitive syndromes with vascular factors regardless of the cause of pathogenesis. VCID ranges from mild cognitive impairment to full-blown dementia with vascular dementia (VaD) as the most severe stage. It is further complexed by the coexistence of other forms of dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent researches in the functions of the neurovascular unit (NVU) suggest that dysfunction of the NVU might be the cause of primary vascular events in the brain that leads to further neurodegeneration. In this review, we have briefly summarized various forms of VCID. There is currently no standard therapy for VCID or dementia. Given the fact that Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has gained popularity worldwide, we also reviewed recent scientific and clinical findings on various antidementia TCM for the treatment of VCID, including Salvia miltiorrhiza, Huperzia serrata, Ligusticum chuanxiong, Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng, and also TCM formula Sailuotong capsule (SLT) and Fufangdanshen tablets (FFDS). Xinhua Zhou, Guozhen Cui, Hisa Hui Ling Tseng, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, George Pak Heng Leung, Shun Wan Chan, Yiu Wa Kwan, and Maggie Pui Man Hoi Copyright © 2016 Xinhua Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Beeswax Influence on Physical Properties of Lipstick Using Instrumental and Sensory Methods Wed, 23 Nov 2016 08:30:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3816460/ The aim of this study was to optimize the lipsticks formulation according to the physical properties and sensory attributes and investigate the relationship between instrumental and sensory analyses and evaluate the influence of the main ingredients, beeswax and oil, with analysis of lipsticks properties. Central composite design was used to optimize the mixture of oils and beeswax and cocoa butter for formulation of lipsticks. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging method spectrophotometrically. Physical properties of lipsticks melting point were determined in a glass tube; the hardness was investigated with texture analyzer. Sensory analysis was performed with untrained volunteers. The optimized mixture of sea buckthorn oil and grapeseed oil mixture ratio 13.96 : 6.18 showed the highest antioxidative activity (%) and was chosen for lipstick formulation. According to the sensory and instrumental analysis results, optimal ingredients amounts for the lipstick were calculated: 57.67% mixture of oils, 19.58% beeswax, and 22.75% cocoa butter. Experimentally designed and optimized lipstick formulation had good physical properties and high scored sensory evaluation. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between sensory and instrumental evaluations. Giedre Kasparaviciene, Arunas Savickas, Zenona Kalveniene, Saule Velziene, Loreta Kubiliene, and Jurga Bernatoniene Copyright © 2016 Giedre Kasparaviciene et al. All rights reserved. Electroacupuncture Restores 5-HT System Deficit in Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depressed Rats Wed, 23 Nov 2016 06:32:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7950635/ Objective. The current study is designed to investigate the antidepressant efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment by evaluating its effect on the synthesis, metabolism, reuptake, and receptors of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), so as to clarify the molecular mechanisms of EA for antidepression. Materials and Methods. Solitary combined with the chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was used to establish the rat model with depression. The depressed rats were supplied with EA treatment for 4 weeks, and the behavior change and the following indices including 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), 5-HT transporter (SERT), 5-HT1A, and 5-HT2A in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were examined. Results. EA treatment significantly improved the behavior of rats and increased 5-HT level in hippocampus of depressed rats. Similarly, EA treatment could significantly increase protein and mRNA expression of TPH and 5-HT1A during 5-HT synthesis process in hippocampus of depressed rats. However, EA treatment had no effect on the activity of MAO-A and the expression of SERT protein and mRNA. Conclusion. Antidepressant efficacy of EA treatment can be accomplished through enhancing 5-HT synthesis, upregulating 5-HT1A level, and improving 5-HT content in brain and synaptic gaps. Dongmei Duan, Ya Tu, Xiuyan Yang, and Ping Liu Copyright © 2016 Dongmei Duan et al. All rights reserved. The Extract of Fructus Psoraleae Promotes Viability and Cartilaginous Formation of Rat Chondrocytes In Vitro Wed, 23 Nov 2016 06:15:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2057631/ This study aimed to investigate the extract components of FP on rat chondrocyte function and cartilaginous formation in vitro. Petroleum ether extract (P-e) of FP extract components was selected to treat Sprague-Dawley rat chondrocytes. Cell viability was tested with different concentrations (0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μg/mL) of P-e treatment. Concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μg/mL P-e conditioned culture mediums were used for treating chondrocytes in experiments. Cell proliferation was measured via DNA incorporation assay. Type II collagen, aggrecan, and Sox-9 genes expression levels were measured with RT-PCR. Additionally, cartilaginous formation was analyzed with type II collagen immunofluorescence, H&E, and alcian blue staining. Concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μg/mL P-e showed low cytotoxicity and demonstrated stimulatory effects on chondrocyte proliferation in early stages. Following 6 days of P-e culture, aggrecan and Sox-9 gene expression levels of the 1 μg/mL P-e group were upregulated by 1.82- () and 2.06-fold (), respectively, versus controls. Moreover, 1 μg/mL P-e significantly stimulated cell aggregation and type II collagen deposits after 1 week of treatment. Noteworthy, tight cartilaginous structures formed in the 10-day 1 μg/mL P-e conditioned culture. These findings suggest that P-e has the potential to treat cartilage degeneration induced by chondrocyte failure. Xin Pan, Kang Xu, Xuefeng Qiu, Wen Zhao, Dong Wang, and Li Yang Copyright © 2016 Xin Pan et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Chinese Mind and Body Exercises for Promoting Balance Ability of Old Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 21 Nov 2016 06:07:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7137362/ The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of traditional Chinese mind and body exercises in promoting balance ability for old adults. The eligible studies were extensively searched from electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, SportDicus, and Web of Science) until 10 May 2016. Reference lists of relevant publications were screened for future hits. The trials used randomized controlled approaches to compare the effects of traditional Chinese mind and body exercise (TCMBE) on balance ability of old adults that were included. The synthesized results of Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), and static balance with 95% confidence intervals were counted under a random-effects model. Ten studies were selected based on the inclusion criteria, and a total of 1,798 participants were involved in this review. The results of the meta-analysis showed that TCMBE had no significant improvement on BBS and TUG, but the BBS and TUG could be obviously improved by prolonging the intervention time. In addition, the results showed that TCMBE could significantly improve the static balance compared to control group. In conclusion, old adults who practiced TCMBE with the time not less than 150 minutes per week for more than 15 weeks could promote the balance ability. Shihui Chen, Yanjie Zhang, Yong Tai Wang, and Xiao Lei Liu Copyright © 2016 Shihui Chen et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Wound Healing Properties of Grape Seed, Sesame, and Fenugreek Oils Sun, 20 Nov 2016 14:30:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7965689/ Background. Medicinal plants have proved at all times to be a powerful remedy for health care. Accordingly, grape seed, sesame, and fenugreek extracted oils with pharmacological properties are investigated as wound treatments. This study assesses the potential of our oils for healing wounds induced on rats. Methods. Phytochemical analyses of oils have involved: quality value, polyphenol, chlorophylls, carotene, and fatty acids. Antibacterial activity was carried out. Antioxidant activity was evaluated: the scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, the reducing power, and β-carotene discoloration. Uniform wound excision was induced on rats dorsum randomly divided into five groups: groups treated with “CICAFLORA®” and tested oils and untreated one. The posthealing biopsies were histologically assessed. Results. Wound biopsies treated with oils showed the best tissue regeneration compared to control groups. Groups treated with our oils and “CICAFLORA” had higher wound contraction percentage. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in oils act as inflammatory mediators increasing neovascularization, extracellular remodeling, migration, and cell differentiation. Wound healing effect was attributed to antibacterial and antioxidant synergy. Conclusion. According to findings, oils showed better activity in wound healing compared to “CICAFLORA” due to a phytoconstituents synergy. However, clinical trials on humans are necessary to confirm efficacy on human pathology. Dorsaf Moalla Rekik, Sameh Ben Khedir, Kamilia Ksouda Moalla, Naziha Grati Kammoun, Tarek Rebai, and Zouheir Sahnoun Copyright © 2016 Dorsaf Moalla Rekik et al. All rights reserved.