Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2018 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Arctium lappa Extract on NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Thu, 18 Jan 2018 08:57:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/6346734/ Arctium lappa (A. lappa), Compositae, is considered a potential source of nutrition and is used as a traditional medicine in East Asian countries for centuries. Although several studies have shown its biological activities as an anti-inflammatory agent, there have been no reports on A. lappa with regard to regulatory role in inflammasome activation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of A. lappa extract (ALE) on NLRP3 inflammasome activation and explore the underlying mechanisms. We found that ALE inhibited IL-1β secretion from NLRP3 inflammasome activated bone marrow derived macrophages but not that secreted by NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasomes activation. Mechanistic studies revealed that ALE suppressed the ATPase activity of purified NLRP3 and reduced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) generated during NLRP3 activation. Therefore, the inhibitory effect of ALE on NLRP3 inflammasome might be attributed to its ability to inhibit the NLRP3 ATPase function and attenuated the mROS during inflammasome activation. In addition, ALE significantly reduced the LPS-induced increase of plasma IL-1β in mouse peritonitis model. These results provide evidence of novel anti-inflammatory mechanisms of A. lappa, which might be used for therapeutic applications in the treatment of NLRP3 inflammasome-associated inflammatory disorders. Young-Kyu Kim, Sushruta Koppula, Do-Wan Shim, Eun-Jung In, Su-Bin Kwak, Myong-Ki Kim, Sang-Hyeun Yu, Kwang-Ho Lee, and Tae-Bong Kang Copyright © 2018 Young-Kyu Kim et al. All rights reserved. Antibacterial Effects of Leaf Extract of Nandina domestica and the Underlined Mechanism Thu, 18 Jan 2018 08:21:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/8298151/ Aim. The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and antiasthmatic effects of Nandina domestica leaf extract, to find out its active components, and to assess its safety issue. Methods. (1) Solid-phase agar dilution method was used for antibacterial activity test of nandina leaf extract and the change of bacterial morphology after treatment was observed under the transmission microscope; (2) guinea pig model of asthma was used to test the asthma prevention effect of nandina leaf extract; (3) alkaloids and flavones were separated from nandina leaf extract and were further analyzed with HPLC-MS; (4) mice model was used to assessment of the safety issue of nandina leaf extract. Results. (1) Nandina leaf extract inhibited the growth of bacteria and destroyed bacterial membrane; (2) nandina leaf extract alleviated animal allergy and asthma; (3) the components reextracted by ethyl acetate were active, in which alkaloids inhibited Gram-positive bacteria and prevented asthma and flavones inhibited Gram-negative bacteria; (4) nandina leaf extract had no toxic effect on mice. Conclusion. Nandina leaves inhibit bacterial growth and prevent asthma through alkaloids and flavones, which had integrated function against chronic bronchitis. This study provided theoretical basement for producing new Chinese medicine against chronic bronchitis. Zhao-Yu Guo, Zhuo-Yang Zhang, Jia-Qi Xiao, Jin-Hong Qin, and Wei Zhao Copyright © 2018 Zhao-Yu Guo et al. All rights reserved. Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects Wed, 17 Jan 2018 08:23:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/1709182/ We examined the effects of essential oil from legal (THC <0.2% w/v) hemp variety on the nervous system in 5 healthy volunteers. GC/EIMS and GC/FID analysis of the EO showed that the main components were myrcene and β-caryophyllene. The experiment consisted of measuring autonomic nervous system (ANS) parameters; evaluations of the mood state; and electroencephalography (EEG) recording before treatment, during treatment, and after hemp inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. The results revealed decreased diastolic blood pressure, increased heart rate, and significant increased skin temperature. The subjects described themselves as more energetic, relaxed, and calm. The analysis EEG showed a significant increase in the mean frequency of alpha (8–13 Hz) and significant decreased mean frequency and relative power of beta 2 (18,5–30 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increased power, relative power, and amplitude of theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha brain waves activities and an increment in the delta wave (0,5–4 Hz) power and relative power was recorded in the posterior region of the brain. These results suggest that the brain wave activity and ANS are affected by the inhalation of the EO of Cannabis sativa suggesting a neuromodular activity in cases of stress, depression, and anxiety. Nadia Gulluni, Tania Re, Idalba Loiacono, Giovanni Lanzo, Luigi Gori, Claudio Macchi, Francesco Epifani, Nicola Bragazzi, and Fabio Firenzuoli Copyright © 2018 Nadia Gulluni et al. All rights reserved. Advanced Effect of Moringa oleifera Bioconversion by Rhizopus oligosporus on the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: Preliminary Study Wed, 17 Jan 2018 06:16:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/7827565/ This study was conducted to determine if topical application of Moringa oleifera extracts and its bioconversion product fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus has therapeutic properties enhancement for treatment of atopic dermatitis. Rhizopus oligosporus (KCCM 11232P) was used to ferment Moringa leaves’ extracts in this study. Comparison of organic acids and flavonols in Moringa simple extracts and their fermented product by HPLC analysis revealed that concentration of organic acids and flavonols of bioconversion product was lower than that of hot water extracts. The fermentation process is used as a nutrient for isolation of each component by microorganisms and growth of microorganisms. The results demonstrated that MF extracts effectively reduced clinical features based on macrography, scratching count, and severity scores, as well as model’s serum IgE level, including histopathological analyses. Sang-sun Hur, Suk-won Choi, Dong-ryul Lee, Jong-hwan Park, and Tae-ho Chung Copyright © 2018 Sang-sun Hur et al. All rights reserved. The Therapeutic Effects of a Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula Wuzi Yanzong Pill for the Treatment of Oligoasthenozoospermia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Wed, 17 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/2968025/ Oligoasthenozoospermia is a crucial factor in male infertility. Wuzi Yanzong (WZYZ) pill is a popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula which has been used for male infertility treatment for years. However, its effects on semen quality remain controversial. We conducted a preregistered meta-analysis to assess the effect of WZYZ pill for the therapeutic effects on oligoasthenozoospermia. Five randomized controlled trials including 960 participants were selected from databases of domains in North-East Asian regions, PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. WZYZ pill group yielded a greater mean increment on sperm concentration (5 trials: MD 5.99, 95% CI 2.12–9.85, ), sperm motility (5 trials: MD 4.57, 95% CI 0.47–8.68, ), sperm morphology (2 trials: MD −1.93, 95% CI −4.87–1.01, ), activity of acrosomal enzyme (2 trials: MD 28.27, 95% CI 12.41–44.14, ), volume of semen (2 trials: MD 0.56, 95% CI 0.21–0.91, ), and a decrement of sperm DNA fragmentation index (2 trials: MD −3.82, 95% CI −6.45–−1.19, ). However, qualities of selected studies were generally unsatisfactory, and there was inherent heterogeneity among some of the outcomes. Despite these limitations, the WZYZ pill improved sperm quality by improving several semen parameters and decreasing DNA damage in oligoasthenozoospermia patients. Ming Peng Zhao, Xiao Shi, Grace Wing Shan Kong, Chi Chiu Wang, Justin Che Yuen Wu, Zhi Xiu Lin, Tin Chiu Li, and David Yiu Leung Chan Copyright © 2018 Ming Peng Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Huanglian Jiedu Decoration in Rat Gingivitis Tue, 16 Jan 2018 07:39:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/8249013/ Gingivitis is an inflammatory disease that affects gingival tissues through a microbe-immune interaction. Huanglian Jiedu decoction (HLJD) is used traditionally for clearing and detoxifying in China, which had been reported to possess many pharmacological effects. Rat gingival inflammation model was established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection for 3 consecutive days, and HLJD was given by gavage before LPS injection. After 3 days rats were sacrificed and tissue samples were evaluated. Serum cytokine levels such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). Oxidative stress related molecules such as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined. Expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway were inspected by western blotting. Histological changes of gingival tissues were tested with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. HLJD significantly decreased serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, suppressed generation of MDA and ROS, and enhanced T-AOC creation. Moreover, HLJD inhibited expressions of AMPK and ERK1/2. The inflammation severity of gingival tissue by HE staining was severe in model group but relieved in HLJD group obviously. HLJD exhibited protective effects against gingival damage through suppressing inflammation reaction and elevating antioxidation power. Fangbo Zhang, Ya Geng, Haiyu Zhao, Hongjie Wang, Yi Zhang, Defeng Li, Baolin Bian, and Hongjun Yang Copyright © 2018 Fangbo Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract Exerts Antidepressant-Like Effects and Inhibits Hippocampal and Cortical Apoptosis of Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Tue, 16 Jan 2018 06:15:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/5916451/ We investigated the effects of Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE) on depressive behaviors and neuronal apoptosis in a chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression. Rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, chronic unpredictable mild stress, fluoxetine, AVLE30, AVLE60, and AVLE120. Except for the control group, all rats were submitted to chronic unpredictable mild stress paradigms for four weeks to induce depressive behavior. Neuronal apoptosis was assessed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- (TDT-) mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 Associated X Protein (Bax), cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 and protease-9 (caspase-3 and caspase-9), cytochrome c (cyt-C), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and cAMP-response element binding (CREB) protein, were evaluated by western blot. Treatment with AVLE (60 or 120 mg/kg/day) significantly improved depressive behavior. Increased apoptosis of hippocampus and cortical neurons were observed in CUMS rats, while 120 mg/kg/day of AVLE significantly reversed these changes and achieved the best antidepressant-like effects among the doses tested. Moreover, AVLE (120 mg/kg) significantly increased Bcl-2, BDNF, and CREB protein expression and decreased Bax, cyt-C, and caspase family protein expression. Our results indicate that AVLE has potent antidepressant activity, likely due to its ability to suppress neuronal apoptosis. Ting Wu, Xiangting Li, Tingting Li, Min Cai, Zhonghai Yu, Jingsi Zhang, Zhennian Zhang, Wen Zhang, Jun Xiang, and Dingfang Cai Copyright © 2018 Ting Wu et al. All rights reserved. Herbal Formula Modified Buzhong-Yiqi-Tang for Functional Constipation in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Tue, 16 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/9602525/ Background. Herbal formula Modified Buzhong-Yiqi-Tang (MBYT) has been widely used for the treatment of functional constipation in East Asia, but its efficacy and safety are unclear. Methods. The study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MBYT for adult patients with functional constipation. Randomized clinical trials were selected according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results. In total, twenty-five randomized controlled clinical trials were included with 2089 patients. There was evidence that MBYT treatment significantly improved the symptoms of functional constipation compared with stimulant laxatives, osmotic laxatives, and prokinetic agents. Our results also demonstrated that, when used as an adjuvant therapy, MBYT significantly improved the symptoms of functional constipation, when compared with osmotic laxatives alone, prokinetic agents alone, and biofeedback alone. Moreover, patients taking MBYT experienced fewer adverse events compared to the control groups. Conclusion. This review suggests that MBYT appears to have excellent therapeutic effect on adult patients with functional constipation and no serious side effects were identified. However, due to overall limited quality, the therapeutic benefit of MBYT may be substantiated to a limited degree. Better methodological quality and large controlled trials are expected to further quantify the therapeutic effect of MBYT. Hanlin Gong, Feng Qin, and Hongbo He Copyright © 2018 Hanlin Gong et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Registration Information on Interventions of Acupuncture and Moxibustion Trials in the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Mon, 15 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/1054629/ Purpose. To analyze and compare the clinical registration information about acupuncture and moxibustion for intervention characteristics. Methods. Clinical trials from the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization in acupuncture and moxibustion were comprehensively collected from 2013 to 2015; data were independently screened and extracted by two retrievers, and relevant data involving either basic descriptions or intervention characteristics were analyzed. Results. 425 acupuncture and moxibustion registered clinical trials were included; 88.00% (374/425) were designed as controlled studies, among which 38.59% (164/425) had sham acupuncture as the control group. The most common diseases were pain-related at approximately 19.29% (82/425) of trials. Reports on the intervention information in these acupuncture and moxibustion clinical studies were not sufficiently presented; these reports included the reporting of names of points (39.8%), the method of needle stimulation (32.5%), needle type (29.6%), needle retention time (34.1%), the number of treatment sessions (22.4%), and the frequency and duration of treatment sessions (38.1%). Conclusion. The registration information for the clinical trials of acupuncture and moxibustion was quite low according to this investigational study. Steps should be taken to improve the quality of acupuncture and moxibustion registration information. Yali Liu, Wenjie Chen, Yingxin Tan, Xingyue Yang, Jia Liu, Tingting Lu, Shiyan Yan, Liyun He, and Baoyan Liu Copyright © 2018 Yali Liu et al. All rights reserved. Isolation and Biological Evaluation of Prenylated Flavonoids from Maclura pomifera Sun, 14 Jan 2018 10:11:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/1370368/ Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of Maclura pomifera fruits yielded four new compounds (I–IV) along with eleven known compounds (V–XV). The crude extract exhibited significant activity towards cannabinoid receptors (CB1: 103.4% displacement; CB2: 68.8% displacement) and possibly allosteric interaction with and opioid receptors (−49.7 and −53.8% displacement, resp.). Compound I was found to be possibly allosteric for and opioid receptors (−88.4 and −27.2% displacement, resp.) and showed moderate activity (60.5% displacement) towards CB1 receptor. Compound II exhibited moderate activity towards cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 (47.9 and 42.3% displacement, resp.). The known compounds (V–VIII) exhibited prominent activity towards cannabinoid receptors: pomiferin (V) (IC50 of 2.110 and 1.318 μM for CB1 and CB2, resp.), auriculasin (VI) (IC50 of 8.923 μM for CB1), warangalone (VII) (IC50 of 1.670 and 4.438 μM for CB1 and CB2, resp.), and osajin (VIII) (IC50 of 3.859 and 7.646 μM for CB1 and CB2, resp.). The isolated compounds were also tested for inhibition of human monoamine oxidase-A and monoamine oxidase-B enzymes activities, where all the tested compounds showed fewer inhibitory effects on MAO-A compared to MAO-B activities: auriculasin (VI) (IC50 of 1.91 and 45.98 μM for MAO-B and MAO-A, resp.). Yerkebulan Orazbekov, Mohamed A. Ibrahim, Serjan Mombekov, Radhakrishnan Srivedavyasasri, Ubaidilla Datkhayev, Bauyrzhan Makhatov, Narayan D. Chaurasiya, Babu L. Tekwani, and Samir A. Ross Copyright © 2018 Yerkebulan Orazbekov et al. All rights reserved. Themes Underlying Australian General Practitioner Views towards Chiropractic and Osteopathy: An Assessment of Free Text Data from a Cross-Sectional Survey Sun, 14 Jan 2018 08:05:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/2786106/ The Australian chiropractic and osteopathic professions underwent a period of significant transformation between 1960 and 2000. This resulted in an improvement in the views held by the medical profession towards the two professions. However, a recent survey of Australian general practitioners (GPs) reported that a number of GPs still hold negative views towards chiropractors and osteopaths. This paper examines these views from the perspective of critical realism and explores the generative mechanisms that can influence the willingness of health practitioners to collaborate over patient care. A qualitative analysis of open-ended responses to a survey of 630 Australian GPs was conducted. Unfavourable attitudes of GPs towards chiropractors and osteopaths included perceived lack of safety, efficacy, and inadequacy of training, despite chiropractic’s and osteopathy’s reliance on the same evidence base and similar training to those of other manual therapy professions such as physiotherapy. These attitudes may be underpinned by the professional biases against chiropractic and osteopathy that continue to marginalise the professions within the Australian healthcare system. Continued investment in the research base for chiropractic and osteopathic practice is required, along with raising the awareness of GPs about the education and skills of chiropractors and osteopaths. Sandra Grace, Roger Engel, and Ian Jalsion Copyright © 2018 Sandra Grace et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Qufengtongluo Decoction on PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway in the Kidney of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Rat (GK Rat) with Diabetic Nephropathy Sun, 14 Jan 2018 07:16:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/8421979/ Qufengtongluo (QFTL) decoction is an effective treatment for diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we try to investigate whether QFTL decoction acts via inhibiting PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Twenty-four GK rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: blank group, sham-operated group, and QFTL group. After model establishment, rats in QFTL group were given QFTL decoction by gavage, while the rest were given pure water. During the 8-week intervention, 24 hr urinal protein was measured every 2-3 weeks. After intervention, kidneys were removed for pathological smear, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting to detect expression levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, PTEN, TGF-β, PI3K mRNA, Akt mRNA, PTEN mRNA, and TGF-β mRNA. QFTL group showed a slighter degree of renal fibrosis in Masson and PASM staining and a greater reduction of 24 hr urinal protein than blank group. Compared to blank group, expression levels of p-PI3K, p-Akt, PI3K mRNA, and Akt mRNA were lower in QFTL group, while expression levels of PTEN and PTEN mRNA were higher. Besides, TGF-β was downregulated by QFTL decoction. In conclusion, this study suggests that QFTL decoction might inhibit PI3K/Akt signaling pathway via activating PTEN and inhibiting TGF-β. Wei-Jun Huang, Qiang Fu, Yong-Hua Xiao, Qing Gong, Wen-Jing Wu, Zi-Long Shen, Hua Zhang, Xu Jia, Xue-Min Huang, Ya-Xin Zhang, Jin-Xi Zhao, Shi-Dong Wang, Mian Jia, and Yu-Ting Zhang Copyright © 2018 Wei-Jun Huang et al. All rights reserved. Autumn Royal and Ribier Grape Juice Extracts Reduced Viability and Metastatic Potential of Colon Cancer Cells Sun, 14 Jan 2018 07:08:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/2517080/ Antioxidants are known to be beneficial to health. This paper evaluates the potential chemopreventive and anticancer properties of phenolic compounds present in grape juice extracts (GJE) from Autumn Royal and Ribier varieties. The effects of these GJE on viability (SRB day assay) and metastatic potential (migration and invasion parameters) of colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and SW-480 were evaluated. The effects of GJE on two matrix metalloproteinase gene expressions (MMP2 and MMP9) were also evaluated via qRT-PCR. In the former, GJE reduced cell viability in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. GJE treatment also reduced cell migration and invasion. Moreover, MMP-2 and MMP-9 gene expression diminished depending on extract and on cell type. Conclusions. These results provide novel information concerning anticancer properties of selected GJE by revealing selective cytotoxicity and the ability to reduce invasiveness of colon cancer cells. Manuel Valenzuela, Lorena Bastias, Iván Montenegro, Enrique Werner, Alejandro Madrid, Patricio Godoy, Mario Párraga, and Joan Villena Copyright © 2018 Manuel Valenzuela et al. All rights reserved. Simultaneous Quantification of Gallic Acid, Bergenin, Epicatechin, Epicatechin Gallate, Isoquercitrin, and Quercetin-3-Rhamnoside in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS Method and Its Application to Pharmacokinetics after Oral Administration of Ardisia japonica Extract Sun, 14 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/4964291/ Ardisia japonica is a well-known traditional Chinese medicinal herb used as a diuretic, for treating cough and for stopping uterine bleeding. A simple, sensitive, and reliable LC-MS/MS method was developed to determine six active compounds in rat plasma and this method was further applied to the pharmacokinetic study of these compounds after oral administration of Ardisia japonica extract. Acetonitrile was used to precipitate the protein in the plasma samples. Using acetonitrile and formic acid aqueous solution (0.05%) as the mobile phase, the separation of the six compounds and internal standards was achieved at a flow rate of 300 μL min−1 on an Eclipse plus C18 column at an elution time of 16 min. A tandem mass spectrometer having an electrospray ionization (ESI) source was used in the detection of the analytes and internal standards using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) in the negative ionization mode. The LLOQ was 2, 2, 4, 2, 1, and 0.4 ng mL−1 for gallic acid, bergenin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, isoquercitrin, and quercetin-3-rhamnoside, respectively. The validated method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of gallic acid, bergenin, and quercetin-3-rhamnoside in rat plasma after oral administration of A. japonica extract to rats. Xie-an Yu, John Teye Azietaku, Jin Li, Hui Wang, Fang Zheng, Jia Hao, and Yan-xu Chang Copyright © 2018 Xie-an Yu et al. All rights reserved. Danhong Injection Alleviates Mechanical Allodynia via Inhibiting ERK1/2 Activation and Elevates BDNF Level in Sciatic Nerve in Diabetic Rat Sun, 14 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/5798453/ Danhong injection (DHI) has been widely used in China for cardiocerebrovascular diseases treatments. And in this study, we demonstrated the therapeutic effect of DHI on experimental diabetic neuropathy for the first time. Methods. Streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced SD rats were used. In experiment 1, 4-week treatment with DHI or saline started 4 weeks after STZ injection; mechanical allodynia was measured before and every 2 weeks after STZ injection. In experiment 2, chronic intrathecal infusion of U0126 was conducted during the 8th week of diabetes. Phosphorylated and total ERK1/2 in spinal cord were analyzed by western blot. BDNF level in sciatic nerve was evaluated by ELISA. Results. DHI treatment significantly alleviated mechanical allodynia at the end of the study and downregulated the expression of phosphorylated ERK1/2 in spinal cord. In addition, DHI treatment also elevated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in sciatic nerve of DPN rat. In experiment 2, inhibition of ERK1/2 activation was confirmed to result in the alleviation of mechanical allodynia. Conclusions. We demonstrated that DHI was able to alleviate mechanical allodynia in diabetic neuropathy rat through inhibiting the activation of ERK1/2. The reduction of BDNF content in sciatic nerve was also partially reversed by DHI treatment. Qi Wang, Zhuang-Li Guo, Ge-Le Aori, Da-Wei Kong, Wen-Qiang Yang, Li Zhang, and Yan-Bing Yu Copyright © 2018 Qi Wang et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Antioxidant Activity and Characterization of One New Polysaccharide Obtained from Perigord Truffle (Tuber huidongense) Sun, 14 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/9686012/ Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Copyright © 2018 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. All rights reserved. The Efficacy and Safety of Acupuncture for the Treatment of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Thu, 11 Jan 2018 09:14:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/1057539/ Objectives. We aimed to summarize and critically evaluate the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods. We searched 13 databases for studies published up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy of acupuncture for children with ASD were included. Outcome measures were the overall scores on scales evaluating the core symptoms of ASD and the scores for each symptom, such as social communication ability and skills, stereotypies, language ability, and cognitive function. Effect sizes were presented as mean differences (MD). Results. Twenty-seven RCTs with 1736 participants were included. Acupuncture complementary to behavioral and educational intervention significantly decreased the overall scores on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) (MD −8.10, 95% CI −12.80 to −3.40) and the Autism Behavior Checklist (MD −8.92, 95% CI −11.29 to −6.54); however, it was unclear which of the ASD symptoms improved. Acupuncture as a monotherapy also reduced the overall CARS score. The reported adverse events were acceptable. Conclusions. This review suggests that acupuncture may be effective and safe for pediatric ASD. However, it is not conclusive due to the heterogeneity of the acupuncture treatment methods used in the studies. Boram Lee, Jihong Lee, Jin-Hong Cheon, Hyun-Kyung Sung, Seung-Hun Cho, and Gyu Tae Chang Copyright © 2018 Boram Lee et al. All rights reserved. Antibacterial Activities of Five Medicinal Plants in Ethiopia against Some Human and Animal Pathogens Thu, 11 Jan 2018 08:10:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/2950758/ Objective. To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of five plant extracts which have been used as traditional medicines by local healers against three multidrug resistant bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results. The highest mean zone of inhibition (4.66 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. at a concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus, followed by Croton macrostachyus Del. (4.43 mm) at the same dose and solvent for the same bacterial species, while methanol and chloroform extracts of E. brucei Schwein. did not inhibit growth of any bacterial species. The lowest value (100 μg/ml) of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed from both methanol and chloroform extracts of C. aurea (Ait.) Benth. against all the three bacteria. The results of the positive control had no statistically significant difference () when compared with crude extracts of C. aurea (Ait.) Benth. at concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus. Conclusion. The results of the present study support the traditional uses of these medicinal plants by the local healers. Except Erythrina brucei Schwein., all the plants investigated in this study exhibited antibacterial activities against the test bacterial species. Further researches are needed to be conducted to evaluate efficacy of these medicinal plant species on other microbes in different agroecological settings and their safety levels as well as their phytochemical compositions. Gebremedhin Romha, Birhanu Admasu, Tsegaye Hiwot Gebrekidan, Hailelule Aleme, and Gebreyohans Gebru Copyright © 2018 Gebremedhin Romha et al. All rights reserved. Association of Tongue Bacterial Flora and Subtypes of Liver-Fire Hyperactivity Syndrome in Hypertensive Patients Wed, 10 Jan 2018 06:26:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/9536924/ Structural changes in symbiotic human microorganisms can affect host phenotype. Liver-fire hyperactivity syndrome (LFHS) presents as bitter taste, halitosis, xerostomia, odontalgia, and other oral symptoms. LFHS is associated with hypertension (EH). In this study, tongue flora was analyzed to further understand the intrinsic relationship between tongue flora and LFHS. Samples of tongue coating, from 16 patients with EH-LFHS, 16 with EH-non-LFHS, and 16 controls, were obtained; then, 16S rRNA variable (V3-V4) regions were amplified and sequenced by MiSeq PE300 Sequencing. Tag clustering and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) abundance analysis were used to compare the OTU sequence with the 16S database. The species were classified, and diversity and structure of the bacterial flora were compared between the three groups. Alpha diversity analysis, including Observed Species index and Chao index, indicated significantly higher richness of species in patients with EH-LFHS . Higher phylogenetic diversity, in patients with EH-non-LFHS, indicates greater differences in evolutionary history than in patients with EH-LFHS. Streptococcus, Rothia, Neisseria, and Sphingomonas were the most prevalent in patients with EH-LFHS, differed from the other two groups. This indicates that richer bacterial diversity, and structure associated with EH-LFHS, may affect the occurrence, development, and outcome of hypertension and syndrome subtypes recognized by TCM. Jie-wei Luo, Cong-huai Lin, Yao-bin Zhu, Xing-yu Zheng, Yong-xi Wu, Wei-wei Chen, and Xiao Yang Copyright © 2018 Jie-wei Luo et al. All rights reserved. Scientific Evidence for Korean Medicine and Its Integrative Medical Research 2017 Wed, 10 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/1498020/ Wansu Park, Vesna Sendula-Jengic, Seong Su Nah, and Han Chae Copyright © 2018 Wansu Park et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Tue, 09 Jan 2018 07:33:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/5692962/ Objective. This article aims to assess the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and/or components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods. Electronic literature was searched in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Chinese Biomedical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang Database from inception of the database to May 19, 2017, and supplemented by browsing reference lists of potentially eligible articles. Randomized controlled trials on research subjects were included. Data were extracted as a mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analysis of fasting blood glucose (FBG) was performed. Results. 10 studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 490 individuals. Ginger showed a significant beneficial effect in glucose control and insulin sensitivity. The pooled weighted MD of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was −1.00, (95% CI: −1.56, −0.44; ). Subgroup analysis revealed that ginger obviously reduced FBG in T2DM patients (−21.24; 95% CI: −33.21, −9.26; ). Meanwhile, the significant effects of improvement of lipid profile were observed. Most analyses were not statistically heterogeneous. Conclusion. Based on the negligible side effects and obvious ameliorative effects on glucose control, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile, ginger may be a promising adjuvant therapy for T2DM and MetS. Jie Zhu, Hao Chen, Zhixiu Song, Xudong Wang, and Zhenshuang Sun Copyright © 2018 Jie Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Number 2 Feibi Recipe Reduces PM2.5-Induced Lung Injury in Rats Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/3674145/ Air pollution is the main cause of respiratory diseases. Fine particulates with the diameter below 2.5 μm can get into the alveoli and then enter the blood circulation through the lung tissue ventilation function and cause multiple systemic diseases especially the respiratory diseases. This study investigated the pathological mechanism of the lungs injury in rats induced by PM2.5 and the effect and mechanism of the Chinese herbal medicine number 2 Feibi Recipe (number 2 FBR) on lungs injury. In this experiment, Wistar rats were used. Lungs injury was induced by PM2.5. Number 2 FBR was used to treat the rats. The result showed that number 2 FBR could improve the lung injury in the rats. Meanwhile, it significantly reduced pathological response and inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-13 (IL-13), interleukin-17 (IL17), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and transforming growth factor-α (TNF-α) and upregulated glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the PM2.5 induced lung injury in the rats. Collectively, number 2 FBR appears to attenuate the lungs injury in rats induced by PM2.5. Zhaoheng Liu, Wei Wang, Fang Cao, Shuo Liu, Xinxin Zou, Guodong Li, Haojie Yang, and Yang Jiao Copyright © 2018 Zhaoheng Liu et al. All rights reserved. Gastroprotective Mechanism and Ulcer Resolution Effect of Cyrtocarpa procera Methanolic Extract on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/2862706/ Gastric ulcers are a worldwide health problem and their poor healing is one of the most important causes for their recurrence. We have previously reported the remarkable gastroprotective and anti-Helicobacter pylori activities of the methanolic extract (CpMet) of Cyrtocarpa procera bark. This work investigates, in a murine model, the CpMet gastroprotective mechanism and establishes its preclinical efficacy in the resolution of ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. The results showed that the gastroprotective activity of CpMet is mainly associated with endogenous NO and prostaglandins, followed by sulfhydryl groups and KATP channels. Furthermore, CpMet (300 mg/kg, twice a day) orally administered during 20 consecutive days promoted an ulcer area reduction of 62.65% at the 20th day of the treatment. The effect was confirmed macroscopically by the alleviation of gastric mucosal erosions and microscopically by an increase in mucin content and a reduction in the inflammatory infiltration at the site of the ulcer. No clinical symptoms or signs of toxicity were observed in the treated animals. The results indicate the safety and efficacy of CpMet in promoting high quality of ulcer healing by different mechanisms, but mostly through cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, making it a promising phytodrug for ulcer treatment. Wendy Itzel Escobedo-Hinojosa, Erika Gomez-Chang, Karina García-Martínez, Raquel Guerrero Alquicira, Alexandre Cardoso-Taketa, and Irma Romero Copyright © 2018 Wendy Itzel Escobedo-Hinojosa et al. All rights reserved. The Protective Effect of Total Flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch. on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury and Its Underlying Mechanism Tue, 09 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/6139372/ Objectives. Total flavones from Rhododendron simsii Planch. (TFR) are the effective part extracted from the flowers of Rhododendron simsii Planch. and have obvious protective effects against cerebral ischemic or myocardial injuries in rabbits and rats. However, their mechanism of cardioprotection is still unrevealed. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of TFR on myocardial I/R injury and the underlying mechanism. Methods. TFR groups were treated by gavage once a day for 3 days at a dose of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg, respectively, and then the model of myocardial I/R injury was established. Myocardial infarction, ST-segment elevation, and the expression of UTR, ROCK1, ROCK2, and p-MLC protein in rat myocardium were determined at 90 min after reperfusion. UTR siRNA in vivo transfection and competition binding assay method were used to study the relationship between the protective effect of TFR and UTR. Results. The expression of UTR protein markedly decreased in myocardium of UTR siRNA transfection group rats. TFR could significantly reduce the infarct size and inhibit the increase of RhoA activity and ROCK1, ROCK2, and p-MLC protein expressions both in WT and UTR knockdown rats. The reducing rate of TFR in myocardial infarction area, RhoA activity, and ROCK1, ROCK2, and p-MLC protein expressions in UTR knockdown rats decreased markedly compared with that in WT rats. In addition, TFR had no obvious effect on the increase of ΣST in UTR knockdown rats in comparison with that in model group. In particular, TFR could significantly inhibit the combination of []-hu-II and UTR, and IC50 was 0.854 mg/l. Conclusions. The results indicate that the protective effect of TFR on I/R injury may be correlated with its blocking UTR and the subsequent inhibition of RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. Sheng-Yong Luo, Qing-Hua Xu, Gong Peng, and Zhi-Wu Chen Copyright © 2018 Sheng-Yong Luo et al. All rights reserved. Change of Safe Needling Depth at Acupoint GB21 according to Posture and Breathing Mon, 08 Jan 2018 10:58:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/2308102/ Acupoint GB21 (Jianjing) is used for treating back and shoulder pain but is associated with a risk of pneumothorax. We aimed to determine the SND (safe needling depth) at GB21 according to posture and breathing in real time. Ultrasonographic images of GB21 during normal breathing, inspiration, and expiration in a SP (sitting position) were acquired for 52 healthy volunteers. Images were also acquired during normal respiration in the PP (prone position) with arms raised and lowered. The average SND was greater for men than for women (). Analysis of variance revealed that the SND was greater for the PP than for the SP ( and , resp.). Although the SND tended to change according to posture, the average depth tended to deviate widely in some subjects. During breathing, the differences between inspiration and expiration were less than 1 mm in most subjects, but some showed differences more than 4.5 mm. The SND at GB21 was greater in overweight subjects and significantly greater in the PP and during maximal expiration. However, intragroup differences were greater than the intergroup differences. Therefore, it is dangerous to simply apply needling depth on a gender or BMI basis. The practitioner would adjust the SND by examining the individual anatomical structures. Hongmin Chu, Jaehyun Kim, Wonbae Ha, Eunbyul Cho, Geon Kang, Seongjun Park, Jongwon Jang, Seung Bum Yang, Yeonseok Kang, Sanghun Lee, and Jae-Hyo Kim Copyright © 2018 Hongmin Chu et al. All rights reserved. Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Suppresses Oleic Acid-Induced Lipid Accumulation through an Activation of LKB1/AMPK Pathway in HepG2 Cells Mon, 08 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/3140267/ Zanthoxylum ailanthoides (ZA) has been used as folk medicines in East Asian and recently reported to have several bioactivity; however, the studies of ZA on the regulation of triacylglycerol (TG) biosynthesis have not been elucidated yet. In this study, we examined whether the methanol extract of ZA (ZA-M) could reduce oleic acid- (OA-) induced intracellular lipid accumulation and confirmed its mode of action in HepG2 cells. ZA-M was shown to promote the phosphorylation of AMPK and its upstream LKB1, followed by reduction of lipogenic gene expressions. As a result, treatment of ZA-M blocked de novo TG biosynthesis and subsequently mitigated intracellular neutral lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. ZA-M also inhibited OA-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TNF-α, suggesting that ZA-M possess the anti-inflammatory feature in fatty acid over accumulated condition. Taken together, these results suggest that ZA-M attenuates OA-induced lipid accumulation and inflammation through the activation of LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway in HepG2 cells. Eun-Bin Kwon, Myung-Ji Kang, Soo-Yeon Kim, Yong-Moon Lee, Mi-Kyeong Lee, Heung Joo Yuk, Hyung Won Ryu, Su Ui Lee, Sei-Ryang Oh, Dong-Oh Moon, Hyun-Sun Lee, and Mun-Ock Kim Copyright © 2018 Eun-Bin Kwon et al. All rights reserved. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Fructus Kochiae on Allergic Contact Dermatitis Rats via pERK1/2/TLR4/NF-κB Pathway Activation Thu, 04 Jan 2018 08:24:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/1096920/ Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common irritability skin disease, which can be cured by using the Chinese patent medicine. To explore the pharmacological effect of total flavonoids of Fructus Kochiae (FK) on ACD, we used dinitrochlorobenzene- (DNCB-) induced ACD rats. Five groups were used in our experiments. The normal group and the DNCB group were treated with 0.5% CMC-Na; the DNCB + hFK group was treated with a high dose of total flavonoids of FK (200 mg/kg); the DNCB + lFK group was treated with a low dose of FK (100 mg/kg); the DNCB + Pre group was treated with prednisolone acetate (2.5 mg/kg). The results showed that FK treatment had significantly attenuated the inflammation induced by DNCB. The increased concentration of cytokines including IL-6, IL-18, and IFN-γ in ACD rats could be reversed by the FK administration, while IL-10 expressed the opposite result; the expression level of TLR4, pERK1/2, and NF-κB could be downregulated by the treatment with FK in the ACD rat. In a word, the total flavonoids of the FK had an anti-inflammatory effect on the DNCB-induced ACD rat; this regulatory mechanism was highly possible based on the pERK1/2/TLR4-NF-κB pathway activation. Zuoqi Xiao, Suxi Xiao, Yongning Zhang, Tao Pan, and Bo Ouyang Copyright © 2018 Zuoqi Xiao et al. All rights reserved. Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang, a Traditional Korean Multiple Herbal Formulae, Improves Hippocampal Memory on Scopolamine Injection-Induced Amnesia Model of C57BL/6 Mice Thu, 04 Jan 2018 08:11:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/2821040/ We evaluated neuropharmacological properties of Yuk-Mi-Jihwang-Tang (YJT) against scopolamine injection-induced memory impairment mice model. Mice were orally administered with YJT (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) or tacrine (TAC, 12.5 mg/kg) for 10 days. At the first day of Morris water maze task, scopolamine (2 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected before 30 min of it. The hippocampal memory function was determined by the Morris water maze task for 5 days consecutively. Scopolamine drastically increased escape latency and decreased time spent in target quadrant. Pretreatment YJT properly improved them. Regarding the redox status, YJT significantly reduced the oxidative stress and it also exerted much effort to improve both superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in hippocampal gene expression and protein levels. These effects were well coincided with immunohistochemical analysis of 4-hydroxyneal-positive signals in hippocampal areas. Additionally, acetylcholine esterase activities and brain-derived neurotrophic factor abnormalities in the hippocampal protein levels were significantly normalized by YJT, and their related molecules were also improved. The neuronal proliferation in hippocampal regions was markedly inhibited by scopolamine, whereas YJT notably recovered them. Collectively, YJT exerts much effort to enhance memorial functions through improving redox status homeostasis and partially regulates acetylcholine esterase activities as well as neuronal cell proliferation. Hye-Lim Lee, Sung-Ah Lim, Hye-Won Lee, Ho-Ryong Yoo, and Hyeong-Geug Kim Copyright © 2018 Hye-Lim Lee et al. All rights reserved. Therapeutic Effectiveness and Safety of Mesotherapy in Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/6513049/ Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of mesotherapy by comparing it with the classic systematic therapy in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods. Sixty patients were included and classified into two groups based on the existence of contraindications for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These patients were treated with oral NSAIDs (Group A) or mesotherapy (Group B). After completing the treatment, the patients were followed up for 6 months. Their clinical features, laboratory results, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were evaluated. Results. A total of 50 patients completed treatment and follow-up. The patients in Group B had significantly fewer gastric acid-related complaints and requested less supplementary treatment for recurrent pain . The patients in both groups exhibited decreased blood viscosity after treatment . WOMAC scores, specifically those for pain and stiffness, were found to be significantly improved after either type of treatment . Mesotherapy also ameliorated physical function . Furthermore, Group B presented with better outcomes than Group A ( or ). Conclusion. Our results suggest that mesotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for patients with OA. Clinicians should consider mesotherapy as an alternative therapy for patients with contraindications for NSAID use. Liang Chen, Dongqing Li, Jun Zhong, Bo Qiu, and Xianglei Wu Copyright © 2018 Liang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Refractory Nephrotic Syndrome: Strategies and Promising Treatments Thu, 04 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2018/8746349/ Refractory nephrotic syndrome (RNS) is an immune-related kidney disease with poor clinical outcomes. Standard treatments include corticosteroids as the initial therapy and other immunosuppressants as second-line options. A substantial proportion of patients with RNS are resistant to or dependent on immunosuppressive drugs and often experience unremitting edema and proteinuria, cycles of remission and relapse, and/or serious adverse events due to long-term immunosuppression. Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history of treating complicated kidney diseases and holds great potential for providing effective treatments for RNS. This review describes the Chinese medical theories relating to the pathogenesis of RNS and discusses the strategies and treatment options using Chinese herbal medicine. Available preclinical and clinical evidence strongly supports the integration of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine for improving the outcome of RNS. Herbal medicine such as Astragalus membranaceus, Stephania tetrandra S. Moore, and Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F can serve as the alternative therapy when patients fail to respond to immunosuppression or as the complementary therapy to improve therapeutic efficacy and reduce side effects of immunosuppressive agents. Wuzhi capsules (Schisandra sphenanthera extract) with tacrolimus and tetrandrine with corticosteroids are two herb-drug combinations that have shown great promise and warrant further studies. Xiao-Qin Wang, Lan Wang, Yuan-Chao Tu, and Yuan Clare Zhang Copyright © 2018 Xiao-Qin Wang et al. All rights reserved.