Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Endothelium-Dependent Vasorelaxant Effects of Dealcoholized Wine Powder of Wild Grape (Vitis coignetiae) in the Rat Thoracic Aorta Thu, 20 Oct 2016 14:45:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6846084/ The vasorelaxant effects of dealcoholized wild grape (Vitis coignetiae) wine were investigated with isolated rat thoracic aorta. In our present study, we demonstrate that wild grape wine powder (WGWP) induced relaxation of aortic rings preconstricted with norepinephrine in a dose-dependent manner (at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1 mg/mL). The vasorelaxant effect of WGWP was dependent on intact endothelia, which was attenuated by incubation with inhibitors of endothelium-derived relaxing factors, such as -nitro-L-arginine (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), methylene blue (guanylate cyclase inhibitor), and indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor). Moreover, treatment with WGWP and atropine (muscarinic receptor antagonist) or diphenylhydramine (histamine receptor antagonist) significantly inhibited endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Our results suggest that WGWP induces relaxation in rat aortic rings in an endothelium-dependent manner. Results further indicate that this effect occurs via nitric oxide-cGMP pathway and prostacyclin-cAMP pathway through a muscarinic receptor and histamine receptor. Sang Keun Ha, Ho-Young Park, Mee-Ra Ryu, Yoonsook Kim, and Yongkon Park Copyright © 2016 Sang Keun Ha et al. All rights reserved. The Extract of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice Thu, 20 Oct 2016 07:32:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3915013/ Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZ) has been used for beverage or tea and also as folk medicine for the remedy of diverse inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, the therapeutic effect of CZ on arthritis remains to be unknown. In this paper we aim to investigate the CZ’s antiarthritic effect and mechanism of action both in vitro and in vivo. To assess CZ’s antiarthritic effect, mouse models of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were used. Mice were used to gauge clinical arthritis index and histopathological changes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and other biological methods were adopted to measure CZ’s effect on arthritis and to understand the veiled mechanism of action. CZ greatly suppressed CIA, histopathological score, bone erosion, and osteoclast differentiation. Mechanistically, CZ inhibited the production of various inflammatory and arthritic mediators like inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and chemokines. Of note, CZ significantly suppressed the activation of the NF-κB pathway in vivo. CZ exerted an antiarthritic effect in CIA mice by curbing the production of crucial inflammatory and arthritis mediators. This study warrants further investigation of CZ for the use in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A-Ram Kim, Hyuk Soon Kim, Do Kyun Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Young Hyo Yoo, Jeom Yong Kim, Sun Kyu Park, Seung Taek Nam, Hyun Woo Kim, Young Hwan Park, Dajeong Lee, Min Beom Lee, Young Mi Kim, and Wahn Soo Choi Copyright © 2016 A-Ram Kim et al. All rights reserved. The Efficacy of Thai Herbal Prasaplai Formula for Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Short-Term Randomized Controlled Trial Tue, 18 Oct 2016 17:16:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2096797/ This study aims to compare the efficacy of pain relief between a specific Thai herbal Prasaplai formula (PPF) and placebo in patients with primary dysmenorrhea. Forty women with primary dysmenorrhea symptoms were randomized into two groups. The experimental group received PPF capsules 1000 mg orally three times per day before meals for three days starting from the first day of menstruation. The placebo group received placebo as the same dose and time. Average pain intensity from the first day to the third day of cycle significantly decreased in both groups (), but with no statistically significant difference between groups. Using a pre- and posttreatment difference in NRS of at least 2, a greater proportion of patients in PPF group experienced pain relief compared to placebo during the first and second day of period. A greater proportion of PPF group also experienced no pain compared to the placebo group on day 1 and day 3 by using multidimensional scoring. The PPF demonstrates pain relief activity when used during menstruation in primary dysmenorrhea patients, with no adverse effects. However, further studies are needed in order to assess the value of PPF as a long-term prophylaxis for primary dysmenorrhea. Manmas Vannabhum, Sirikan Poopong, Thanyarat Wongwananuruk, Akarin Nimmannit, Ueamphon Suwannatrai, Chongdee Dangrat, Angkana Apichartvorakit, Suksalin Booranasubkajorn, Tawee Laohapand, and Pravit Akaraserenont Copyright © 2016 Manmas Vannabhum et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity and Neuroprotective Capacity on PC12 Cell Line of Frankenia thymifolia and Related Phenolic LC-MS/MS Identification Tue, 18 Oct 2016 15:57:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2843463/ This work aimed to investigate the richness of a Tunisian xerohalophyte Frankenia thymifolia aerial and root parts on phenolics and to evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of this medicinal species. After fractionation using increasing and different solvent polarities, results displayed five fractions, where ethyl acetate (EtOAc) shoot and root fractions possess considerable total phenolic contents (221 and 308 mg of GAE/g of E, resp.) related to their important antioxidant activities such as ORAC (918 and 713 mg of TE/g of E), DPPH (282 and 821 mg of TE/g), and ABTS (778 and 1320 mg of TE/g) tests. Then, the identification of the main compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and neuroprotective property of the most active fraction EtOAc were assessed. A total of 14 molecules were identified, which have been described for the first time in F. thymifolia. The major compounds identified were pinoresinol and kaempferol glycoside in aerial parts and gallic acid and ellagitannin in roots. Neuroprotective capacity against β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide induced toxicity in PC12 cells of EtOAc fraction showed a significant protective activity at lower concentration (25 and 50 µM). The relevant antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of F. thymifolia EtOAc fraction corroborated their chemical compositions. Rim Ben Mansour, Wided Megdiche Ksouri, Stéphanie Cluzet, Stéphanie Krisa, Tristan Richard, and Riadh Ksouri Copyright © 2016 Rim Ben Mansour et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of Electroacupuncture on APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice in Spatial Learning and Memory Probably due to Expression of Aβ and LRP1 in Hippocampus Tue, 18 Oct 2016 14:40:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7603975/ Objectives. To explore the alterations of β-amyloid (Aβ) and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) in APP/PS1 mice after electroacupuncture (EA) treatment and further to explore the mechanism. Methods. Forty 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice were randomly divided into a model group and an EA group, with twenty wild-type mice used as a normal control group. Mice in the EA group were treated with EA at GV 20 (băi huì) and bilateral KI 1 (yŏng quán) acupoints for 6 weeks. The Morris water maze was applied to assess the spatial memory in behavior. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), ELISA, Western blotting, and so forth were used to observe the expression of LRP1 and Aβ. Results. The Morris water maze test showed that, compared with the normal control group, the model group’s learning and memory capabilities were significantly decreased (; ). The EA group was reversed (; ). The hippocampal expression of Aβ in the EA group was significantly decreased compared to the model group (). The expression of LRP1 in the model group was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (); the expression in the EA group was significantly higher than that in the model group (). Conclusions. EA therapy can improve the learning and memory capabilities of APP/PS1 mice. The underlying mechanism may lie in the upregulation of an Aβ transport receptor and LRP1. Xin Wang, Yanhuan Miao, Jiawula Abulizi, Fu Li, Yuping Mo, Weiguo Xue, and Zhigang Li Copyright © 2016 Xin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Learning and Memory and Improves Synaptic Plasticity via Activation of the PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Cerebral Hypoperfusion Tue, 18 Oct 2016 11:08:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7893710/ Electroacupuncture (EA) has shown protective effects on cognitive decline. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are ill-understood. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the cognitive function was ameliorated in cerebral hypoperfusion rats following EA and to investigate the role of PKA/CREB pathway. We used a rat 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) model and delivered EA at Baihui (GV20) and Dazhui (GV14) acupoints. Morris water maze (MWM) task, electrophysiological recording, Golgi silver stain, Nissl stain, Western blot, and real-time PCR were employed. EA significantly (1) ameliorated the spatial learning and memory deficits, (2) alleviated long-term potentiation (LTP) impairment and the reduction of dendritic spine density, (3) suppressed the decline of phospho-CREB (pCREB) protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein, and microRNA132 (miR132), and (4) reduced the increase of p250GAP protein of 2VO rats. These changes were partially blocked by a selective protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (H89), suggesting that the PKA/CREB pathway is potentially involved in the effects of EA. Moreover, any significant damage to the pyramidal cell layer of CA1 subregion was absent. These results demonstrated that EA could ameliorate learning and memory deficits and alleviate hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairment of cerebral hypoperfusion rats, potentially mediated by PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Cai-Xia Zheng, Min Lu, Ya-Bi Guo, Feng-Xia Zhang, Hua Liu, Feng Guo, Xiao-Lin Huang, and Xiao-Hua Han Copyright © 2016 Cai-Xia Zheng et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Geometrical Isomerism of 3,5-Dicaffeoylquinic Acid on Its Binding Affinity to HIV-Integrase Enzyme: A Molecular Docking Study Tue, 18 Oct 2016 08:34:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4138263/ A potent plant-derived HIV-1 inhibitor, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (diCQA), has been shown to undergo isomerisation upon UV exposure where the naturally occurring ,-diCQA isomer gives rise to the ,-diCQA, ,-diCQA, and ,-diCQA isomers. In this study, inhibition of HIV-1 INT by UV-induced isomers was investigated using molecular docking methods. Here, density functional theory (DFT) models were used for geometry optimization of the 3,5-diCQA isomers. The YASARA and Autodock VINA software packages were then used to determine the binding interactions between the HIV-1 INT catalytic domain and the 3,5-diCQA isomers and the Discovery Studio suite was used to visualise the interactions between the isomers and the protein. The geometrical isomers of 3,5-diCQA were all found to bind to the catalytic core domain of the INT enzyme. Moreover, the geometrical isomers were found to interact with the metal cofactor of HIV-1INT, a phenomenon which has been linked to antiviral potency. Furthermore, the ,-diCQA isomer was also found to interact with both LYS156 and LYS159 which are important residues for viral DNA integration. The differences in binding modes of these naturally coexisting isomers may allow wider synergistic activity which may be beneficial in comparison to the activities of each individual isomer. Mpho M. Makola, Ian A. Dubery, Gerrit Koorsen, Paul A. Steenkamp, Mwadham M. Kabanda, Louis L. du Preez, and Ntakadzeni E. Madala Copyright © 2016 Mpho M. Makola et al. All rights reserved. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of Ginsenoside F2 on Human Gastric Carcinoma Cells SGC7901 Tue, 18 Oct 2016 08:02:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2635483/ Ginsenoside F2 (F2), a protopanaxdiol type of saponin, was reported to inhibit human gastric cancer cells SGC7901. To better understand the molecular mechanisms of F2, an iTRAQ-based proteomics approach was applied to define protein expression profiles in SGC7901 cells in response to lower dose (20 μM) and shorter duration (12 hour) of F2 treatment, compared with previous study. 205 proteins were screened in terms of the change in their expression level which met our predefined criteria. Further bioinformatics and experiments demonstrated that F2 treatment downregulated PRR5 and RPS15 and upregulated RPL26, which are implicated in ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway. F2 also inhibited CISD2, Bcl-xl, and NLRX1, which are associated with autophagic pathway. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that F2 treatment increased Atg5, Atg7, Atg10, and PUMA, the critical downstream effectors of ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway, and Beclin-1, UVRAG, and AMBRA-1, the important molecules in Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway. The 6 differentially abundant proteins, PRR5, CISD2, Bcl-xl, NLRX1, RPS15, and RPL26, were confirmed by western blot. Taken together, ribosomal protein-p53 signaling pathway and Bcl-xl/Beclin-1 pathway might be the most significantly regulated biological process by F2 treatment in SGC7901 cells, which provided valuable insights into the deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of F2 for gastric cancer treatment. Qian Mao, Pin-Hu Zhang, Jie Yang, Jin-Di Xu, Ming Kong, Hong Shen, He Zhu, Min Bai, Li Zhou, Guang-Fu Li, Qiang Wang, and Song-Lin Li Copyright © 2016 Qian Mao et al. All rights reserved. Yi-Zhi-Fang-Dai Formula Protects against Aβ1–42 Oligomer Induced Cell Damage via Increasing Hsp70 and Grp78 Expression in SH-SY5Y Cells Mon, 17 Oct 2016 13:28:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8591656/ Yi-Zhi-Fang-Dai formula (YZFDF) is an experiential prescription used to cure dementia cases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, the main effective compounds of YZFDF have been identified from this formula, and the neuroprotective effect against oligomer of YZFDF has been tested in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that YZFDF could increase cell viability and could attenuate endothelial reticula- (ER-) mediated apoptosis. Evidence indicated that protein folding and endothelial reticula stress (ERS) played an important role in the AD pathological mechanism. We further explored the expression of Hsp70, an important molecular chaperon facilitating the folding of other proteins, and Grp78, the marker protein of ERS in SH-SY5Y cells. Data told us that YZFDF pretreatment could influence the mRNA and protein expression of these two proteins. At last, we also found that YZFDF pretreatment could activate Akt in SH-SY5Y cells. All these above indicate that YZFDF could be a potent therapeutic candidate for AD treatment. Lumei Liu, Wenbin Wan, Wenjing Chen, Yuanjin Chan, Qi Shen, and Yaming Li Copyright © 2016 Lumei Liu et al. All rights reserved. Nanog Predicts Poor Prognosis in Human Pancreatic Cancer and Is Downregulated by QingyihuaJi Formula in Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells Mon, 17 Oct 2016 11:41:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7028289/ Qingyihuaji formula (QYHJ), confirmed efficacious in a series of clinical trials, has been applied to human pancreatic carcinoma treatment in Shanghai Cancer Center for years. Recent evidence highlighted that pluripotent stem cells transcription factor Nanog plays a pivotal role in carcinogenesis. However, there is little published information regarding the underlying clinical significance and mechanisms of transcription factor Nanog in pancreatic cancer. In this study, our results indicated that Nanog is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer stem cells and downregulated by QYHJ, which may contribute to explain the clinical effectiveness of QYHJ and provide advanced pancreatic cancer patients with a new therapeutic option, supporting our hypothesis that the degradation pathway is another mechanism by which QYHJ affects Nanog expression. Song Gao, Yan Pan, Libin Song, Lei Dong, Lao I. Weng, Peng Wang, Yongqiang Hua, Zhen Chen, and Luming Liu Copyright © 2016 Song Gao et al. All rights reserved. Xiao Yao San against Corticosterone-Induced Stress Injury via Upregulating Glucocorticoid Receptor Reaction Element Transcriptional Activity Sun, 16 Oct 2016 13:45:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5850739/ Previous studies have revealed that uncontrollable stress can impair the synaptic plasticity and firing property of hippocampal neurons, which influenced various hippocampal-dependent tasks including memory, cognition, behavior, and mood. In this work, we had investigated the effects and mechanisms of the Chinese herbal medicine Xiao Yao San (XYS) against corticosterone-induced stress injury in primary hippocampal neurons (PHN) cells. We found that XYS and RU38486 could increase cell viabilities and decrease cell apoptosis by MTT, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry assays. In addition, we observed that XYS notably inhibited the nuclear translocation of GR and upregulated the mRNA and protein expressions levels of Caveolin-1, GR, BDNF, TrkB, and FKBP4. However, XYS downregulated the FKBP51 expressions. Furthermore, the results of the electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and double luciferase reporter gene detection indicated that FKBP4 promotes the transcriptional activity of GR reaction element (GRE) by binding with GR, and FKBP51 processed the opposite action. The in vivo experiment also proved the functions of XYS. These results suggested that XYS showed an efficient neuroprotection against corticosterone-induced stress injury in PHN cells by upregulating GRE transcriptional activity, which should be developed as a potential candidate for treating stress injury in the future. Guoping Cao, Shenglan Gong, Fengxue Zhang, and Wenjun Fu Copyright © 2016 Guoping Cao et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Chinese Medicine Use among Patients with Psoriasis in Taiwan: A Nationwide Population-Based Study Sun, 16 Oct 2016 13:33:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3164105/ Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4%) patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (,609; 57.8%) of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn’s disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted. Shu-Wen Weng, Bor-Chyuan Chen, Yu-Chiao Wang, Chun-Kai Liu, Mao-Feng Sun, Ching-Mao Chang, Jaung-Geng Lin, and Hung-Rong Yen Copyright © 2016 Shu-Wen Weng et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Body Weight Change and Body Constitutions of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Patients with Schizophrenia Thu, 13 Oct 2016 16:35:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9585968/ Objective. To explore the relationship between body constitution (BC) types and weight change in patients with schizophrenia and who underwent second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) treatment. Method. Body weight and waist circumference of eighty-five participants were measured for 6 consecutive weeks. Constitutions of Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis were assessed using the Body Constitution Questionnaire (BCQ). Results. Participants with body constitutions Yin-Xu (50.6%), Yang-Xu (49.4%), or Stasis (38.8%) exhibited worse physical condition and unhealthy daily habits, particularly in Stasis constitution. Moreover, Stasis constitution was significantly associated with several factors, including BMI, body weight, waist circumference, perception of stress, perception of health, staying up late, and less physical exercise. However, perception of stress showed significant difference in Yin-Xu, Yang-Xu, and Stasis. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis revealed that significant time effects in body weight increase in the imbalanced BC types and gentleness BC type. SGAs induced weight gain in imbalanced BC type as well as gentleness BC type, especially treated with olanzapine. Conclusions. This is the first study to explore the longitudinal relationship between BC and weight gain in schizophrenia patients undergoing SGAs treatment. Health care providers should focus on weight gain problems in schizophrenia patients who underwent SGAs treatment. Jui-Fen Cheng, Xuan-Yi Huang, Te-Le Liu, Ruey-Yun Wang, and Han-Yi Ching Copyright © 2016 Jui-Fen Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Medicinal Herbs for the Treatment of Hyperuricemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 13 Oct 2016 13:06:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2146204/ Background. Chinese medicinal herbs may be useful for the treatment of hyperuricemia, but there has been no systematic assessment of their efficacy and safety. Objectives. To systematically assess the efficacy and safety of Chinese medicinal herbs for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Methods. Six electronic databases were searched from their inception to December 2015. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) were included. Cochrane criteria were applied to assess the risk of bias. Data analysis was performed using RevMan software version 5.2. Results. Eleven RCTs with 838 patients were included. There was no significant difference in serum uric acid between Chinese medicinal herbs and traditional Western medicine (SME: 0.19, 95% CI: −0.04 to 0.43; ). In terms of overall efficacy, the Chinese medicinal herbs were significantly superior to Western medicine (RR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.17; ). The Chinese medicinal herbs were better than Western medicine in reducing the adverse reactions (RR: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.62; ). And all these funnel plots showed unlikelihood of publishing bias. Conclusions. The results indicate that Chinese medicinal herbs may have greater overall efficacy with fewer adverse drug reactions, although the evidence is weak owing to the low methodological quality and the small number of the included trials. Jianping Lin, Shaoqing Chen, Shuzhen Li, Meili Lu, Yanan Li, and Youxin Su Copyright © 2016 Jianping Lin et al. All rights reserved. Evaluating Acupuncture Point and Nonacupuncture Point Stimulation with EEG: A High-Frequency Power Spectrum Analysis Thu, 13 Oct 2016 09:48:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2134364/ To identify physical and sensory responses to acupuncture point stimulation (APS), nonacupuncture point stimulation (NAPS) and no stimulation (NS), changes in the high-frequency power spectrum before and after stimulation were evaluated with electroencephalography (EEG). A total of 37 healthy subjects received APS at the LI4 point, NAPS, or NS with their eyes closed. Background brain waves were measured before, during, and after stimulation using 8 channels. Changes in the power spectra of gamma waves and high beta waves before, during, and after stimulation were comparatively analyzed. After NAPS, absolute high beta power (AHBP), relative high beta power (RHBP), absolute gamma power (AGP), and relative gamma power (RGP) tended to increase in all channels. But no consistent notable changes were found for APS and NS. NAPS is believed to cause temporary reactions to stress, tension, and sensory responses of the human body, while APS responds stably compared to stimulation of other parts of the body. Kwang-Ho Choi, O. Sang Kwon, Seong Jin Cho, Sanghun Lee, Suk-Yun Kang, Seong Hun Ahn, and Yeonhee Ryu Copyright © 2016 Kwang-Ho Choi et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Electroacupuncture for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 13 Oct 2016 09:26:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3485875/ Purpose. This study aims to verify the effects of electroacupuncture treatment on osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, AMED, CNKI, and five Korean databases were searched by predefined search strategies to screen eligible randomized controlled studies meeting established criteria. Any risk of bias in the included studies was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Meta-analysis was conducted using RevMan version 5.3 software. Results. Thirty-one randomized controlled studies of 3,187 participants were included in this systematic review. Meta-analysis was conducted with eight studies including a total of 1,220 participants. The electroacupuncture treatment group showed more significant improvement in pain due to knee osteoarthritis than the control group (SMD −1.86, 95% CI −2.33 to −1.39, 75%) and in total WOMAC score than the control group (SMD −1.34, CI 95% −1.85 to −0.83, 73%). Compared to the control group, the electroacupuncture treatment group showed more significant improvement on the quality of life scale. Conclusion. Electroacupuncture treatment can relieve the pain of osteoarthritis of the knees and improve comprehensive aspects of knee osteoarthritis and the quality of life of patients with knee osteoarthritis. Jae-Woo Shim, Jae-Young Jung, and Sung-Soo Kim Copyright © 2016 Jae-Woo Shim et al. All rights reserved. Electroacupuncture at ST37 Enhances Jejunal Motility via Excitation of the Parasympathetic System in Rats and Mice Wed, 12 Oct 2016 13:44:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3840230/ Background. The roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in mediating the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST37 on jejunal motility have yet to be demonstrated. Aim. We used rats and mice to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility. Methods. Jejunal motility was recorded by a balloon placed in the jejunum and connected to a biological signal collection system through a transducer. The effects of EA (3 mA) at ST37 were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats without drugs and with the administration of clenbuterol, propranolol, acetylcholine, and atropine. Further, the efficacy of EA at different intensities (1/2/4/6/8 mA) was measured in wild-type mice and mice and mice. Results. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the excitatory effect of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility disappeared in the presence of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. EA at ST37 was less effective in mice than in wild-type mice. Furthermore, to a certain extent, there existed “intensity-response” relationship between jejunal motility and EA. Conclusions. EA at ST37 can enhance jejunal motility in rats and mice mainly via excitation of the parasympathetic pathway. There is an “intensity-response” relationship between EA and effect on jejunal motility. Mengqian Yuan, Yuqin Li, Yidan Wang, Na Zhang, XuanMing Hu, Yin Yin, Bing Zhu, Zhi Yu, and Bin Xu Copyright © 2016 Mengqian Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Relationship of the Cold-Heat Sensation of the Limbs and Abdomen with Physiological Biomarkers Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:57:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2718051/ The present study explored the relationship between the regional Cold-Heat sensation, the key indicator of the Cold-Heat patterns in traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM), and various biomarkers in Korean population. 734 apparently healthy volunteers aged 20 years and older were enrolled. Three scale self-report questions on the general thermal feel in hands, legs, and abdomen were examined. We found that 65% of women tended to perceive their body, particularly their hands and legs, to be cold, versus 25% of men. Energy expenditure and temperature load at resting state were lower in women, independently of body mass index (BMI). Those with warm hands and warm legs had a 0.74 and 0.52 kg/m2 higher BMI than those with cold hands and cold legs, respectively, regardless of age, gender, and body weight. Norepinephrine was higher, whereas the dynamic changes in glucose and insulin during an oral glucose tolerance test were lower in those with cold extremities, particularly hands. No consistent differences in biomarkers were found for the abdominal dimension. These results suggest that gender, BMI, the sympathetic nervous system, and glucose metabolism are potential determinants of the Cold-Heat sensation in the hands and legs, but not the abdomen. Duong Duc Pham, JeongHoon Lee, GaYul Kim, JiYeon Song, JiEun Kim, and Chae Hun Leem Copyright © 2016 Duong Duc Pham et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Effects of Shenfu Injection in the Treatment of Septic Shock Patients: A Multicenter, Controlled, Randomized, Open-Label Trial” Wed, 12 Oct 2016 11:21:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6460252/ Yi Li, Xinchao Zhang, Peihong Lin, Haibo Qiu, Jie Wei, Yu Cao, Shuming Pan, Joseph Walline, Chuanyun Qian, Zhigang Shan, and XueZhong Yu Copyright © 2016 Yi Li et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of a Natural Remedy for the Treatment of Gastroesophageal Reflux: A Double-Blinded Randomized-Controlled Study Wed, 12 Oct 2016 09:20:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2581461/ Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a common, chronic, relapsing symptom. Often people self-diagnose and self-treat it even though health-related quality of life is significantly impaired. In the lack of a valid alternative approach, current treatments focus on suppression of gastric acid secretion by the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), but people with GER have a significantly lower response rate to therapy. We designed a randomized double-blinded controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of a formulation based on sodium alginate/bicarbonate in combination with extracts obtained from Opuntia ficus-indica and Olea europaea associated with polyphenols (Mucosave®; verum), on GER-related symptoms. Male/female 118 (intention to treat) subjects with moderate GER and having at least 2 to 6 days of GER episodes/week were treated with verum (6 g/day) or placebo for two months. The questionnaires Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease-Health-Related Quality of Life (GERD-HRQoL) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptom Assessment Scale (GSAS) were self-administered by participants before the treatment and at the end of the treatment. Verum produced statistically significant reduction of GERD-HRQoL and GSAS scores, −56.5% and −59.1%, respectively, in comparison to placebo. Heartburn and acid regurgitation episodes for week were significantly reduced by verum (). Results indicate that Mucosave formulation provides an effective and well-tolerated treatment for reducing the frequency and intensity of symptoms associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Umberto Alecci, Francesco Bonina, Andrea Bonina, Luisa Rizza, Santi Inferrera, Carmen Mannucci, and Gioacchino Calapai Copyright © 2016 Umberto Alecci et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial” Wed, 12 Oct 2016 08:34:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9741394/ Jin Woo Suh, Sun Yong Chung, Sang Young Kim, Jung Hwan Lee, and Jong Woo Kim Copyright © 2016 Jin Woo Suh et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: The Effects of Positive or Neutral Communication during Acupuncture for Relaxing Effects: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial Wed, 12 Oct 2016 06:59:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9362978/ Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Copyright © 2016 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. All rights reserved. Metabolic Syndrome Increases the Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Meta-Analysis Tue, 11 Oct 2016 14:28:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7242478/ Background. Studies revealed that metabolic factors might contribute substantially to osteoarthritis (OA) pathogenesis. There has been an increasing interest to understand the relationship between knee OA and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to explore the association between metabolic syndrome and knee osteoarthritis using meta-analysis. Methods. Databases, including PUBMED, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, were searched to get relevant studies. Data were extracted separately by two authors and pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Results. The meta-analysis was finished with 8 studies with a total of 3202 cases and 20968 controls finally retrieved from the database search. The crude pooled OR is 2.24 (95% CI = 1.38–3.64). Although there was significant heterogeneity among these studies, which was largely accounted for by a single study, the increase in risk was still significant after exclusion of that study. The pooled adjusted OR remained significant with pooled adjusted OR 1.05 (95% CI = 1.03–1.07, ). No publication bias was found in the present meta-analysis. Conclusions. The synthesis of available evidence supports that metabolic syndrome increases the risk for knee osteoarthritis, even after adjustment for many risk factors. Huajun Wang, Yanmei Cheng, Decheng Shao, Junyuan Chen, Yuan Sang, Tao Gui, Simin Luo, Jieruo Li, Chao Chen, Yongguang Ye, Yong Yang, Yikai Li, and Zhengang Zha Copyright © 2016 Huajun Wang et al. All rights reserved. Asteraceae Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba Essential Oils Trigger Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Tue, 11 Oct 2016 12:14:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9147096/ We report the chemical composition and anti-Leishmania and antioxidant activity of Artemisia campestris L. and Artemisia herba-alba Asso. essential oils (EOs). Our results showed that these extracts exhibit different antioxidant activities according to the used assay. The radical scavenging effects determined by DPPH assay were of IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL and IC50 = 9.1 mg/mL for Artemisia campestris and Artemisia herba-alba essential oils, respectively. However, antioxidant effects of both essential oils, determined by ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, were in the same range (2.3 and 2.97 mg eq EDTA/g EO, resp.), while the Artemisia herba-alba essential oil showed highest chelating activity of Fe2+ ions (27.48 mM Fe2+). Interestingly, we showed that both EOs possess dose-dependent activity against Leishmania infantum promastigotes with IC50 values of 68 μg/mL and 44 μg/mL for A. herba-alba and A. campestris, respectively. We reported, for the first time, that antileishmanial activity of both EOs was mediated by cell apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest at the sub-G0/G1 phase. All our results showed that EOs from A. herba-alba and A. campestris plants are promising candidates as anti-Leishmania medicinal products. Zohra Aloui, Chokri Messaoud, Meriam Haoues, Noura Neffati, Imen Bassoumi Jamoussi, Khadija Essafi-Benkhadir, Mohamed Boussaid, Ikram Guizani, and Habib Karoui Copyright © 2016 Zohra Aloui et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Effect of Inhalation of Aromatherapy Oil on Patients with Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial” Tue, 11 Oct 2016 09:28:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2103616/ Seo Yeon Choi and Kyungsook Park Copyright © 2016 Seo Yeon Choi and Kyungsook Park. All rights reserved. Essential Oils from Ugandan Medicinal Plants: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Effects on IL-1β-Induced Proinflammatory Mediators by Human Gingival Fibroblasts Tue, 11 Oct 2016 08:21:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5357689/ The study investigated cytotoxicity of essential oils from four medicinal plants (Bidens pilosa, Ocimum gratissimum, Cymbopogon nardus, and Zanthoxylum chalybeum) on human gingival fibroblasts and their effects on proinflammatory mediators’ secretion. Cytotoxicity of essential oils was investigated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Effects of essential oils at subcytotoxicity concentrations on interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-8, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretions by gingival fibroblasts treated with IL-1β (300 pg/mL) were evaluated by ELISA and EIA. IC50 values of the essential oils ranged from 26 μg/mL to 50 μg/mL. Baseline and IL-1β-induced secretion of PGE2 was inhibited by treatment with essential oil from O. gratissimum. Essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus had synergistic effects with IL-1β on PGE2 seceretion. In conclusion, the study suggests that essential oil from O. gratissimum decreases gingival fibroblasts secretion of PGE2, while essential oils from B. pilosa and C. nardus increase PGE2 secretion. Essential oil from Z. chalybeum was the most cytotoxic, while oil from C. nardus was the least cytotoxic. Although the clinical significance of these findings remains to be determined, it may be suggested that essential oil from O. gratissimum, applied at subcytotoxicity concentrations, could reduce the participation of gingival fibroblasts in the gingival inflammation and tissue destruction associated with periodontitis. Francis Ocheng, Freddie Bwanga, Elisabeth Almer Boström, Moses Joloba, Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson, Tülay Yucel-Lindberg, Celestino Obua, and Anders Gustafsson Copyright © 2016 Francis Ocheng et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of Acupressure on the Taichong Acupoint in Lowering Blood Pressure in Patients with Hypertension: A Randomized Clinical Trial Mon, 10 Oct 2016 13:12:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1549658/ Objectives. To evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure on the Taichong acupoint in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients. Methods. Eighty patients with hypertension attending a cardiology outpatient department in central Taiwan were included in this randomized clinical trial. Acupressure was applied to the Taichong acupoint in the experimental group () and to the first metatarsal (sham acupoint) in the control group (). Blood pressure was measured by electronic monitoring before and immediately 15 min and 30 min after acupressure. Results. The average age of the experimental and control participants was 59.3 ± 9.2 years and 62.7 ± 8.4 years, respectively. The two groups were similar for demographics and antihypertensive drug use. Mean systolic and diastolic BP in the experimental group decreased at 0, 15, and 30 min after acupressure (165.0/96.3, 150.4/92.7, 145.7/90.8, and 142.9/88.6 mmHg); no significant changes occurred in the control group. There was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic BP between the experimental and control groups immediately and 15 and 30 min after acupressure (). Conclusion. Acupressure on the Taichong acupoint can lower BP in hypertensive patients and may be included in the nursing care plan for hypertension. However, additional studies are needed to determine the optimal dosage, frequency, and long-term effects of this therapy. Gan-Hon Lin, Wei-Chun Chang, Kuan-Ju Chen, Chen-Chen Tsai, Sung-Yuan Hu, and Li-Li Chen Copyright © 2016 Gan-Hon Lin et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Standardized Extract of Bacopa monnieri (Bacognize®) on Cognitive Functions of Medical Students: A Six-Week, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial Mon, 10 Oct 2016 08:20:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4103423/ Rationale. Bacopa monnieri, popularly known as Brahmi, has been traditionally used in Ayurveda since ages for its memory enhancing properties. However, data on placebo-controlled trial of Bacopa monnieri on intellectual sample is scarce. Hence this study was planned to evaluate the effect of Bacopa monnieri on memory of medical students for six weeks. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Bacopa monnieri on memory of medical students with six weeks’ administration. Method and Material. This was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled noncrossover, parallel trial. Sixty medical students of either gender from second year of medical school, third term, regular batch, were enrolled from Government Medical College, Nagpur, India. Baseline biochemical and memory tests were done. The participants were randomly divided in two groups to receive either 150 mg of standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri (Bacognize) or matching placebo twice daily for six weeks. All baseline investigations were repeated at the end of the trial. Students were followed up for 15 days after the intervention. Results. Statistically significant improvement was seen in the tests relating to the cognitive functions with use of Bacopa monnieri. Blood biochemistry also showed a significant increase in serum calcium levels (still within normal range). Navneet Kumar, L. G. Abichandani, Vijay Thawani, K. J. Gharpure, M. U. R. Naidu, and G. Venkat Ramana Copyright © 2016 Navneet Kumar et al. All rights reserved. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Regulation of Autophagy and Apoptosis Sun, 09 Oct 2016 12:37:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7297425/ Background. The therapeutic mechanisms of cerebral ischemia treatment by acupuncture are yet not well addressed. Objective. We investigated the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at GV26 observing the expression of autophagy-related proteins Beclin-1 and LC3B and proportion of apoptotic cells and Bcl-2 positive cells in MCAO/R model rats. Methods. Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly assigned to 7 groups: model groups (M6h, M24h, and M72h), EA treatment groups (T6h, T24h, and T72h), and sham operation group (S). Neurological deficit and cerebral infarction volume were measured to assess the improvement effect, while the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B and proportion of Tunel-positive and Bcl-2 positive cells were examined to explore EA effect on autophagy and apoptosis. Results. EA significantly decreased neurological deficit scores and the volume of cerebral infarction. Beclin-1 was significantly decreased in T24h, while LC3B-II/LC3B-I ratio markedly reduced in 6th hour. EA groups markedly reduced the number of Tunel positive cells, especially in T24h. Meanwhile, the number of Bcl-2 positive cells obviously increased after EA treatment, especially in T6h and T24h. Conclusions. The alleviation of inadequate autophagy and apoptosis may be a key mechanism involved in the reflex regulation of EA at GV26 to treat cerebral ischemia. Shi Shu, Chun-Ming Li, Yan-Li You, Xiao-Lu Qian, Shuang Zhou, and Chang-quan Ling Copyright © 2016 Shi Shu et al. All rights reserved. Ginsenoside Rg3 Serves as an Adjuvant Chemotherapeutic Agent and VEGF Inhibitor in the Treatment of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review Wed, 05 Oct 2016 14:32:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7826753/ Objective. To evaluate ginsenoside Rg3 combined with chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment, in a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the VIP and Wanfang databases for eligible studies. We manually searched for printed journals and relevant textbooks. Statistical analyses were performed with Revman 5.3 and STATA 14.0 software packages. Results. Twenty studies were included. Ginsenoside Rg3 combined with chemotherapy could enhance response, improve disease control, prolong overall survival, improve patient quality of life, reduce leucocyte count decrease due to chemotherapy, reduce vascular endothelial growth factor expression in peripheral blood, and increase CD4/CD8 T cell ratio. Conclusion. Ginsenoside Rg3 combined with chemotherapy may enhance short-term efficacy and overall survival, alleviate treatment-induced side effects, reduce vascular endothelial growth factor expression, increase CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, and serve as a potential therapeutic regimen for NSCLC. However, considering the limitations, the conclusion should be interpreted carefully, and these results need to be confirmed by more high-quality trials. Tao Xu, Zhichao Jin, Yuan Yuan, Huamin Wei, Xinyao Xu, Shulin He, Shuntai Chen, Wei Hou, Qiujun Guo, and Baojin Hua Copyright © 2016 Tao Xu et al. All rights reserved.