Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Rhizome Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptis chinensis Attenuates Mesalazine-Resistant Colitis in Mice Tue, 27 Sep 2016 13:30:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5895184/ We investigated the effect of DWac on the gut microbiota composition in mice with 2,3,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis. Treatment with DWac restored TNBS-disturbed gut microbiota composition and attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined the effect of DWac in mice with mesalazine-resistant colitis (MRC). Intrarectal injection of TNBS in MRC mice caused severe colitis, as well as colon shortening, edema, and increased myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with mesalazine (30 mg/kg) did not attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in MRC mice, whereas treatment with DWac (30 mg/kg) significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, treatment with the mixture of mesalazine (15 mg/kg) and DWac (15 mg/kg) additively attenuated colitis in MRC mice. Treatment with DWac and its mixture with mesalazine inhibited TNBS-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of M1 macrophage markers but increased TNBS-suppressed expression of M2 macrophage markers. Furthermore, these inhibited TNBS-induced T-bet, RORγt, TNF-α, and IL-17 expression but increased TNBS-suppressed Foxp3 and IL-10 expression. However, Th2 cell differentiation and GATA3 and IL-5 expression were not affected. These findings suggest that DWac can ameliorate MRC by increasing the polarization of M2 macrophage and correcting the disturbance of gut microbiota and Th1/Th17/Treg, as well as additively attenuating MRC along with mesalazine. Su-Min Lim, Hyun Sik Choi, Jin-Ju Jeong, Seung-Won Han, and Dong-Hyun Kim Copyright © 2016 Su-Min Lim et al. All rights reserved. The Multifunctional Effects of Nobiletin and Its Metabolites In Vivo and In Vitro Tue, 27 Sep 2016 07:28:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2918796/ Nobiletin (NOB) chemically known as 5,6,7,8,3′,4′-hexamethoxyflavone is a dietary polymethoxylated flavonoid found in Citrus fruits. Recent evidences show that NOB is a multifunctional pharmaceutical agent. The various pharmacological activities of NOB include neuroprotection, cardiovascular protection, antimetabolic disorder, anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antioxidation. These events may be underpinned by modulation of signaling cascades, including PKA/ERK/MEK/CREB, NF-κB, MAPK, Ca2+/CaMKII, PI3K/Akt1/2, HIF-1α, and TGFβ signaling pathways. The metabolites may exhibit stronger beneficial effects than NOB on diseases pathogenesis. The biological activities of NOB have been clarified on many systems. This review aims to discuss the pharmacological effects of NOB with specific mechanisms of actions. NOB may become a promising candidate for potential drug development. However, further investigations of NOB on specific intracellular targets and clinical trials are still needed, especially for in vivo medical applications. Hao Huang, Linfu Li, Weimei Shi, Hai Liu, Jianqiong Yang, Xiaoliang Yuan, and Longhuo Wu Copyright © 2016 Hao Huang et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Hot Water Extracts from Polygonum multiflorum on Ovariectomy Induced Osteopenia in Mice Mon, 26 Sep 2016 13:47:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8970585/ Polygonum multiflorum (PM), a traditional Chinese medicine, is used to treat various diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hyperlipidemia. However, the influence of PM on osteoporosis in animals is unclear. The present study investigated the antiosteoporotic effect of PM on bone mass in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and its possible mechanism of action. Twenty-five female C3H/HeN mice were divided into five groups of five mice as follows. Sham-operated control mice received daily oral gavage of an equal volume of water, and OVX mice received daily oral gavage of water or an injection of β-estradiol or PM for 6 weeks. Administration of PM significantly suppressed body weight and organs weight and increased weight and length of bone compared with the OVX group. Treatment with PM reversed osteopenia in OVX mice, thereby improving the bone morphometric parameters. Moreover, histological analysis using hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that PM inhibited OVX-induced bone loss. Serum estradiol and bone alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly decreased in the OVX group, with the levels increasing with PM treatment. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity was inhibited by PM in OVX mice. These results suggest that PM is effective in preventing bone loss in OVX mice. Yun-Ho Hwang, Kyung-Yun Kang, Jong-Jin Kim, Sung-Ju Lee, Young-Jin Son, Soo-Heui Paik, and Sung-Tae Yee Copyright © 2016 Yun-Ho Hwang et al. All rights reserved. Effects and Safety of Aqueous Extract of Poncirus fructus in Spinal Cord Injury with Neurogenic Bowel Sun, 25 Sep 2016 14:28:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7154616/ Objective. To investigate the effects and safety of the aqueous extract of the dried, immature fruit of Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf., known as Poncirus fructus (PF), in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with neurogenic bowel. Methods. Thirty-one SCI patients with neurogenic bowel were recruited. Patients were evaluated based on clinical information, constipation score, Bristol Stool Form Scale, stool retention score using plain abdominal radiograph, and colon transit time. PF was administered in dosages of 800 mg each prior to breakfast and lunch for 14 days. Results. The morphological feature of the stool before and after administration indicated a statistically significant difference from 3.52 ± 1.33 to 4.32 ± 1.44 points (). Stool retention score before and after administration of PF was represented with low significance (7.25 ± 1.60 to 6.46 ± 1.53 points) in the whole colon (), and the colon transit time was significantly shortened (57.41 ± 20.7 to 41.2 ± 25.5 hours) in terms of the whole transit time (). Side effects were observed in 7 people (28.0%) consisting of 2 people with soft stools and 5 people with diarrhea. Conclusion. For SCI patients, PF administration significantly improved defecation patterns, defecation retention, and colon transit time. PF could be an effective aid to improve colonic motility and constipation. Ji Hee Kim, Su Kyung Lee, and Min Cheol Joo Copyright © 2016 Ji Hee Kim et al. All rights reserved. The Extrusion Process as an Alternative for Improving the Biological Potential of Sorghum Bran: Phenolic Compounds and Antiradical and Anti-Inflammatory Capacity Sun, 25 Sep 2016 11:32:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8387975/ Approximately 80% of sorghum phenolic compounds are linked to arabinoxylans by ester bonds, which are capable of resisting the digestion process in the upper gastrointestinal tract, compromising their bioaccessibility and biological potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the extrusion process on the content of phenolic compounds in sorghum bran and its impact on phenolic compounds and antiradical and anti-inflammatory capacity. Results revealed that the extrusion process increased total phenol content in sorghum bran compared to nonextruded sorghum, particularly for extrusion at 180°C with 20% moisture content ( versus  mg GAE/g +52%), which positively affected antiradical capacity measured by the DPPH and TEAC assays. The percentage of inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW cells due to the presence of extruded sorghum bran extract was significantly higher than that of nonextruded sorghum bran extract ( versus ). The results suggest that extruded sorghum bran could be used as a functional ingredient and provide advantages to consumers by reducing diseases related to oxidative stress and inflammation. Norma Julieta Salazar Lopez, Guadalupe Loarca-Piña, Rocío Campos-Vega, Marcela Gaytán Martínez, Eduardo Morales Sánchez, J. Marina Esquerra-Brauer, Gustavo A. Gonzalez-Aguilar, and Maribel Robles Sánchez Copyright © 2016 Norma Julieta Salazar Lopez et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture Alters Expression of Insulin Signaling Related Molecules and Improves Insulin Resistance in OLETF Rats Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:18:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9651592/ To determine effect of acupuncture on insulin resistance in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and to evaluate expression of insulin signaling components. Rats were divided into three groups: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, OLETF rats, and acupuncture+OLETF rats. Acupuncture was subcutaneously applied to Neiguan (PC6), Zusanli (ST36), and Sanyinjiao (SP6); in contrast, acupuncture to Shenshu (BL23) was administered perpendicularly. For Neiguan (PC6) and Zusanli (ST36), needles were connected to an electroacupuncture (EA) apparatus. Fasting blood glucose (FPG) was measured by glucose oxidase method. Plasma fasting insulin (FINS) and serum C peptide (C-P) were determined by ELISA. Protein and mRNA expressions of insulin signaling molecules were determined by Western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. OLETF rats exhibit increased levels of FPG, FINS, C-P, and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which were effectively decreased by acupuncture treatment. mRNA expressions of several insulin signaling related molecules IRS1, IRS2, Akt2, aPKCζ, and GLUT4 were decreased in OLETF rats compared to SD controls. Expression of these molecules was restored back to normal levels upon acupuncture administration. PI3K-p85α was increased in OLETF rats; this increase was also reversed by acupuncture treatment. Acupuncture improves insulin resistance in OLETF rats, possibly via regulating expression of key insulin signaling related molecules. Xin-Yu Huang, Liang Zhang, Jian Sun, Neng-Gui Xu, and Wei Yi Copyright © 2016 Xin-Yu Huang et al. All rights reserved. Web-Based Evaluation System to Measure Learning Effectiveness in Kampo Medicine Thu, 22 Sep 2016 16:12:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2043535/ Measuring the learning effectiveness of Kampo Medicine (KM) education is challenging. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based test to measure the learning effectiveness of KM education among medical students (MSs). We used an open-source Moodle platform to test 30 multiple-choice questions classified into 8-type fields (eight basic concepts of KM) including “qi-blood-fluid” and “five-element” theories, on 117 fourth-year MSs. The mean (±standard deviation [SD]) score on the web-based test was (/100). The correct answer rate ranged from 17% to 36%. A pattern-based portfolio enabled these rates to be individualized in terms of KM proficiency. MSs with scores higher () or lower () than mean ± 1SD were defined as high or low achievers, respectively. Cluster analysis using the correct answer rates for the 8-type field questions revealed clear divisions between high and low achievers. Interestingly, each high achiever had a different proficiency pattern. In contrast, three major clusters were evident among low achievers, all of whom responded with a low percentage of or no correct answers. In addition, a combination of three questions accurately classified high and low achievers. These findings suggest that our web-based test allows individual quantitative assessment of the learning effectiveness of KM education among MSs. Norio Iizuka, Koichiro Usuku, Hajime Nakae, Makoto Segawa, Yue Wang, Kahori Ogashiwa, Yusuke Fujita, Hiroyuki Ogihara, Susumu Tazuma, and Yoshihiko Hamamoto Copyright © 2016 Norio Iizuka et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Electroacupuncture and Moxibustion for Relieving Visceral Hypersensitivity in Rats with Constipation-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Thu, 22 Sep 2016 12:49:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9410505/ Aim. To compare whether there is different effect between electroacupuncture (EA) and moxibustion (Mox) on visceral hypersensitivity (their analgesic effects) in constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS). Methods. EA at 1 mA and 3 mA and Mox at 43°C and 46°C were applied to the Shangjuxu (ST37, bilateral) acupoint in rats with C-IBS and normal rats. An abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) score was used to assess visceral hypersensitivity. Toluidine blue staining was used to assess mast cell (MC) activity in colon of rats. Immunochemistry was used to measure 5-HT and 5-HT4 receptor expression in the colon. Results. AWR scores in all EA (1 mA and 3 mA) and Mox (43°C and 46°C) treatment groups after colorectal distention (CRD) stimulation pressure of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg were significantly lower than those of the model (MC) group (P all < 0.01). The MC counts and degranulation rates in the colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups and the MC group were significantly higher than those of the NC group (P all < 0.01). MC degranulation rates in the colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups were lower than those of the MC group (P all < 0.05). 5-HT expression in colon of all EA and Mox treatment groups was significantly lower than that of the MC group (P all < 0.01), and 5-HT4R expression in colon of both EA groups was significantly higher than that of the MC group (P both < 0.01). Conclusion. EA and Mox treatments may both ameliorate visceral hypersensitivity at different degree in rats with C-IBS, and EA treatment was better than Mox. Ji-Meng Zhao, Liu Chen, Ci-Li Zhou, Yin Shi, Yu-Wei Li, Hai-Xia Shang, Lu-Yi Wu, Chun-Hui Bao, Chuan-Zi Dou, and Huan-Gan Wu Copyright © 2016 Ji-Meng Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Natural Products for Infectious Diseases Thu, 22 Sep 2016 09:40:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9459047/ Kang-Ju Kim, Xiangqian Liu, Takashi Komabayashi, Seung-Il Jeong, and Serkan Selli Copyright © 2016 Kang-Ju Kim et al. All rights reserved. Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Effectiveness and Safety of Ligustrazine in Cerebral Infarction Wed, 21 Sep 2016 12:17:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3595946/ Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ligustrazine in the treatment of cerebral infarction. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted in 6 databases until 30 June 2016 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ligustrazine in the treatment of cerebral infarction. The quality of all the included studies was evaluated. All data were analyzed by Review Manager 5.1 Software. Results. 19 RCTs totally involving 1969 patients were included. The primary outcome measures were Neurological Deficit Score (NDS) and clinical effective rate. The secondary outcome measure was adverse events. Meta-analysis showed that ligustrazine could improve clinical efficacy and NDS of cerebral infarction with [OR = 3.60, 95% CI (2.72, 4.78), ] and [WMD = −3.87, 95% CI (−4.78, −2.95), ]. Moreover, ligustrazine in treatment group exerted better clinical effects in improving the Blood Rheology Index (BRI) in patients compared with control group. Ten trials contained safety assessments and stated that no obvious side effects were found. Conclusions. Ligustrazine demonstrated definite clinical efficacy for cerebral infarction, and it can also improve NDS in patients without obvious adverse events. However, due to the existing low-quality research, more large-scale and multicentric RCTs are required to provide clear evidence for its clinical efficacy in the near future. Tian Yu, Xiaoheng Guo, Zhen Zhang, Rong Liu, Liang Zou, Jia Fu, and Zheng Shi Copyright © 2016 Tian Yu et al. All rights reserved. Self-Care for Common Colds by Primary Care Patients: A European Multicenter Survey on the Prevalence and Patterns of Practices—The COCO Study Wed, 21 Sep 2016 11:43:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6949202/ Background. Patients use self-care to relieve symptoms of common colds, yet little is known about the prevalence and patterns across Europe. Methods/Design. In a cross-sectional study 27 primary care practices from 14 countries distributed 120 questionnaires to consecutive patients (≥18 years, any reason for consultation). A 27-item questionnaire asked for patients’ self-care for their last common cold. Results. 3,074 patients from 27 European sites participated. Their mean age was 46.7 years, and 62.5% were females. 99% of the participants used ≥1 self-care practice. In total, 527 different practices were reported; the age-standardized mean was 11.5 (±SD 6.0) per participant. The most frequent self-care categories were foodstuffs (95%), extras at home (81%), preparations for intestinal absorption (81%), and intranasal applications (53%). Patterns were similar across all sites, while the number of practices varied between and within countries. The most frequent single practices were water (43%), honey (42%), paracetamol (38%), oranges/orange juice (38%), and staying in bed (38%). Participants used 9 times more nonpharmaceutical items than pharmaceutical items. The majority (69%) combined self-care with and without proof of evidence, while ≤1% used only evidence-based items. Discussion. This first cross-national study on self-care for common colds showed a similar pattern across sites but quantitative differences. Anika Thielmann, Biljana Gerasimovska-Kitanovska, Krzysztof Buczkowski, Tuomas H. Koskela, Vildan Mevsim, Slawomir Czachowski, Ferdinando Petrazzuoli, Marija Petek-Šter, Heidrun Lingner, Robert D. Hoffman, Selda Tekiner, Juliette Chambe, Tamer Edirne, Kathryn Hoffmann, Enzo Pirrotta, Ayşegül Uludağ, Hülya Yikilkan, Sanda Kreitmayer Pestic, Andrzej Zielinski, Clara Guede Fernández, and Birgitta Weltermann Copyright © 2016 Anika Thielmann et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Compound Kushen Injection in Combination with Induction Chemotherapy for Treating Adult Patients Newly Diagnosed with Acute Leukemia Wed, 21 Sep 2016 09:54:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3121402/ We assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of CKI (compound Kushen injection) plus standard induction chemotherapy for treating adult acute leukemia (AL). We randomly assigned 332 patients with newly diagnosed AL to control (n = 165, receiving DA (daunorubicin and cytarabine) or hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone)) or treatment (n = 167, receiving CKI and DA or hyper-CVAD) groups. Posttreatment, treatment group CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, natural killer (NK) cell, and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) levels were significantly higher than those of the control group ( < 0.05), and CD8+ levels were lower in the treatment group than in the control group ( < 0.05). Treatment group interleukin- (IL-) 4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher compared to the control posttreatment (both p < 0.05) as were complete remission, overall response, and quality of life (QoL) improvement rates (p < 0.05). The control group had more incidences of grade 3/4 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity (p < 0.05). Responses to induction chemotherapy, QoL improvement, and adverse events incidence between control group patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia were not significantly different. CKI plus standard induction chemotherapy is effective and safe for treating AL, possibly by increasing immunologic function. Honglei Tu, Bo Lei, Shan Meng, Hailing Liu, Yongchang Wei, Aili He, Wanggang Zhang, and Fuling Zhou Copyright © 2016 Honglei Tu et al. All rights reserved. Transport of Corilagin, Gallic Acid, and Ellagic Acid from Fructus Phyllanthi Tannin Fraction in Caco-2 Cell Monolayers Wed, 21 Sep 2016 07:52:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9205379/ Objective. To investigate the absorption property of the representative hydrolyzable tannin, namely corilagin, and its hydrolysates gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA) from the Fructus Phyllanthi tannin fraction (PTF) in vitro. Methods. Caco-2 cells monolayer model was established. Influences of PTF on Caco-2 cells viability were detected with MTT assay. The transport across monolayers was examined for different time points, concentrations, and secretory directions. The inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) and sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), and tight junction modulators were used to study the transport mechanism. LC-MS method was employed to quantify the absorption concentration. Results. The apparent permeability coefficient values of the three compounds were below 1.0 × 10−6 cm/s. The absorption of corilagin and GA were much lower than their efflux, and the uptake of both compounds was increased in the presence of inhibitors of P-gp and MRPs. The absorption of EA was decreased in the company of OATP and SGLT1 inhibitors. Moreover, the transport of corilagin, GA, and EA was enhanced by tight junction modulators. Conclusion. These observations indicated that the three compounds in PTF were transported via passive diffusion combined with protein mediated transport. P-gp and MRPs might get involved in the transport of corilagin and GA. The absorption of EA could be attributed to OATP and SGLT1 protein. Xin Mao, Ling-Fang Wu, Hai-juan Zhao, Wen-Yi Liang, Wen-Jing Chen, Shu-Xian Han, Qi Qi, Ya-Ping Cui, Shi Li, Guang-Hui Yang, Yan-Yan Shao, Dan Zhu, Ru-Feng Wang, Yun You, and Lan-Zhen Zhang Copyright © 2016 Xin Mao et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture for Tourette Syndrome: A Systematic Review Tue, 20 Sep 2016 14:25:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1834646/ Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder that affects both children and adults. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture to treat TS written in English or Chinese without restrictions on publication status. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of study quality were conducted independently by two reviewers. Meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software from the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were combined with the fixed-effect model based on a heterogeneity test. Results were presented as risk ratios for dichotomous data and mean differences (MDs) for continuous data. This review included 7 RCTs with a total of 564 participants. The combined results showed that acupuncture may have better short-term effect than Western medicine for TS and that acupuncture may be an effective adjuvant therapy in improving the effect of Western medicine on TS, but the evidence is limited because of existing biases. Rigorous high-quality RCTs are needed to verify these findings. Jinna Yu, Yongming Ye, Jun Liu, Yang Wang, Weina Peng, and Zhishun Liu Copyright © 2016 Jinna Yu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Huang Qi Decoction on Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Homocysteine Tue, 20 Sep 2016 07:50:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7272694/ Vascular endothelial dysfunction can be induced by homocysteine (Hcy) through promoted oxidative stress. Huang Qi decoction (HQD) is a traditional Chinese medical formula and its components possess antioxidant effect. The study herein was therefore designed to investigate the effects of HQD at different dosage on endothelial dysfunction induced by Hcy. Tempol and apocynin were used to investigate whether antioxidant mechanisms were involved. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aortas was investigated by isometric tension recordings. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was determined by DHE staining. The assessment related to oxidative stress and NO bioavailability was performed by assay kits and western blot. In isometric tension experiment, HQD at the dose of 30 or 100 μg/mL, tempol, or apocynin prevented impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated aortas elicited by Hcy. In cellular experiments, substantial enhancement in NADPH oxidase and ROS generation and reduction in NO bioavailability triggered by Hcy were reversed by pretreatment of HQD at the dose of 100 μg/mL, tempol, or apocynin. The results proved that HQD at an appropriate dosage presented favorable effects on endothelial dysfunction initiated by Hcy through antioxidant mechanisms. HQD can act as a potent prescription for the treatment of endothelium related vascular complications. Shuang Chu, Xiao-dong Mao, Li Wang, and Wen Peng Copyright © 2016 Shuang Chu et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Spectral Characteristics of Pure Moxa Stick Burning by Hyperspectral Imaging and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Mon, 19 Sep 2016 12:52:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1057878/ The objective of this study was to investigate the spectra characteristics (SC) at wavelengths of 400~1000 nm and 2.5~15.5 μm of pure moxa stick (MS) during its 25-minute burning process using new spectral imaging techniques. Spectral images were collected for the burning pure MS at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for the first time. The results showed that, at wavelengths of 400~1000 nm, the spectral range of the cross section of MS burning was 750~980 nm; the peak position was 860 nm. At wavelengths of 2.5~15.5 μm, the spectral range of the cross section of MS burning was 3.0~4.0 μm; the peak position was approximately 3.5 μm. The radiation spectra of MS burning include litter red and amount of infrared (but mainly near infrared) wavelengths. The temperature, blood perfusion, and oxygen saturation increase of Shenshu (BL23) after moxibustion radiation were observed too. According to mechanism of photobiological effects and moxibustion biological effects, it was inferred that moxibustion effects should be linked with moxibustion SC. This study provided new data and means for physical properties of moxibustion research. Xiao-jing Song, Shu-you Wang, Yin-long Li, and Dong Zhang Copyright © 2016 Xiao-jing Song et al. All rights reserved. Quantitative Analysis of Apisin, a Major Protein Unique to Royal Jelly Sun, 18 Sep 2016 16:11:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5040528/ Apisin, a protein that is unique to royal jelly (RJ), is known to compose the greater part of the RJ proteins and to exist as a heterooligomer containing major royal jelly protein 1 and apisimin. However, few reports on the methods for quantifying apisin have been published. Thus, we attempted to quantify apisin using HPLC, a widely used analytical technique, as described below. Isoelectric precipitation and size-exclusion chromatography were used to obtain the purified protein, which was identified as apisin by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS analyses. The purified apisin was lyophilized and then used to generate a calibration curve to quantify apisin in RJ. The apisin content was fairly constant (i.e., 3.93 to 4.67 w/w%) in natural RJ. This study is the first to describe a simple, standardized method for quantifying apisin using HPLC and suggests that apisin can be used as a benchmark for future evaluations of RJ quality. Takako Furusawa, Yasuko Arai, Kenji Kato, and Kenji Ichihara Copyright © 2016 Takako Furusawa et al. All rights reserved. Evidence Based Alternative Medicines in Pain Management 2016 Sun, 18 Sep 2016 12:17:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7078351/ Haroon Khan, Vincenzo De Feo, Najeeb Ur Rehman, and Agnieszka Najda Copyright © 2016 Haroon Khan et al. All rights reserved. The Fruit Hull of Gleditsia sinensis Enhances the Anti-Tumor Effect of cis-Diammine Dichloridoplatinum II (Cisplatin) Sun, 18 Sep 2016 10:57:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7480971/ Lung cancer has substantial mortality worldwide, and chemotherapy is a routine regimen for the treatment of patients with lung cancer, despite undesirable effects such as drug resistance and chemotoxicity. Here, given a possible antitumor effect of the fruit hull of Gleditsia sinensis (FGS), we tested whether FGS enhances the effectiveness of cis-diammine dichloridoplatinum (II) (CDDP), a chemotherapeutic drug. We found that CDDP, when administered with FGS, significantly decreased the viability and increased the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells, which were associated with the increase of p21 and decreases of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Concordantly, when combined with FGS, CDDP significantly reduced the volume and weight of tumors derived from LLC subcutaneously injected into C57BL/6 mice, with concomitant increases of phosphor-p53 and p21 in tumor tissue. Together, these results show that FGS could enhance the antitumor activity of CDDP, suggesting that FGS can be used as a complementary measure to enhance the efficacy of a chemotherapeutic agent such as CDDP. Kyun Ha Kim, Chang-Woo Han, Seong Hoon Yoon, Yun Seong Kim, Jong-In Kim, Myungsoo Joo, and Jun-Yong Choi Copyright © 2016 Kyun Ha Kim et al. All rights reserved. Dual-Directional Immunomodulatory Effects of Corbrin Capsule on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Sun, 18 Sep 2016 09:32:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1360386/ Purpose. To investigate the effects of Corbrin Capsule (CS-C-Q80), a drug derived from Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc., on autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD). Methods. 44 Patients with Graves’s disease (GD) and 56 patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) were randomly assigned to treatment group (GD-Tx and HT-Tx) or control group (GD-Ct and HT-Ct). The control groups were given methimazole or levothyroxine only while the treatment groups were given Corbrin Capsule (2.0 g tid) besides the same conventional prescriptions as control groups. Thyroid hormones, thyroid antibodies, and T lymphocyte subsets were quantified at baseline and 24 weeks posttreatment. Results. Significant drop of serum anti-TPO-Ab levels was observed in both GD-Tx and HT-Tx groups. Before treatment, GD patients had higher helper T cells compared to cytotoxic T cells, while HT patients suffered from a nearly inverted proportion of helper T/cytotoxic T cells. There was a significant drop of the helper T/cytotoxic T cells ratio in GD-Tx to the median of the normal ranges after Corbrin treatment for 24 weeks, while that in HT-Tx was elevated. Conclusion. Corbrin Capsule could restore the balance between helper T and cytotoxic T cells in both GD and HT patients with dual-directional immunomodulatory effects. And it could significantly reduce the autoantibody levels in both GD and HT. Tianyi He, Ruxing Zhao, Yiran Lu, Wenjuan Li, Xinguo Hou, Yu Sun, Ming Dong, and Li Chen Copyright © 2016 Tianyi He et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “The Value of Safflower Yellow Injection for the Treatment of Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Randomized Controlled Trial” Sun, 18 Sep 2016 07:34:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4270317/ Le-Jun Li, Yu-Mei Li, Ben-Yu Qiao, Shan Jiang, Xin Li, Hong-Ming Du, and Peng-Cheng Han Copyright © 2016 Le-Jun Li et al. All rights reserved. Personalized Kampo Medicine Facilitated Both Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Response and Clinical Benefits Induced by Personalized Peptide Vaccination for Advanced Esophageal Cancer Thu, 15 Sep 2016 16:07:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5929525/ We retrospectively evaluated if personalized Kampo medicine (PKM) could facilitate CTL responses and clinical benefits induced by personalized peptide vaccination (PPV), in which HLA-matched vaccines were selected and administered based on the preexisting host immunity, for advanced esophageal cancer (aEC) patients. Among 34 aEC patients entered in the clinical study, 23 patients received PKM and PPV without () or with chemotherapy (), while the remaining 11 patients did not receive PKM but received PPV without () or with chemotherapy (), respectively. Incidence of adverse events was significantly lower or higher in PKM and PPV arm () or PPV and chemotherapy arm () as compared to that of the counter arm ( or 18), respectively. Postvaccination PBMCs from the patients undergoing PKM and PPV showed significantly higher CTL responses as compared to the counter arm. The median progression-free survival (PFS) or median survival time (MST) of 34 patients was 2.9 or 7.6 months, respectively. The combination therapy in PPV and PKM arm, but not that in PPV and chemotherapy arm, significantly () prolonged MST. These results could warrant a next step of prospective clinical study of PKM and PPV for aEC patients. Daisuke Muroya, Shigeru Yutani, Shigeki Shichijo, Akira Yamada, Shinjiro Sakamoto, Masayasu Naito, Koji Okuda, Michi Morita, Rin Yamaguchi, and Kyogo Itoh Copyright © 2016 Daisuke Muroya et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: The Antioxidant and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activity of Ten Spices in an In Vitro Model of Digestion: Bioaccessibility of Anthocyanins and Carotenoids Thu, 15 Sep 2016 14:11:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4142104/ Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Copyright © 2016 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. All rights reserved. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicines against Ischemic Injury in In Vivo Models of Cerebral Ischemia Thu, 15 Sep 2016 09:34:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5739434/ Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke. In the ischemic cascade, resident microglia are rapidly activated in the brain parenchyma and subsequently trigger inflammatory mediator release, which facilitates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in inflammation. Activated leukocytes invade the endothelial cell junctions and destroy the blood-brain barrier integrity, leading to brain edema. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) stimulation in microglia/macrophages through the activation of intercellular signaling pathways secretes various proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes and then aggravates cerebral ischemic injury. The secreted cytokines activate the proinflammatory transcription factors, which subsequently regulate cytokine expression, leading to the amplification of the inflammatory response and exacerbation of the secondary brain injury. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), including TCM-derived active compounds, Chinese herbs, and TCM formulations, exert neuroprotective effects against inflammatory responses by downregulating the following: ischemia-induced microglial activation, microglia/macrophage-mediated cytokine production, proinflammatory enzyme production, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, matrix metalloproteinases, TLR expression, and deleterious transcription factor activation. TCMs also aid in upregulating anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and neuroprotective transcription factor activation in the ischemic lesion in the inflammatory cascade during the acute phase of cerebral ischemia. Thus, TCMs exert potent anti-inflammatory properties in ischemic stroke and warrant further investigation. Chin-Yi Cheng and Yu-Chen Lee Copyright © 2016 Chin-Yi Cheng and Yu-Chen Lee. All rights reserved. Natural Products for the Treatment of Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes 2016 Thu, 15 Sep 2016 08:50:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9072345/ Menaka C. Thounaojam, Srinivas Nammi, and Ravirajsinh Jadeja Copyright © 2016 Menaka C. Thounaojam et al. All rights reserved. Myricitrin Protects against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Counteracting Oxidative Stress and Inhibiting Mitochondrial Apoptosis via ERK/P53 Pathway Wed, 14 Sep 2016 13:18:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6093783/ Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of the most effective and widely used anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotics. Unfortunately, the use of Dox is limited by its cumulative and dose-dependent cardiac toxicity. Myricitrin, a natural flavonoid which is isolated from the ground bark of Myrica rubra, has recently been found to have a strong antioxidative effect. This study aimed to evaluate the possible protective effect of myricitrin against Dox-induced cardiotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms. An in vivo investigation in SD rats demonstrated that myricitrin significantly reduced the Dox-induced myocardial damage, as indicated by the decreases in the cardiac index, amelioration of heart pathological injuries, and decreases in the serum cardiac enzyme levels. In addition, in vitro studies showed that myricitrin effectively reduced the Dox-induced cell toxicity. Further study showed that myricitrin exerted its function by counteracting oxidative stress and increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, myricitrin suppressed the myocardial apoptosis induced by Dox, as indicated by decreases in the activation of caspase-3 and the numbers of TUNEL-positive cells, maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and increase in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Further mechanism study revealed that myricitrin-induced suppression of myocardial apoptosis relied on the ERK/p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Jing Sun, Guibo Sun, Xiaolan Cui, Xiangbao Meng, Meng Qin, and Xiaobo Sun Copyright © 2016 Jing Sun et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Tongxinluo on Podocyte Apoptosis via Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and P38 Pathway in Diabetic Rats Thu, 08 Sep 2016 13:42:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5957423/ Diabetic nephropathy (DN) has been the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Podocyte apoptosis is a main mechanism of progression of DN. It has been demonstrated that activated P38 and caspase-3 induced by oxidative stress mainly account for increased podocyte apoptosis and proteinuria in DN. Meanwhile, Tongxinluo (TXL) can ameliorate renal structure disruption and dysfunction in DN patients in our clinical practice. However, the effect of TXL on podocyte apoptosis and P38 pathway remains unclear. To explore the effect of TXL on podocyte apoptosis and its molecular mechanism in DN, our in vivo and in vitro studies were performed. TXL attenuated oxidative stress in podocyte in DN in our in vivo and in vitro studies. Moreover, TXL inhibited the activation of P38 and caspase-3. Bcl-2 and Bax expression was partially restored by TXL treatment in our in vivo and in vitro studies. More importantly, TXL decreased podocyte apoptosis in diabetic rats and high glucose cultured podocyte. In conclusion, TXL protects podocyte from apoptosis in DN, partially through its antioxidant effect and inhibiting of the activation of P38 and caspase-3. Fangqiang Cui, Yanbin Gao, Wenjing Zhao, Dawei Zou, Zhiyao Zhu, Xiaoming Wu, Nianxiu Tian, Xiaolei Wang, Jing Liu, and Yu Tong Copyright © 2016 Fangqiang Cui et al. All rights reserved. Acute and Subacute Toxicological Evaluation of the Aerial Extract of Monsonia angustifolia E. Mey. ex. A. Rich in Wistar Rats Thu, 08 Sep 2016 13:10:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4952485/ The acute and subacute toxicity profile of the aerial extract of Monsonia angustifolia in Wistar rats was evaluated. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 420 guideline was adopted in the acute toxicity testing with a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg (b.w.). For the 28-day daily oral dosing, the extract was administered at 75, 150, and 300 mg/kg b.w.; 1% ethanol in sterile distilled water was used as control. Clinical toxicity signs were subsequently evaluated. At a single dose of 5000 mg/kg b.w. the extract elicited no treatment-related signs of toxicity in the animals during the 14 days of experimental period. In the subacute toxicity, there was no significant difference in hematological, renal, and liver function indices. However, dose-dependent significant increases were observed on the plasma concentrations of white blood cell and platelet counts of the treated animals compared to the control group. While cage observations revealed no treatment-facilitated signs of toxicity, histopathological examinations of the kidneys and liver also showed no obvious lesions and morphological changes. These results suggest that the extract may be labelled and classified as safe and practically nontoxic within the doses and period of investigation in this study. Anthony Jide Afolayan, Olubunmi Abosede Wintola, and Gerda Fouche Copyright © 2016 Anthony Jide Afolayan et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Electroacupuncture Treatment on Bone Cancer Pain Model with Morphine Tolerance Thu, 08 Sep 2016 09:17:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8028474/ Objective. To explore the efficacy of electroacupuncture treatment in cancer induced bone pain (CIBP) rat model with morphine tolerance and explore changes of calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Methods. Forty SD rats were divided into five groups: sham, CIBP (B), CIBP + morphine (BM), CIBP + electroacupuncture (BE), and CIBP + morphine + electroacupuncture (BME). B, BM, BE, and BME groups were prepared CIBP model. The latter three groups then accepted morphine, electroacupuncture, and morphine combined electroacupuncture, separately, nine days consecutively (M1 to M9). Mechanical withdraw threshold (MWT) was evaluated. Results. BE group only had differences in M1, M2, and M3 compared to B group (). From M5, BM group showed significantly decreased MWT. Electroacupuncture could obtain analgesic effects only at early stage (M1 to M5). From M5 to M9, BME had the differences with BM group (). IOD value of CGRP in BM and BME was substantially less than in B group. CGRP in BME was significantly lower than that in BM group (). Conclusion. When used in combination with electroacupuncture, morphine could result in improving analgesic effects and reducing tolerance. CGRP may be associated with pain behaviors. Lei Sima, Bifa Fan, Longtao Yan, and Yuan Shui Copyright © 2016 Lei Sima et al. All rights reserved. Self-Administered Mind-Body Practices for Reducing Health Disparities: An Interprofessional Opinion and Call to Action Thu, 08 Sep 2016 08:43:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2156969/ Health disparities (HD) continue to persist in the United States which underscores the importance of using low-cost, accessible, evidence-based strategies that can improve health outcomes, especially for chronic conditions that are prevalent among underserved minority populations. Complementary/integrative health modalities, particularly self-administered mind-body practices (MBP), can be extremely useful in reducing HD because they are intrinsically patient-centered and they empower patients to actively engage in self-care of health and self-management of symptoms. Interprofessional healthcare providers and patients can engage in powerful partnerships that encompass self-administered MBP to improve health. This is a call to action for interprofessional researchers to engage in high-quality research regarding efficacy and cost-effectiveness of self-administered MBP, for practitioners to engage patients in self-administered MBP for health promotion, disease prevention, and symptom management, and for healthcare institutions to integrate self-administered MBP into conventional health practices to reduce HD in their communities. Patricia A. Kinser, Jo Lynne W. Robins, and Saba W. Masho Copyright © 2016 Patricia A. Kinser et al. All rights reserved.