Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Ginger Ingredients Alleviate Diabetic Prostatic Complications: Effect on Oxidative Stress and Fibrosis Thu, 17 Aug 2017 07:44:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6090269/ Prostatic complications are common in patients with diabetes. This study investigated the effect of different ginger ingredients: zingerone, geraniol, and 6-gingerol on the prostate in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by streptozotocin intraperitoneal injection (50 mg/kg), and the rats were left for 10 weeks to develop prostatic complications. In diabetic treated groups, rats received daily oral zingerone, geraniol, and 6-gingerol in doses of 20, 200, and 75 mg/kg, respectively, in the last 8 weeks. Treatment with the compounds caused changes in the ventral prostate of diabetic animals as indicated by the columnar ductal epithelium and dense secretions. There was an amelioration of oxidative stress as evidenced by the lowering of prostate malondialdehyde and elevating prostate oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratios by geraniol and 6-gingerol. None of the three ginger ingredients affected the hyperglycemia, reduction in body weight gain, and testosterone deficiency seen in diabetic animals. Interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 levels remained unchanged. However, zingerone and geraniol ameliorated the fibrosis in diabetic prostate through suppressing the elevated prostate transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and collagen IV. Therefore, ginger ingredients could be beneficial in alleviating diabetic prostatic complications through suppressing oxidative stress and tissue fibrosis. Basma G. Eid, Hala Mosli, Atif Hasan, and Hany M. El-Bassossy Copyright © 2017 Basma G. Eid et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Anacardium occidentale Leaf Extract Thu, 17 Aug 2017 06:44:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/2787308/ In tropical America, principally in Northeastern Brazil, the leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale is traditionally used for treatment of different diseases. However, chemical and biological properties and activities of Anacardium occidentale are poorly investigated and known. Here, we evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities “in vitro” of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale. Our results show that leaf extract exhibits antioxidant activity when used to treat RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant effects were observed by decrease in oxidative damage in macrophage cells treated with 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL of leaf extract. Moreover, leaf extract reversed oxidative damage and inflammatory parameters induced in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Leaf extract at 0.5 µg/mL and 5 µg/mL was able to inhibit release of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated cells. Taken together, our results indicate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of leaf extract from Anacardium occidentale and reveal the positive effects that intake of these products can mediate in biological system. Natália Cabral Souza, Juliana Medeiros de Oliveira, Maurílio da Silva Morrone, Ricardo D’Oliveira Albanus, Maria do Socorro Medeiros Amarante, Christina da Silva Camillo, Silvana Maria Zucolotto Langassner, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Rodrigo Juliani Siqueira Dalmolin, and Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali Copyright © 2017 Natália Cabral Souza et al. All rights reserved. Antidiabetic Effect of Tibetan Medicine Tang-Kang-Fu-San on High-Fat Diet and Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Thu, 17 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7302965/ The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic effects of a Tibetan medicine, Tang-Kang-Fu-San (TKFS), on experimental type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats and to explore its underlying mechanisms. Firstly two major chemical compositions of TKFS, gallic acid and curcumin, were characterized by HPLC fingerprint analysis. Next T2DM in rats was induced by high-fat diet and a low-dose streptozotocin (STZ 35 mg/kg). Then oral gavage administration of three different doses of TKFS (0.3 g/kg, 0.6 g/kg, and 1.2 g/kg) was given to T2DM rats. Experimental results showed that TKFS dramatically reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose, fasting blood insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, even though it did not alter the animal body weight. The downregulation of phosphorylation-AKT (p-AKT) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle of T2DM rats was restored and abnormal pathological changes in pancreas tissues were also improved. Our work showed that TKFS could alleviate diabetic syndromes, maintain the glucose homeostasis, and protect against insulin resistance in T2DM rats, and the improvement of AKT phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle would be one of its possible underlying mechanisms. Bailu Duan, Zhongqiu Zhao, Ling Lin, Jing Jin, Lijun Zhang, Hui Xiong, Na Ta, Tiexiang Gao, and Zhinan Mei Copyright © 2017 Bailu Duan et al. All rights reserved. Researches on Transcriptome Sequencing in the Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Wed, 16 Aug 2017 09:17:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7521363/ Due to its incomparable advantages, the application of transcriptome sequencing in the study of traditional Chinese medicine attracts more and more attention of researchers, which greatly promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the applications of transcriptome sequencing in traditional Chinese medicine were summarized by reviewing recent related papers. Jie Xin, Rong-chao Zhang, Lei Wang, and Yong-qing Zhang Copyright © 2017 Jie Xin et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Wannachawee Recipe with Antipsoriatic Activity on Suppressing Inflammatory Cytokine Production in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes Wed, 16 Aug 2017 09:15:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/5906539/ Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory and immune-mediated skin disease. The pathogenesis involves T cells activation via the IL-23/Th17 axis. Conventional treatments of psoriasis have adverse events influencing patients’ adherence. Wannachawee Recipe (WCR) has been effectively used as Thai folk remedy for psoriasis patients; however, preclinical evidence defining how WCR works is still lacking. This study defined mechanisms for its antiproliferation and anti-inflammatory effects in HaCaT cells. The cytotoxicity and antiproliferation results from SRB and CCK-8 assays showed that WCR inhibited the growth and viability of HaCaT cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The distribution of cell cycle phases determined by flow cytometry showed that WCR did not interrupt cell cycle progression. Interestingly, RT-qPCR revealed that WCR significantly decreased the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, and TNF-α but induced IL-10 expression in TNF-α- and IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells. At the protein level determined by ELISA, WCR significantly reduced the secretion of IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23. The WCR at low concentrations was proved to possess anti-inflammatory effect without cytotoxicity and it did not interfere with cell cycle of keratinocytes. This is the first study to provide convincing evidence that WCR is a potential candidate for development of effective psoriasis therapies. Mingkwan Na Takuathung, Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich, Pornsiri Pitchakarn, Ampai Panthong, Parirat Khonsung, Natthakarn Chiranthanut, Noppamas Soonthornchareonnon, and Seewaboon Sireeratawong Copyright © 2017 Mingkwan Na Takuathung et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Therapeutic Effects of Acupuncture at PC6 and ST36 for Chronic Myocardial Ischemia Wed, 16 Aug 2017 08:59:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7358059/ We aimed to compare the differences of the effects on chronic myocardial ischemia (MI) of acupuncture at PC6 and ST36. The chronic MI model of minipigs was created by implanting an Ameroid constrictor on the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and then two weeks’ acupuncture was stimulated at PC6 or ST36, respectively. The results showed that both acupoints’ stimulation decreased the serous cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) significantly and improved the ischemic ECG changes. The amplitude of pathological Q wave in the PC6 group decreased more significantly than that of the ST36 group. The cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) results showed that the decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was not improved obviously in both groups. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) enlarged progressively even after acupuncture. The left ventricular wall mass (LVWM) in the ST36 group increased more obviously than that of the PC6 group, which paralleled the decreasing angiotensin II (Ang II) concentration in the plasma. These results suggested that acupuncture at PC6 or ST36 was effective for protecting the myocardium from chronic ischemic injury, and the effect of PC6 seemed to be better. Li Shi, Jiliang Fang, Jiping Zhao, Guiyong Liu, Qing Zhao, Jinling Zhang, Jinzhao Zhang, Bing Zhu, Fanrong Liang, and Peijing Rong Copyright © 2017 Li Shi et al. All rights reserved. Manual Acupuncture at PC6 Ameliorates Acute Restraint Stress-Induced Anxiety in Rats by Normalizing Amygdaloid Noradrenergic Response Wed, 16 Aug 2017 07:58:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4351723/ Acupuncture improves ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats in an acupoint-dependent manner. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of acupuncture on acute restraint stress- (ARS-) induced anxiety. Male rats were exposed to ARS for 3 h followed by acupuncture at either PC6 (Neiguan), HT7 (Shenmen), or a nonacupoint (tail) once a day for three consecutive days. Five minutes after the third acupuncture treatment, anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in an elevated plus maze (EPM). Additionally, plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and the concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Acupuncture at PC6, but not HT7 or a nonacupoint, attenuated anxiety-like behavior, but this attenuation was abolished by a postacupunctural intra-CeA infusion of NE. Acupuncture at PC6 also reduced the oversecretion of plasma CORT and inhibited increases in amygdaloid NE and MHPG induced by ARS. Further, Western blot analyses and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that acupuncture at PC6 prevented ARS-induced enhancements in the protein and mRNA expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase in the CeA. These results suggest that acupuncture performed specifically at acupoint PC6 reduces ARS-induced anxiety-like behavior by dampening amygdaloid noradrenergic responses. ZhengLin Zhao, Sang Chan Kim, HongFeng Liu, Jie Zhang, YuHua Wang, Il Je Cho, Bong Hyo Lee, Chang Hyun Song, Chul Won Lee, Chae Ha Yang, RongJie Zhao, and YiYan Wu Copyright © 2017 ZhengLin Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Bogijetong Decoction and Its Selected Formula on Neuropathic Insults in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Animals Wed, 16 Aug 2017 06:48:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4296318/ Bogijetong decoction (BGJTD) is a mixture of herbal formulation which is used in the traditional Korean medicine for the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by diabetes. Here, we investigated the regulatory effects of BGJTD and its reconstituted decoction subgroups on the neuropathic responses in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic animals. Be decoction (BeD) was formulated by selecting individual herbal components that induced neurite outgrowth most efficiently in each subgroup. BeD induced the neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons most efficiently among decoction subgroups and downregulated the production of TNF-α from the sciatic nerves in STZ-diabetic animals. While the levels of phospho-Erk1/2 were elevated in the sciatic nerves of STZ-diabetic animals by BGJTD and BeD treatments, p38 level was downregulated by BGJTD and BeD. A single herbal component of BeD induced neurite outgrowth comparable to BeD and was involved in the regulation of Erk1/2 activation and TNF-α production in DRG neurons. Oral administration of BGJTD and BeD in STZ-diabetic animals reduced the latency time responding to thermal stimulation. Our results suggest that the reconstituted formulation is as effective as conventional BGJTD in inducing biochemical and behavioral recoveries from the neuropathy in peripheral nerves and thus the experimental reductionism may be applied to develop the methodology for compositional analysis of herbal decoctions. Ki-Joong Kim, Uk Namgung, and Chung Sik Cho Copyright © 2017 Ki-Joong Kim et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Angelica dahurica and Rheum officinale Extracts on Excisional Wound Healing in Rats Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/1583031/ The main objective of wound treatments is to restore the functional skin properties and prevent infection. Traditional Chinese medicine provides alternative anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and wound healing therapies. Both Angelica dahurica extract (AE) and Rheum officinale extract (RE) possess antimicrobial activity. In this study, AE and RE were applied in wound treatment to investigate their healing effects. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats with dorsal full-thickness skin excision were divided into normal saline (NS), AE, RE, AE plus RE (ARE), and Biomycin (BM) groups. The treatment and area measurement of wounds were applied daily for 21 days. Wound biopsies and blood samples were obtained for histology examinations and cytokine analysis. Results showed that wound contraction in ARE group was significantly higher than that in NS and BM groups (P < 0.05). Histological analysis showed that more inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen fibers, and myofibroblasts were observed in ARE treated group than those in NS group on days 3–5. In ARE group, plasma IL-6 levels were elevated during days 3–5 (P > 0.05), and plasma TGF-β1 levels were significantly lower than those in the NS group on days 3-4 (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ARE accelerates wound healing during inflammation and proliferation phases. Wan-Ting Yang, Chun-Yen Ke, Wen-Tien Wu, Horng-Jyh Harn, Yi-Hsiung Tseng, and Ru-Ping Lee Copyright © 2017 Wan-Ting Yang et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects between Modified Citrus Pectin and Honokiol Wed, 16 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/8379843/ Inflammation is a normal physiological process; however, dysregulation of this process may contribute to inflammatory-based chronic disorders and diseases in animals and humans. Therefore, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of natural products, often recognized in traditional medicine systems, represent therapeutic modalities to reduce or prevent uncontrolled inflammatory processes which in turn potentially ameliorate or prevent sequelae of inflammatory-based symptoms of chronic diseases. We have investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of honokiol (HNK) and modified citrus pectin (MCP) in vitro and examined whether the MCP : HNK combination has synergistic effects on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Although both HNK and MCP induced a dose-dependent increase in antioxidant activity, the latter has a consistently higher antioxidant effect. The MCP : HNK (9 : 1) combination induced a synergistic effect on antioxidant activity suggesting that the combination is significantly more efficacious than individual compounds. In mouse monocytes, the lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced tumor necrosis- (TNF-) synthesis was significantly inhibited by HNK and the MCP : HNK combination in a dose-dependent manner and synergistic effects were clearly demonstrated with the combination on TNF- inhibition. This combination effect was also evident on inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activity, cyclooxygenase-II activity, and lipid peroxidation in mouse monocytes. Further research into the combination is warranted. Cheppail Ramachandran, Barry Wilk, Steven J. Melnick, and Isaac Eliaz Copyright © 2017 Cheppail Ramachandran et al. All rights reserved. Trends in Medicinal Uses of Edible Wild Vertebrates in Brazil Tue, 15 Aug 2017 08:59:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4901329/ The use of food medicines is a widespread practice worldwide. In Brazil, such use is often associated with wild animals, mostly focusing on vertebrate species. Here we assessed taxonomic and ecological trends in traditional uses of wild edible vertebrates in the country, through an extensive ethnobiological database analysis. Our results showed that at least 165 health conditions are reportedly treated by edible vertebrate species (), mostly fishes and mammals. However, reptiles stand out presenting a higher plasticity in the treatment of multiple health conditions. Considering the 20 disease categories recorded, treatment prescriptions were similar within continental (i.e., terrestrial and freshwater) and also within coastal and marine habitats, which may reflect locally related trends in occurrence and use of the medicinal fauna. The comprehension of the multiplicity and trends in the therapeutic uses of Brazilian vertebrates is of particular interest from a conservation perspective, as several threatened species were recorded. Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves, Tacyana Pereira Ribeiro Oliveira, and Maria Franco Trindade Medeiros Copyright © 2017 Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega Alves et al. All rights reserved. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of the Protective Effect of Yinchenwuling Powder on Hyperlipidemic Rats Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3275096/ Yinchenwuling powder (YCL) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine formula to modulate lipid levels. In this study, we established hyperlipidemic rat models and treated them with YCL. The serum concentrations of lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) were measured. Adventitia-free vascular proteins between hyperlipidemic rats and YCL-treated rats were identified using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics research approach. Proteins with 1.3-fold difference were analyzed through bioinformatics, and proteomic results were verified by Western blot. The results showed that the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, ET-1, and MDA were significantly decreased, whereas the HDL-C and CGRP levels were significantly increased in the YCL-treated group. Proteomics technology identified 4,382 proteins, and 15 proteins were selected on the basis of their expression levels and bioinformatics. Of these proteins, 2 (Adipoq and Gsta1) were upregulated and 13 (C3, C4, C6, Cfh, Cfp, C8g, C8b, Lgals1, Fndc1, Fgb, Fgg, Kng1, and ApoH) were downregulated in the YCL-treated rats. Their functions were related to immunity, inflammation, coagulation and hemostasis, oxidation and antioxidation, and lipid metabolism and transport. The validated results of ApoH were consistent with the proteomics results. This study enhanced our understanding on the therapeutic effects and mechanism of YCL on hyperlipidemia. Zheyu Zhang, Wenbo Wang, Ling Jin, Xin Cao, Gonghui Jian, Ning Wu, Xia Xu, Ye Yao, and Dongsheng Wang Copyright © 2017 Zheyu Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Differences in Complexion between Cold- and Heat-Prescription Groups in Sasang Medicine Mon, 14 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9701978/ Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a type of traditional Korean medicine (TKM) that classifies the human constitution into four types. The appearance of the complexion is one of the diagnostic factors of SCM but is rarely used in a quantitative and objective manner for diagnosis. In this study, an analysis using actual clinical data was conducted to assess the use of the complexion as a diagnostic element. A total of 528 Sasang medicine prescriptions from Korea Constitutional Multicenter Bank (KCMB) were classified into either a Cold-prescription group or a Heat-prescription group, and the complexion differences of the patients were analyzed using the color space. After adjusting for age, BMI, and systolic blood pressure, significant differences were observed among the Cold- and Heat-prescription groups within each Sasang constitution. However, when the Sasang constitution was ignored, no significant difference was observed for either sex. This study quantitatively analyzed the complexion of patients, which is used as a diagnostic element in clinical practice. It is hoped that the results will contribute to objective medical treatments in the future, such as determining an appropriate herbal prescription based on the patient’s complexion. Young Joo Park, Jun-Hyeong Do, Honggie Kim, and Jong Yeol Kim Copyright © 2017 Young Joo Park et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Combined Far-Infrared Radiation and Acupuncture at ST36 on Peripheral Blood Perfusion and Autonomic Activities Sun, 13 Aug 2017 09:54:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/1947315/ Using four-channel photoplethysmography (PPG) for acquiring peripheral arterial waveforms, this study investigated vascular and autonomic impacts of combined acupuncture-far infrared radiation (FIR) in improving peripheral circulation. Twenty healthy young adults aged were enrolled for 30-minute measurement. Each subject underwent four treatment strategies, including acupuncture at ST36 (Zusanli), pseudoacupuncture, FIR, and combined acupuncture-FIR at different time points. Response was assessed at 5-minute intervals. Area under arterial waveform at baseline was defined as AreaBaseline, whereas AreaStim referred to area at each 5-minute substage during and after treatment. AreaStim/AreaBaseline was compared at different stages and among different strategies. Autonomic activity at different stages was assessed using low-to-high frequency power ratio (LHR). The results demonstrated increased perfusion for each therapeutic strategy from stage 1 to stage 2 (all ). Elevated perfusion was noted for all treatment strategies at stage 3 compared to stage 1 except pseudoacupuncture. Increased LHR was noted only in subjects undergoing pseudoacupuncture at stage 3 compared to stage 1 (). Reduced LHR at stage 2 compared to stage 1 was found only in combined treatment group (). In conclusion, the results support clinical benefits of combined acupuncture-FIR treatment in enhancing peripheral perfusion and parasympathetic activity. Cheng-Chan Yang, Gen-Min Lin, Jen-Hung Wang, Hsiao-Chiang Chu, Hsien-Tsai Wu, Jian-Jung Chen, and Cheuk-Kwan Sun Copyright © 2017 Cheng-Chan Yang et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Antitumor Effects of Berbamine and Paclitaxel through ROS/Akt Pathway in Glioma Cells Sun, 13 Aug 2017 09:46:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/8152526/ In our preliminary study, Berbamine (BA), one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese medicines, was effective in inducing the intracellular ROS levels. Since the regulation of cellular antioxidant capacity is crucial to the sensitivity of Ptx, it is feasible to propose that sensitizing cells to Ptx can be achieved through increasing the antioxidant capacity by codelivering BA. Cytotoxicity test demonstrates that either single or combinational treatment of BA and Ptx dose-dependently inhibits the proliferation of U-87 cells. Median-effect analysis clearly proves the synergistic anticancer effect between BA and Ptx. Combinational treatment of both drugs induced more intracellular ROS generation than either of the drugs did. Cotreatment of NAC could partially reverse the ROS generation and ameliorate the cytotoxicity induced by BA plus Ptx. Moreover, sequential activation of ROS-dependent phosphor-Akt expression was dose-dependently inhibited by the combinational application of BA and Ptx, which was more significantly effective than the single treatment of either BA or Ptx. Additionally, the coadministration of BA and Ptx shows the strongest tumor delaying effect in a U87 xenograft model, demonstrating the synergism between two drugs. Therefore, BA is a promising adjuvant to traditional chemotherapy, especially in combination with Ptx, to treat malignant glioma. Feng Jia, Shu Ruan, Ning Liu, and Linshan Fu Copyright © 2017 Feng Jia et al. All rights reserved. Atractylodin Induces Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation and Promotes Gastric Emptying through Ghrelin Receptor Sun, 13 Aug 2017 08:00:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/2186798/ Atractylodin is one of the main constituents in the rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea Thunb., being capable of treating cancer cachexia-anorexia and age-related diseases as an agonist of growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSR was herein expressed in human gastric smooth muscle cells (HGSMCs) and activated by ghrelin receptor agonist L-692,585. Like L-692,585, atractylodin also increased Ca2+ and enhanced the phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) through GHSR in HGSMCs. In addition, atractylodin promoted gastric emptying and MLC phosphorylation in the gastric antrum of mice also through GHSR. Collectively, atractylodin can activate GHSR in gastric smooth muscle, as a potential target in clinical practice. Yu Bai, Yan-hua Zhao, Jian-ya Xu, Xi-zhong Yu, Yun-xia Hu, and Zhi-qiang Zhao Copyright © 2017 Yu Bai et al. All rights reserved. Effective Heart Disease Detection Based on Quantitative Computerized Traditional Chinese Medicine Using Representation Based Classifiers Sun, 13 Aug 2017 07:04:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7483639/ At present, heart disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. Traditionally, heart disease is commonly detected using blood tests, electrocardiogram, cardiac computerized tomography scan, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and so on. However, these traditional diagnostic methods are time consuming and/or invasive. In this paper, we propose an effective noninvasive computerized method based on facial images to quantitatively detect heart disease. Specifically, facial key block color features are extracted from facial images and analyzed using the Probabilistic Collaborative Representation Based Classifier. The idea of facial key block color analysis is founded in Traditional Chinese Medicine. A new dataset consisting of 581 heart disease and 581 healthy samples was experimented by the proposed method. In order to optimize the Probabilistic Collaborative Representation Based Classifier, an analysis of its parameters was performed. According to the experimental results, the proposed method obtains the highest accuracy compared with other classifiers and is proven to be effective at heart disease detection. Ting Shu, Bob Zhang, and Yuan Yan Tang Copyright © 2017 Ting Shu et al. All rights reserved. Practice of Comparative Effectiveness Research to Identify Treatment Characteristics of Similar Chinese Patent Medicine for Angina Pectoris Sun, 13 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7062714/ Objective. Individualized application of TCM is not easy and may lead to undesirable results, such as poor effect or even adverse reactions. This trial aims to compare two common Chinese patent medicines with similar effects. Background of the Research. Four hospitals carried out the test at the same time in Tianjin city of China. Participants. 144 patients were involved in this study; all patients must meet the diagnostic criteria. Interventions. Qishen Yiqi pills, compound danshen pills, and their placebos; an efficacy analysis was conducted after the first medication and after crossover medication. Primary Outcome Measures. The primary index of end point includes Seattle Angina Questionnaire score-7 and score of 7-point Likert Scale; the curative effect was compared with minimal clinically important differences value. Result. Two drugs have their respective advantages in treating SAP. In practical application, the two drugs shall be discriminated in use based on patients’ specific symptoms. Trial Registration. Chinese clinical trials register is ChiCTR-TTRCC-14004406 (registered 23 March 2014). Hongbo Cao, Ping Wang, Nan Li, Dan Liu, Junshao Ma, Ruihong Fan, and Zhihuan Zhou Copyright © 2017 Hongbo Cao et al. All rights reserved. Astragalus Granule Prevents Ca2+ Current Remodeling in Heart Failure by the Downregulation of CaMKII Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7517358/ Background. Astragalus was broadly used for treating heart failure (HF) and arrhythmias in East Asia for thousands of years. Astragalus granule (AG), extracted from Astragalus, shows beneficial effect on the treatment of HF in clinical research. We hypothesized that administration of AG prevents the remodeling of L-type Ca2+ current () in HF mice by the downregulation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Methods. HF mice were induced by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC). After 4 weeks of AG treatment, cardiac function and QT interval were evaluated. Single cardiac ventricular myocyte was then isolated and whole-cell patch clamp was used to record action potential (AP) and . The expressions of L-type calcium channel alpha 1C subunit (Cav1.2), CaMKII, and phosphorylated protein kinase A (p-PKA) were examined by western blot. Results. The failing heart manifested distinct electrical remodeling including prolonged repolarization time and altered kinetics. AG treatment attenuated this electrical remodeling, supported by AG-related shortened repolarization time, decreased peak , accelerated inactivation, and positive frequency-dependent facilitation. In addition, AG treatment suppressed the overexpression of CaMKII, but not p-PKA, in the failing heart. Conclusion. AG treatment protected the failing heart against electrical remodeling and remodeling by downregulating CaMKII. Sinai Li, Yibing Nong, Qun Gao, Jing Liu, Yan Li, Xiaoyun Cui, Jie Wan, Jinjin Lu, Mingjie Sun, Qian Wu, Xiaolu Shi, Haifeng Cui, Weihong Liu, Mingxue Zhou, Lina Li, and Qian Lin Copyright © 2017 Sinai Li et al. All rights reserved. Oral Chinese Herbal Medicine as an Adjuvant Treatment for Chemotherapy, or Radiotherapy, Induced Myelosuppression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Thu, 10 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3432750/ Objective. Myelosuppression is a common side effect in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has shown promise in alleviating myelosuppression. Method. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from seven databases without language restriction. We included RCTs in adults, in which hematological toxicity was measured according to WHO criteria and control group underwent chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and the treatment group was given oral CHM. Results. We searched 1021 articles from the date of databases inception to October 7, 2016. We selected 14 articles for the final analysis. Pooled data showed that CHM significantly decreased the suppression rate of leukocytes, neutrophils, hemoglobin, and platelets compared with the control group, particularly in grade III-IV toxicity (leukocytes: RR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.33–0.56; neutrophils: RR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.27–0.58; hemoglobin: RR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.18–0.61; platelets: RR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.39–0.95). Conclusions. CHM as an adjuvant can alleviate myelosuppression induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy, reduce grade III-IV toxicity, and maintain therapeutic dose and treatment cycle. However, due to heterogeneity and publication bias, the results should be interpreted with caution and validated by conducting strictly designed multicenter RCTs of high quality and large scale. Bonan Hou, Rui Liu, Zhen Qin, Dan Luo, Qi Wang, and Shuiqing Huang Copyright © 2017 Bonan Hou et al. All rights reserved. Platonia insignis Mart., a Brazilian Amazonian Plant: The Stem Barks Extract and Its Main Constituent Lupeol Exert Antileishmanial Effects Involving Macrophages Activation Wed, 09 Aug 2017 07:40:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3126458/ Platonia insignis Mart., popularly known as “bacurizeiro,” is used in traditional medical practices based on its diverse biological properties. This study was aimed at evaluating the antileishmanial effects of the ethanol extract (EtOH-Ext), hexane fraction (Hex-F), and its main isolated Lupeol obtained from stem barks of P. insignis against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, as well as their cytotoxicity and possible mechanisms of action. The EtOH-Ext, Hex-F, and Lupeol inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigote forms at IC50 of 174.24, 45.23, and 39.06 µg/mL, respectively, as well as L. amazonensis axenic amastigote forms at IC50 of 40.58, 35.87, and 44.10 µg/mL, respectively. The mean cytotoxic concentrations for macrophages (CC50) were higher than those for amastigotes (341.95, 71.65, and 144.0 µg/mL, resp.), indicating a selective cytotoxicity towards the parasite rather than the macrophages. Interestingly, all treatments promoted antileishmanial effect against macrophage-internalized amastigotes at concentrations lower than CC50. Furthermore, increases of lysosomal volume of macrophages treated with EtOH-Ext, Hex-F, and Lupeol were observed. On the other hand, only Lupeol stimulated increase of phagocytic capability of macrophages, suggesting this compound might be characterized as the biomarker for the antileishmanial effect of P. insignis stem bark, as well as the involvement of immunomodulatory mechanisms in this effect. Adriana Cunha Souza, Michel Muálem de Moraes Alves, Lucas Moreira Brito, Luciano Gomes De Castro Oliveira, Enoque Pereira Costa Sobrinho-Júnior, Isabella Cristhina Gonçalves Costa, Sâmya Danielle Lima Freitas, Klinger Antonio da Franca Rodrigues, Mariana Helena Chaves, Daniel Dias Rufino Arcanjo, and Fernando Aécio de Amorim Carvalho Copyright © 2017 Adriana Cunha Souza et al. All rights reserved. Zanthoxylum heitzii Modulates Ferric Nitrilotriacetate-Dependent Oxidative Alterations in Four Vital Organs: An In Vitro Organoprotective Model Wed, 09 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6058150/ Ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) is a highly reactive compound used to induce degenerative disorders through oxidative stress (OS). Zanthoxylum heitzii (Z. heitzii) is a spice used as a medicinal plant to treat a variety of illnesses. This study investigated the ability of extracts from the leaves, fruits, roots, and barks of Z. Heitzii to inhibit Fe-NTA mediated oxidative damage in rats. The supernatant of rat liver homogenates was pretreated with the extracts for one hour before the induction of oxidative damage using a solution of Fe-NTA (400 mM). The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and peroxidases were measured together with the marker of lipid peroxidation and the level of glutathione. The pretreated groups showed a significant increase in the activity of SOD, catalase, and peroxidases. The methanolic extract from the leaves of Z. heitzii (36.78 ± 3.30) and aqueous extract from the fruits (37.01 ± 2.52) showed the highest activities of SOD in the liver. The lowest concentration of MDA was found in the liver, and the glutathione was greater in the brain. Conclusively, these results suggest that Z. heitzii might be a chemoprotector which may be used in for prevention of distinct types of diseases induced by oxidative stress. Jacques Joël Essogo, Bruno Moukette Moukette, Francine Nzufo Tankeu, Pauline Nanfack, and Constant Anatole Pieme Copyright © 2017 Jacques Joël Essogo et al. All rights reserved. Systematic Review on Acupuncture for Treatment of Dysphagia after Stroke Wed, 09 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6421852/ Objective. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture for dysphagia after stroke. Methods. Seven electronic databases were searched from their inception until 31 September 2016. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) incorporating acupuncture or acupuncture combined with other interventions for treatment of dysphagia after stroke were enrolled. Then they were extracted and assessed by two independent evaluators. Direct comparisons were conducted in RevMan 5.3.0 software. Results. 6010 patients of 71 papers were included. The pooled analysis of efficacy rate of 58 studies indicated that acupuncture group was superior to the control group with moderate heterogeneity (RR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.13 1.21, , and ); meta-analysis of the studies using blind method showed that the efficacy rate of acupuncture group was 3.01 times that of control group with no heterogeneity (RR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.95 4.65, , and ). Only 13 studies mentioned the safety evaluation. Conclusion. The result showed that the acupuncture group was better than control group in terms of efficacy rate of dysphagia after stroke. And the combining result of those researches using blind method was more strong in proof. Strict evaluation standard and high-quality RCT design are necessary for further exploration. Qiuping Ye, Yu Xie, Junheng Shi, Zhenhua Xu, Aihua Ou, and Nenggui Xu Copyright © 2017 Qiuping Ye et al. All rights reserved. Garidisan: Improving the Quality of Ulcer Healing in Rats with Ulcerative Colitis Tue, 08 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/8721257/ Garidisan, commonly used in Mongolia to treat ulcerative colitis (UC), contains wild poppy and Artemisia frigida Willd. Clinical evidence shows that Garidisan can effectively treat UC and that recurrence is low. Thus, we evaluated the effects of Garidisan on ulcer healing quality and the regulation of immune balance in rats with experimental UC. UC was induced by immunization with TNBS and Garidisan significantly reduced DAI, CMDI, and HS. H&E staining, SEM, and VG staining showed that Garidisan repaired damaged intestinal mucosa and significantly reduced expression of ICAM-1 and CD105 in regenerated tissues of UC rats. Collagen fibers were significantly fewer as well after treatment. Garidisan elevated EGF, VEGF, bFGF, VEGFR2, and FGFR1 of UC rats, reduced CD3+CD4+/CD3+CD8+ T cell ratios, and increased CD4+Th1/CD4+Th2 cell ratios and IFN-r/IL-4 ratios in peripheral blood of UC rats. In conclusion, Garidisan promoted tissue maturation of regenerated tissues by regulating the immune balance and improved functional maturity of regenerated tissues by reducing collagen formation, promoting maturation of new blood vessels, and increasing expression of growth factors and their receptors. Lin Wang, Wei-Zhi Liu, Ling-Yan Pei, Yu-Shi Ke, Jian Cui, and Shu-Chun Li Copyright © 2017 Lin Wang et al. All rights reserved. Kangfuxinye Enema Combined with Mesalamine for Ulcerative Colitis: A Systematic Review and GRADE Approach Mon, 07 Aug 2017 09:30:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6019530/ Objectives. To critically appraise the efficacy and safety of Kangfuxinye enema combined with mesalamine for the ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and in addition to grade the quality of evidence by using the GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) approach. Methods. A literature search was performed in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang Databases. The search restrictions were patients with UC and RCTs. Studies including other treatments except Kangfuxinye with mesalamine were excluded. Results. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. We found significant benefits of Kangfuxinye combined with mesalamine against mesalamine alone in improving response rate as well as reducing the recurrence rate and inflammation rate; meanwhile, the increase of the adverse events rate was not observed. Furthermore, the symptoms remission rate and the cure time were insignificant statistically. Additionally, GRADE results indicated that the quality of evidence regarding the above 6 outcomes was rated from very low to moderate quality. Conclusions. Although Kangfuxinye enema seems effective and safe for treating UC patients in this systematic review, Kangfuxinye enema combined with mesalamine was weakly recommended due to very low to moderate quality of available evidence by the GRADE approach. Peng-wei Ren, Wen-jie Yang, Dan-dan Wang, Jing-yan Shan, De-ying Kang, Qi Hong, Shu Wen, and Ru-wen Zhang Copyright © 2017 Peng-wei Ren et al. All rights reserved. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Functional Gastrointestinal Diseases 2016 Mon, 07 Aug 2017 06:13:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/2089165/ Jiande D. Z. Chen, Jieyun Yin, Xiaohua Hou, and Toku Takahashi Copyright © 2017 Jiande D. Z. Chen et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Effects of Laser Acupuncture plus Chinese Cupping on the Pain and Plasma Cortisol Levels in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Lower Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial Mon, 07 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3140403/ Objectives. Chronic nonspecific lower back pain (LBP) is a common disease. Insufficient data is currently available to conclusively confirm the analgesic effects of laser acupuncture on LBP. This study evaluated the effectiveness of laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping in LBP treatment. Methods. Patients with chronic nonspecific LBP were enrolled for a randomized controlled trial and assigned to the laser acupuncture group (laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping) and control group (sham laser plus Chinese cupping). Laser acupuncture (808 nm; 40 mW; 20 Hz; 15 J/cm2) and Chinese cupping were applied on the Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints for 5 consecutive days. Plasma cortisol levels were assessed before and after the 5-day treatment session. The visual analog scale (VAS) scores were recorded at baseline and throughout the 5-day treatment session. Results. After the treatment session, the plasma cortisol levels and VAS scores decreased significantly in both groups. In the laser acupuncture group, the VAS scores decreased significantly on days 4 and 5, and an enhanced reduction in VAS scores was observed. Conclusion. Laser acupuncture plus Chinese cupping at the Weizhong (BL40) and Ashi acupoints effectively reduced pain and inflammation in chronic nonspecific LBP. This therapy could be a suitable option for LBP treatment in clinical settings. Mu-Lien Lin, Jih-Huah Wu, Chi-Wan Lin, Chuan-Tsung Su, Hung-Chien Wu, Yong-Sheng Shih, I-Ting Chiu, Chao-Yi Chen, and Wen-Dien Chang Copyright © 2017 Mu-Lien Lin et al. All rights reserved. Electroacupuncture at GV20 and ST36 Exerts Neuroprotective Effects via the EPO-Mediated JAK2/STAT3 Pathway in Cerebral Ischemic Rats Mon, 07 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6027421/ Background. While electroacupuncture (EA) in cerebral ischemia has been used to promote functional recovery, the underlying mechanism of its protective effect remains poorly understood. Objective. We investigated the effects of EA stimulation at GV20 and ST36 to observe the changes in erythropoietin- (EPO-) mediated Janus family tyrosine kinases 2 (JAK2) signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (STAT3) cell pathway. Methods. Thirty-six specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly assigned to three groups: the sham-operated group (S group), the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group (M group), and the EA group. Neurological deficits were assessed through the Ludmila Belayev 12-score test and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was shown. The protein and mRNA expression levels of EPO, the EPO receptor (EpoR), p-JAK2, JAK2, p-STAT3, and STAT3 were examined to explore the EA effect on rats with cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury (CIRI). Results. EA significantly decreased infarct size and improved neurological function. Furthermore, target EPO, EpoR, JAK2, and STAT3 mRNA and protein levels significantly increased in the EA group. Conclusions. EA exerts a neuroprotective effect, possibly via the regulation of the EPO-mediated JAK2/STAT3 cell pathway and downstream apoptotic pathways in a rat CIRI model. Hong Xu, Ya-min Zhang, Hua Sun, Su-hui Chen, and Ying-kui Si Copyright © 2017 Hong Xu et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Topical Compound Danxiong Granules for Treatment of Dermatologic Toxicities Induced by Targeted Anticancer Therapy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Sun, 06 Aug 2017 09:51:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3970601/ Dermatologic toxicities resulting in dose reduction or discontinuation of treatment pose challenges for targeted anticancer therapies. We conducted this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of topical application of Compound Danxiong Granules (CDG) for treatment of dermatologic toxicities associated with targeted anticancer therapies. One hundred and ten patients with dermatologic toxicities induced by targeted anticancer therapies were randomly assigned to CDG or placebo group. Each crude herb (Rhizoma Chuanxiong, Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., Cortex Phellodendri, Geranium sibiricum L., and Flos Carthami) was prepared as an instant herbal powder. Application of the CDG via topical washes lasted 20 minutes, twice daily, for 10 days. The primary outcome was the total effective rate, defined as reduction in at least one grade of skin toxicity. The total effective rate was 77.61% (52/67) in the CDG group and 27.27% (9/33) in the placebo group (). Compared to the placebo treatment, CDG treatment achieved a higher total effective rate for hand-foot skin reaction (95.45% versus 27.27%), acneiform eruption (69.23% versus 30.78%), and paronychia (68.42% versus 22.22%). Topical application of CDG can effectively attenuate dermatologic toxicities induced by targeted anticancer therapies. The effect of CDG was more pronounced in hand-foot skin reaction. Aiping Tian, Aiping Zhou, Xinyu Bi, Shangying Hu, Zhichao Jiang, Wen Zhang, Zhen Huang, Hongzhe Shi, Boyan Yang, and Wei Chen Copyright © 2017 Aiping Tian et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Deep Tissue Massage and Therapeutic Massage for Lower Back Pain, Disease Activity, and Functional Capacity of Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients: A Randomized Clinical Pilot Study Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9894128/ Objectives. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of deep tissue massage (DTM) and therapeutic massage (TM) in the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Materials and Methods. This was a small, randomized clinical pilot study. Subjects were 27 men with diagnosed AS, randomly assigned to DTM group or TM group. Subjects in each group had 10 sessions of massage. Outcomes included the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Modified Schober Test, Finger to Floor Test, chest expansion, and pain intensity of lower back. Results. There are no statistical significant differences between groups, except for BASDAI and pain intensity of lower back. Conclusions. This study suggests that massage may have clinical benefits for treating ankylosing spondylitis patients. Additional scientific research in this area is warranted. Mateusz Wojciech Romanowski, Maja Špiritović, Radosław Rutkowski, Adrian Dudek, Włodzimierz Samborski, and Anna Straburzyńska-Lupa Copyright © 2017 Mateusz Wojciech Romanowski et al. All rights reserved.