Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Determination of the Wound Healing Potentials of Medicinal Plants Historically Used in Ghana Thu, 23 Feb 2017 13:09:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9480791/ The present study was carried out to investigate the wound healing potentials of 17 medicinal plants historically used in Ghana for wound healing. Warm and cold water extracts were prepared from the 17 dried plant species and tested in vitro in the scratch assay with NIH 3T3 fibroblasts from mice. The wound healing scratch assay was used to evaluate the effect of the plants on cell proliferation and/or migration in vitro, as a test for potential wound healing properties. After 21 hours of incubation increased proliferation and/or migration of fibroblasts in the scratch assay was obtained for 5 out of the 17 plant species. HPLC separation of the most active plant extract, which was a warm water extract of Philenoptera cyanescens, revealed the wound healing activity to be attributed to rutin and a triglycoside of quercetin. The present study suggests that Allophylus spicatus, Philenoptera cyanescens, Melanthera scandens, Ocimum gratissimum, and Jasminum dichotomum have wound healing activity in vitro. Sara H. Freiesleben, Jens Soelberg, Nils T. Nyberg, and Anna K. Jäger Copyright © 2017 Sara H. Freiesleben et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Intake of Uncaria rhynchophylla Reduces S100B and RAGE Protein Levels in Kainic Acid-Induced Epileptic Seizures Rats Thu, 23 Feb 2017 12:07:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9732854/ Epileptic seizures are crucial clinical manifestations of recurrent neuronal discharges in the brain. An imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neuronal discharges causes brain damage and cell loss. Herbal medicines offer alternative treatment options for epilepsy because of their low cost and few side effects. We established a rat epilepsy model by injecting kainic acid (KA, 12 mg/kg, i.p.) and subsequently investigated the effect of Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its underlying mechanisms. Electroencephalogram and epileptic behaviors revealed that the KA injection induced epileptic seizures. Following KA injection, S100B levels increased in the hippocampus. This phenomenon was attenuated by the oral administration of UR and valproic acid (VA, 250 mg/kg). Both drugs significantly reversed receptor potentiation for advanced glycation end product proteins. Rats with KA-induced epilepsy exhibited no increase in the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptor 3, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and chemokine receptor type 2, which play a role in inflammation. Our results provide novel and detailed mechanisms, explaining the role of UR in KA-induced epileptic seizures in hippocampal CA1 neurons. Nou-Ying Tang, Yi-Wen Lin, Tin-Yun Ho, Chin-Yi Cheng, Chao-Hsiang Chen, and Ching-Liang Hsieh Copyright © 2017 Nou-Ying Tang et al. All rights reserved. Adverse Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extracts and the Major Components in the Stems of Impatiens balsamina L. on Caenorhabditis elegans Thu, 23 Feb 2017 08:41:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4245830/ Impatiens balsamina L. (Balsaminaceae), an annual herb found throughout China, has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, our knowledge regarding the adverse effects of I. balsamina in vivo is very limited. In this present study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans model was employed to fully assess the adverse effects of hydroalcoholic (EtOH 55%) extracts of I. balsamina stems (HAEIBS) in vivo. After exposure to 10 mg/mL HAEIBS, the major organism-level endpoints of C. elegans of percent survival, frequency of head thrash and body bends, and reproduction had decreased by 24%, 30%, and 25%, respectively. The lifespan of C. elegans was also greatly reduced after HAEIBS exposure compared to the controls. The active compounds in HAEIBS were separated using high speed countercurrent chromatograph (HSCCC) and characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Two compounds, lawsone and 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MNQ), and their adverse effects were then more thoroughly detailed in this study. It was found that lawsone is the major toxin in HAEIBS with a higher toxicity than MNQ in terms of negative impact on C. elegans mortality, locomotion, reproduction, and lifespan. Our data also suggests that the C. elegans model may be useful for assessing the possible toxicity of other Chinese medicines, plant extracts, and/or compounds. Hong-Fang Jiang, Zi-Heng Zhuang, Bei-Wei Hou, Bao-Jun Shi, Cheng-Jie Shu, Lei Chen, Guo-Xin Shi, and Wei-Ming Zhang Copyright © 2017 Hong-Fang Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Allium stipitatum Extract Exhibits In Vivo Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Accelerates Burn Wound Healing in a Full-Thickness Murine Burn Model Wed, 22 Feb 2017 11:46:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/1914732/ The in vivo antibacterial and burn wound healing potency of Persian shallot bulbs (Allium stipitatum) were explored in a mice burn model infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Hexane (ASHE) and dichloromethane (ASDE) extracts were tested. Female BALB/c mice were inflicted with third-degree thermal injury followed by infection with MRSA. ASHE and ASDE formulated with simple ointment base (SOB) at concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 5% (w/w) were topically applied to burn wounds twice a day for 20 days. Silver sulfadiazine (1%) served as drug positive control. Microbiological analysis was carried out on 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days postwounding (dpw) and histopathological analysis at the end of the experiment (20 dpw). Both ointments demonstrated strong antibacterial activity with complete elimination of MRSA at 48–72 h after infection. The rate of wound contraction was higher (95–100%) in mice groups treated with ASHE and ASDE ointments after 15 dpw. Histological analysis revealed significant increase () in epithelialization and collagenation in treated groups. The ASHE and ASDE were found to be relatively noncytotoxic and safe to Vero cell line (383.4 μg mL−1; 390.6 μg mL−1), suggesting the extracts as safe topical antibacterial as well as promising alternatives in managing thermal injuries. Arunkumar Karunanidhi, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Jayakayatri Jeevajothi Nathan, Yusuf Abba, Alex van Belkum, and Vasanthakumari Neela Copyright © 2017 Arunkumar Karunanidhi et al. All rights reserved. The SIESTA Trial: A Randomized Study Investigating the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Acupressure versus Sham Therapy for Improving Sleep Quality in Patients with End-Stage Kidney Disease on Hemodialysis Tue, 21 Feb 2017 11:20:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7570352/ Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of real acupressure versus sham acupressure therapy in improving sleep quality in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) or hemodiafiltration (HDF). Methods. A multicenter, single-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in two Australian dialysis units located in Princess Alexandra Hospital and Logan Hospital, respectively. Forty-two subjects with self-reported poor sleep quality were randomly assigned to real () or sham () acupressure therapy delivered thrice weekly for four consecutive weeks during routine dialysis sessions. The primary outcome was the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score measured at week four adjusted for baseline PSQI measurements. Secondary outcomes were quality of life (QOL) (SF-8), adverse events, and patient acceptability (treatment acceptability questionnaire, TAQ). Results. The two groups were comparable on global PSQI scores (difference 0.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.32 to 1.70) and on the subscale scores. Similar results were observed for QOL both in the mental (difference −3.88, 95% CI −8.63 to 0.87) and the physical scores (difference 2.45, 95% CI −1.69 to 6.58). There were no treatment-related adverse events and acupressure was perceived favorably by participants. Conclusion. Acupressure is a safe, well-tolerated, and highly acceptable therapy in adult hemodialysis patients in a Western healthcare setting with uncertain implications for therapeutic efficacy. Kunyu Shen, Yeoungjee Cho, Elaine M. Pascoe, Carmel M. Hawley, Veronica Oliver, Kathryn M. Hughes, Richard Baer, Jeremy Frazier, Elizabeth Jarvis, Ken-Soon Tan, Xusheng Liu, Glenda Gobe, and David W. Johnson Copyright © 2017 Kunyu Shen et al. All rights reserved. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Essential Oil Citral in Experimental Infection with Staphylococcus aureus in a Model Air Pouch Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/2505610/ This study proposes to implement an alternative and effective strategy for local treatment of disease provoked by S. aureus. For the analysis of possible anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil, after establishing an air pouch model, 48 male mice of Balb/c were treated, infected, and euthanized at 4 and 8 h. Thus, the total and differential white blood cells were counted in the animal’s blood, and cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were titrated using ELISA in the air pouch lavage. Moreover, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 gene expression was analyzed through an RT-qPCR array, and S. aureus was quantified using qPCR. Our results, , showed that EOC reduced the quantity of microorganisms. The group of mice treated with essential oil citral showed a significant decrease in TNF-α levels in tests demonstrating anti-inflammatory activity. There is no data about the mutual influence of the air pouch model, essential oil citral, and S. aureus. Thus, considering the interaction of these variables and the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil citral, we demonstrated, by alternative local treatment, a new antimicrobial agent that is not an antibiotic. Hellen Braga Martins, Nathan das Neves Selis, Clarissa Leal Silva e Souza, Flávia S. Nascimento, Suzi Pacheco de Carvalho, Lorena D’Oliveira Gusmão, Jannine dos Santos Nascimento, Anne Karoline Pereira Brito, Samira Itana de Souza, Marcio Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Jorge Timenetsky, Regiane Yatsuda, Ana Paula T. Uetanabaro, and Lucas M. Marques Copyright © 2017 Hellen Braga Martins et al. All rights reserved. Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer’s Disease Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/1753673/ Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been linked with oxidative stress, acetylcholine deficiency in the brain, and inflammatory processes. In the northeast region of Brazil, various plants are used to treat several diseases associated with these processes; then an antioxidant test was performed with those plants in a previous work and twelve species with higher antioxidant activity were selected for AChE inhibition evaluation. The phenolic compounds content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu test and flavonoid content with AlCl3 reagent using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was assessed analyzing the inhibitory activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system and acetylcholinesterase inhibition using qualitative and quantitative tests. The combination of better acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities pointed out six species, in descending order, as the best potential sources of therapeutic agents against AD: Hancornia speciosa > Myracrodruon urundeuva > Copaifera langsdorffii > Stryphnodendron coriaceum > Psidium guajava > Mangifera indica. Besides, the phenolic compounds in the species probably contribute to these activities. However, further pharmacological studies to assess the specific applications of these plants against AD are required to confirm these results. Alexandre Batista Penido, Selene Maia De Morais, Alan Bezerra Ribeiro, Daniela Ribeiro Alves, Ana Livya Moreira Rodrigues, Leonardo Hunaldo dos Santos, and Jane Eire Silva Alencar de Menezes Copyright © 2017 Alexandre Batista Penido et al. All rights reserved. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Integrative Medicine Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4365429/ Since time immemorial humans have utilized natural products and therapies for their healing properties. Even now, in the age of genomics and on the cusp of regenerative medicine, the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches represents a popular branch of health care. Furthermore, there is a trend towards a unified medical philosophy referred to as Integrative Medicine (IM) that represents the convergence of CAM and conventional medicine. The IM model not only considers the holistic perspective of the physiological components of the individual, but also includes psychological and mind-body aspects. Justification for and validation of such a whole-systems approach is in part dependent upon identification of the functional pathways governing healing, and new data is revealing relationships between therapies and biochemical effects that have long defied explanation. We review this data and propose a unifying theme: IM’s ability to affect healing is due at least in part to epigenetic mechanisms. This hypothesis is based on a mounting body of evidence that demonstrates a correlation between the physical and mental effects of IM and modulation of gene expression and epigenetic state. Emphasis on mapping, deciphering, and optimizing these effects will facilitate therapeutic delivery and create further benefits. Riya R. Kanherkar, Susan E. Stair, Naina Bhatia-Dey, Paul J. Mills, Deepak Chopra, and Antonei B. Csoka Copyright © 2017 Riya R. Kanherkar et al. All rights reserved. Adulteration and Contamination of Commercial Sap of Hymenaea Species Mon, 20 Feb 2017 14:26:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/1919474/ The Hymenaea stigonocarpa and Hymenaea martiana species, commonly known as “jatobá,” produce a sap which is extracted by perforation of the trunk and is commonly used in folk medicine as a tonic. For this study, the authenticity of commercial samples of jatobá was verified by the identification of the main compounds and multivariate analysis and contamination by microbial presence analysis. The acute toxicity of the authentic jatobá sap was also evaluated. The metabolites composition and multivariate analysis revealed that none of the commercial samples were authentic. In the microbiological contamination analysis, five of the six commercial samples showed positive cultures within the range of 1,700–100,000 CFU/mL and the authentic sap produced no signs of toxicity, and from a histological point of view, there was the maintenance of tissue integrity. In brief, the commercial samples were deemed inappropriate for consumption and represent a danger to the population. Katyuce de Souza Farias, Sarah Alves Auharek, Andréa Luiza Cunha-Laura, Jeana Mara Escher de Souza, Geraldo Alves Damasceno-Junior, Mônica Cristina Toffoli-Kadri, Wander Fernando de Oliveira Filiú, Edson dos Anjos dos Santos, Marilene Rodrigues Chang, and Carlos Alexandre Carollo Copyright © 2017 Katyuce de Souza Farias et al. All rights reserved. Tangshen Formula Attenuates Colonic Structure Remodeling in Type 2 Diabetic Rats Mon, 20 Feb 2017 14:19:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4064156/ Aim. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of the Chinese herbal medicine Tangshen Formula (TSF) on GI structure remodeling in the rat model of diabetes. Methods. Type 2 diabetic rats were used. Wet weight per unit length, layer thicknesses, levels of collagens I and III, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and Smad2/3 expression in the rat colon were measured. Results. Compared with the control group animals, wet weight and layer thicknesses of the colon increased, and expressions of collagens I and III, NF-κB, IFN-γ, IL-6, TGF-β1, and Smad2/3 increased significantly in the diabetic animals. TSF inhibited increase in colonic wet weight and layer thicknesses, downregulated expressions of collagens I and III in the mucosal layer, and downregulated expressions of NF-κB, IFN-γ, IL-6, TGF-β1, and Smad2/3 in the colon wall. Furthermore, level of expression of NF-κB was associated with those of TGF-β1 and Smad2/3. Expression of TGF-β1 was associated with the most histomorphometric parameters including colonic weight, mucosal and muscle thicknesses, and levels of collagens I and III in mucosal layer. Conclusion. TSF appears to attenuate colonic structure remodeling in type 2 diabetic rats through inhibiting the overactivated pathway of NF-κB, thus reducing expressions of TGF-β1. Pengmin Chen, Jingbo Zhao, Haojun Zhang, Xin Yang, Tingting Zhao, Huicun Zhang, Meihua Yan, Lin Pan, Xin Li, Yun Zhang, and Ping Li Copyright © 2017 Pengmin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Indigenous Uses and Pharmacological Activity of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Mount Taibai, China Mon, 20 Feb 2017 13:20:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/8329817/ This study was carried out to investigate the indigenous use and pharmacological activity of traditional medicinal plants of Mount Taibai, China. Pharmacological data were collected by conducting informal interviews with local experienced doctors practicing traditional Chinese medicine and via open-ended questionnaires on villagers. We conclude that the residents of Mt. Taibai possess rich pharmacological knowledge. This study may help identify high-value traditional medicinal plant species, promote economic development associated with local medicinal plants, and increase awareness from government departments. Na Chang, Ziwen Luo, Dengwu Li, and Huiying Song Copyright © 2017 Na Chang et al. All rights reserved. Antifungal Activity of the Ethanol Extract from Flos Rosae Chinensis with Activity against Fluconazole-Resistant Clinical Candida Mon, 20 Feb 2017 12:17:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4780746/ This study was designed to investigate the antifungal activity of a hydroalcoholic extract from Flos Rosae Chinensis (FRC) combined with fluconazole (FCZ) against clinical isolates of Candida albicans resistant to FCZ. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of FRC was determined using a checkerboard microdilution assay. The synergistic effects of the combination of FRC and FCZ against clinical isolates of C. albicans resistant to FCZ were further confirmed by constructing time-growth curves and performing an agar diffusion test. FRC alone exerted efficient antifungal activities against C. albicans within a MIC80 ranging from 20 μg/ml to 40 μg/ml. FRC failed to enhance the effects of FCZ against sensitive C. albicans strains, although it rendered FCZ-resistant C. albicans more sensitive. These results were further confirmed by the result of in vivo study. Our study is the first to discover that FRC can inhibit the growth of C. albicans to a certain degree. An FRC antifungal mechanism study showed that FRC strengthens FCZ to inhibit the action of ergosterol biosynthesis by promoting the transformation of lanosterol to eburicol, suggesting that the antifungal mechanism of FRC involves the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. Lulu Zhang, Hui Lin, Wei Liu, Baodi Dai, Lan Yan, YongBing Cao, and Yuan-Ying Jiang Copyright © 2017 Lulu Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Acu-TENS Reduces Breathlessness during Exercise in People with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Mon, 20 Feb 2017 09:16:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3649257/ Background. Exertional dyspnoea limits level of physical activity in people with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This randomized, double-blinded, crossover study evaluated the effect of Acu-TENS, application of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on acupoints, on breathlessness during exercise in people with COPD. Methods. Twenty-one participants, mean% predicted FEV1  %, attended assessment followed by two intervention days, one week apart. On each intervention day, participants performed two endurance shuttle walk tests (ESWT) (Walk 1 and Walk 2). Walk 1 was performed without intervention and Walk 2 was performed with either Acu-TENS or Sham-TENS, in random order, for 45 minutes before and during Walk 2. Duration of each ESWT and dyspnoea score at isotime of Walk 1 and Walk 2 on each intervention day were compared. Between-group differences in ESWT duration and isotime dyspnoea were also compared. Results. At isotime of Walk 1 and Walk 2, Acu-TENS showed significant reduction in dyspnoea of −0.8 point (95% CI −0.2 to −1.4) but not in Sham-TENS [0.1 point (95% CI −0.4 to 0.6)]. Compared to Sham-TENS, Acu-TENS showed significant reduction in dyspnoea of −0.9 point (95% CI −0.2 to −1.6) while no between-group significance was found in ESWT duration. Conclusion. Acu-TENS alleviated dyspnoea during walking in people with COPD but did not increase walking duration. Shirley P. C. Ngai, Lissa M. Spencer, Alice Y. M. Jones, and Jennifer A. Alison Copyright © 2017 Shirley P. C. Ngai et al. All rights reserved. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/4380721/ The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower () than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement. Seung Hwan Hwang, Il-Jun Kang, and Soon Sung Lim Copyright © 2017 Seung Hwan Hwang et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Evidence of Chinese Massage Therapy (Tui Na) for Cervical Radiculopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9519285/ Objective. The review is to assess the current evidence of Chinese massage therapy (Tui Na) for cervical radiculopathy. Methods. Seven databases were searched. Randomised controlled trials incorporating Tui Na alone or Tui Na combined with conventional treatment were enrolled. The authors in pairs independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data. Results. Five studies involving 448 patients were included. The pooled analysis from the 3 trials indicated that Tui Na alone showed a significant lowering immediate effects on pain score (SMD = −0.58; 95% CI: −0.96 to −0.21; , ) with moderate heterogeneity compared to cervical traction. The meta-analysis from 2 trials revealed significant immediate effects of Tui Na plus cervical traction in improving pain score (MD = −1.73; 95% CI: −2.01 to −1.44; , ) with no heterogeneity compared to cervical traction alone. No adverse effect was reported. There was very low quality or low quality evidence to support the results. Conclusions. Tui Na alone or Tui Na plus cervical traction may be helpful to cervical radiculopathy patients, but supportive evidence seems generally weak. Future clinical studies with low risk of bias and adequate follow-up design are recommended. Xu Wei, Shangquan Wang, Linghui Li, and Liguo Zhu Copyright © 2017 Xu Wei et al. All rights reserved. Complementary Medicine for the Modification of Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9472859/ Genevieve Z. Steiner, Sai Wang Seto, Yiu Wa Kwan, Crystal Haskell-Ramsay, and David A. Camfield Copyright © 2017 Genevieve Z. Steiner et al. All rights reserved. Moxibustion in Early Chinese Medicine and Its Relation to the Origin of Meridians: A Study on the Unearthed Literatures Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/8242136/ Moxibustion is an integral part of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). It achieved higher level of recognition and had more general application in ancient times than in contemporary life. As the vital historical sources, the records of unearthed literatures offered precious insights to Chinese social life pattern and medical practice in Qin and Han dynasties (221 BC–220 AD). There was no surprise that the bamboo and silk documents excavated from Mawangdui (马王堆) tomb, Hantanpo (旱滩坡) tomb, and other relics had a large amount of texts relevant to moxibustion. This research sorted moxibustion recordings from seven unearthed literatures and discovered that moxibustion had been developed into different modalities and utilized to treat many diseases at that time. In addition, the indications, contraindications of moxibustion, and the method of postmoxibustion care were also discussed. On this basis, some hints were provided to support the hypothesis that the practice of moxibustion led to the discovery of meridians. All our preliminary results in the research have drawn attention for this old therapy and given a new source for its application in clinic and scientific research. Chang Huang, Jiankang Liang, Li Han, Juntian Liu, Mengyun Yu, and Baixiao Zhao Copyright © 2017 Chang Huang et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of Modified Banxia Xiexin Decoction (Pinellia Decoction for Draining the Heart) for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9591319/ Modified Banxia Xiexin decoction (MBXD) is a classical Chinese herbal formula in treating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) for long time, but the efficacy of it is still controversial. This study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MBXD for the treatment of GERD in adults. The search strategy was carried out for publications in seven electronic databases. RevMan software version 5.3 and the Cochrane Collaboration’s risk of bias tool were performed for this review. Twelve RCTs were included for the analysis. The results of overall clinical efficacy and efficacy under gastroscope demonstrated that MBXD was superior to conventional western medicine. Meanwhile, the results of subgroup analysis showed clinical heterogeneity between the two groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference in acid regurgitation between the two groups. But in the improvement of heartburn and sternalgia, the results showed statistically significant differences for the comparison between two groups. In addition, the adverse reactions of the experiment groups were not different from those of the control groups. This systematic review indicates that MBXD may have potential effects on the treatment of patients with GERD. But because the evidence of methodological quality and sample sizes is weak, further standardized researches are required. Yunkai Dai, Yunzhan Zhang, Danyan Li, Jintong Ye, Weijing Chen, and Ling Hu Copyright © 2017 Yunkai Dai et al. All rights reserved. A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies Examining Nutritional and Herbal Therapies for Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Using Neuroimaging Methods: Study Characteristics and Intervention Efficacy Sun, 19 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6083629/ Neuroimaging facilitates the assessment of complementary medicines (CMs) by providing a noninvasive insight into their mechanisms of action in the human brain. This is important for identifying the potential treatment options for target disease cohorts with complex pathophysiologies. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate study characteristics, intervention efficacy, and the structural and functional neuroimaging methods used in research assessing nutritional and herbal medicines for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Six databases were searched for articles reporting on CMs, dementia, and neuroimaging methods. Data were extracted from 21/2,742 eligible full text articles and risk of bias was assessed. Nine studies examined people with Alzheimer’s disease, 7 MCI, 4 vascular dementia, and 1 all-cause dementia. Ten studies tested herbal medicines, 8 vitamins and supplements, and 3 nootropics. Ten studies used electroencephalography (EEG), 5 structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 2 functional MRI (fMRI), 3 cerebral blood flow (CBF), 1 single photon emission tomography (SPECT), and 1 positron emission tomography (PET). Four studies had a low risk of bias, with the majority consistently demonstrating inadequate reporting on randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding, and power calculations. A narrative synthesis approach was assumed due to heterogeneity in study methods, interventions, target cohorts, and quality. Eleven key recommendations are suggested to advance future work in this area. Genevieve Z. Steiner, Danielle C. Mathersul, Freya MacMillan, David A. Camfield, Nerida L. Klupp, Sai W. Seto, Yong Huang, Mark I. Hohenberg, and Dennis H. Chang Copyright © 2017 Genevieve Z. Steiner et al. All rights reserved. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery Thu, 16 Feb 2017 08:26:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/5189356/ Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM), on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model) and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM), uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM) of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM. Shaoqun Zhang, Ji Qi, Lei Zhang, Chao Chen, Shubhro Mondal, Kaike Ping, Yili Chen, and Yikai Li Copyright © 2017 Shaoqun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Antidiabetic Activity of Nigella sativa and Propolis on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/5439645/ This study was conducted to compare the ameliorative effect of Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats and treating diabetic nephropathy. Forty male Albino rats were divided into four groups; the first group was the negative control fed standard diet. The other 30 rats were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes by a single intravenous injection and then divided equally into three groups; the second group was the positive diabetic control; the third and the fourth groups were treated orally with 20% w/w Nigella sativa seeds methanol extract and propolis methanol extract (20% w/w), respectively. The rats of the second group showed increased glucose levels and lipid peroxide accompanied with reduction in superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione-S-transferase enzyme activities compared with the negative control. Carboxymethyl lysine, interleukin-6, and immunoglobulins were also increased as a result of diabetes. Kidney function parameters were also elevated, while potassium and sodium levels were decreased. Moreover, tissues of kidney and pancreas showed severe histopathological changes. Treating the diabetic rats with Nigella sativa and propolis methanol extract in the third and fourth groups, respectively, ameliorated all altered biochemical and pathological examinations approaching the negative control. Propolis was more effective than Nigella sativa. Haddad A. El Rabey, Madeha N. Al-Seeni, and Amal S. Bakhashwain Copyright © 2017 Haddad A. El Rabey et al. All rights reserved. Cardioprotection of Electroacupuncture for Enhanced Recovery after Surgery on Patients Undergoing Heart Valve Replacement with Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Randomized Control Clinical Trial Thu, 16 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6243630/ We attempted to investigate cardioprotection of electroacupuncture (EA) for enhanced recovery after surgery on patients undergoing heart valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass. Forty-four patients with acquired heart valve replacement were randomly allocated to the EA group or the control group. Patients in the EA group received EA stimulus at bilateral Neiguan (PC6), Ximen (PC4), Shenting (GV24), and Baihui (GV20) acupoints twenty minutes before anesthesia induction to the end of surgery. The primary end point was cardioprotection effect of electroacupuncture postoperatively and the secondary endpoints were quality of recovery and cognitive functioning postoperatively. The present study demonstrated that electroacupuncture reduced the occurrence of complications and played a role of cardioprotective effect on patients after heart valve replacement surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and it benefits patients more comfortable and contributes to recovery after surgery. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IOC-16009123. Fangxiang Zhang, Xiangdi Yu, and Hong Xiao Copyright © 2017 Fangxiang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Osteoporosis Recovery by Antrodia camphorata Alcohol Extracts through Bone Regeneration in SAMP8 Mice” Wed, 15 Feb 2017 13:54:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6297946/ Hen-Yu Liu, Chiung-Fang Huang, Chun-Hao Li, Ching-Yu Tsai, Wei-Hong Chen, Hong-Jian Wei, Ming-Fu Wang, Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Mei-Leng Cheong, and Win-Ping Deng Copyright © 2017 Hen-Yu Liu et al. All rights reserved. Naoxintong/PPAR Signaling Inhibits Cardiac Hypertrophy via Activation of Autophagy Wed, 15 Feb 2017 11:20:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3801976/ As a traditional Chinese medicine, Naoxintong capsule (NXT) has been approved by China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA), which is used for cardiocerebrovascular disease treatment. Here we found that NXT extract significantly promoted H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell autophagy involved in increased autophagy-associated gene expression leading to inhibition of mTOR signaling. Moreover, NXT extract increased PPARγ protein expression and transcription activity of H9c2 cell. Consistent with this, in PPARγ gene silenced H9c2 cells, NXT had no effect on autophagy and mTOR signaling. Furthermore, NXT/PPARγ-mediated H9c2 autophagy led to inhibition of cardiomyocyte cell hypertrophy. These findings suggest that the extract of NXT inhibited H9c2 cardiomyocyte cell hypertrophy via PPARγ-mediated cell autophagy. Shuping Yuan, Jianhua Jin, Lu Chen, Yongzhong Hou, and Hong Wang Copyright © 2017 Shuping Yuan et al. All rights reserved. Saikosaponin A Alleviates Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder through Downregulation of DAT and Enhancing BDNF Expression in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats Wed, 15 Feb 2017 07:45:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/2695903/ The disturbed dopamine availability and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression are due in part to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we investigated the therapeutical effect of saikosaponin a (SSa) isolated from Bupleurum Chinese DC, against spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD. Methylphenidate and SSa were orally administered for 3 weeks. Activity was assessed by open-field test and Morris water maze test. Dopamine (DA) and BDNF were determined in specific brain regions. The mRNA or protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicles monoamine transporter (VMAT) was also studied. Both MPH and SSa reduced hyperactivity and improved the spatial learning memory deficit in SHRs. An increased DA concentration in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum was also observed after treating with the SSa. The increased DA concentration may partially be attributed to the decreased mRNA and protein expression of DAT in PFC while SSa exhibited no significant effects on the mRNA expression of TH and VMAT in PFC of SHRs. In addition, BDNF expression in SHRs was also increased after treating with SSa or MPH. The obtained result suggested that SSa may be a potential drug for treating ADHD. Sun Jichao, Han Xinmin, Ren Xianguo, Yin Dongqi, Zhou Rongyi, Lei Shuang, You Yue, Song Yuchen, and Ying Jingnan Copyright © 2017 Sun Jichao et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “The Efficacy and Safety of Chinese Herbal Decoction in Type 2 Diabetes: A 5-Year Retrospective Study” Wed, 15 Feb 2017 07:43:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7683754/ Jiaxing Tian, Fengmei Lian, Xiaotong Yu, Yashan Cui, Tianyu Zhao, Yang Cao, and Xiaolin Tong Copyright © 2017 Jiaxing Tian et al. All rights reserved. Antihypertensive and Antihypertrophic Effects of Acupuncture at PC6 Acupoints in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and the Underlying Mechanisms Wed, 15 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/9708094/ The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at PC6 on the hypertension and myocardial hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Thirty SHRs were randomized into model, SHR + EA, and SHR + Sham EA group with WKY rats as normal control. EA was applied once a day in 8 consecutive weeks. The blood pressure (BP), cardiac function, and hypertrophy as well as the underlying mechanisms were investigated. After EA treatment, the enhanced BP in SHR + EA group was significantly lower compared to both the period before EA and model group. Echocardiographic, morphological studies showed that the enhanced left ventricular anterior and posterior wall end-diastolic (LVAWd and LVPWd) thickness, diameters and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cardiac myocyte, as well as the ratio of heart weight to body weight (HW/BW), were markedly diminished in SHR + EA group, while the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular short axis fraction shortening, and E/A ratio were significantly ameliorated. The levels of Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and Angiotensin II Type 1 and 2 receptors (AT1R, AT2R) in SHRs were also significantly attenuated by EA. The results suggest that EA at bilateral PC6 could arrest the hypertension development and ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and malfunction in SHRs, which might be mediated by the regulation of ACE, AT1R, and AT2R. Juan-Juan Xin, Jun-Hong Gao, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Feng-Yan Lu, Yu-Xue Zhao, Xiang-Hong Jing, and Xiao-Chun Yu Copyright © 2017 Juan-Juan Xin et al. All rights reserved. Chinese Herbal Medicine Baoyuan Jiedu Decoction Inhibited Muscle Atrophy of Cancer Cachexia through Atrogin-l and MuRF-1 Tue, 14 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/6268378/ The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine called “Baoyuan Jiedu” (BYJD for short) decoction, improving life quality and preventing muscle atrophy of cancer cachexia model mice. We showed that the effect of BYJD decoction increased body weights of mice and reduced tumor volume and tumor mass. Furthermore, BYJD decoction increased the gastrocnemii mass and the transverse diameter of muscle fiber morphology. Moreover, BYJD reduced the expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 protein. Collectively, our results show that BYJD decoction improves the life quality of cancer cachexia mice and prevents muscle atrophy by downregulating expression of Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1. YaNan Zhang, XiaoChun Han, Bing Ouyang, ZhiChun Wu, HuaYun Yu, Yuan Wang, GuoWei Liu, and XuMing Ji Copyright © 2017 YaNan Zhang et al. All rights reserved. A Review of the Potential of Phytochemicals from Prunus africana (Hook f.) Kalkman Stem Bark for Chemoprevention and Chemotherapy of Prostate Cancer Mon, 13 Feb 2017 13:13:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/3014019/ Prostate cancer remains one of the major causes of death worldwide. In view of the limited treatment options for patients with prostate cancer, preventive and treatment approaches based on natural compounds can play an integral role in tackling this disease. Recent evidence supports the beneficial effects of plant-derived phytochemicals as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents for various cancers, including prostate cancer. Prunus africana has been used for generations in African traditional medicine to treat prostate cancer. This review examined the potential roles of the phytochemicals from P. africana, an endangered, sub-Saharan Africa plant in the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of prostate cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies have provided strong pharmacological evidence for antiprostate cancer activities of P. africana-derived phytochemicals. Through synergistic interactions between different effective phytochemicals, P. africana extracts have been shown to exhibit very strong antiandrogenic and antiangiogenic activities and have the ability to kill tumor cells via apoptotic pathways, prevent the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, and alter the signaling pathways required for the maintenance of prostate cancer cells. However, further preclinical and clinical studies ought to be done to advance and eventually use these promising phytochemicals for the prevention and chemotherapy of human prostate cancer. Richard Komakech, Youngmin Kang, Jun-Hwan Lee, and Francis Omujal Copyright © 2017 Richard Komakech et al. All rights reserved. Rosemary Extracts Upregulate Nrf2, Sestrin2, and MRP2 Protein Level in Human Hepatoma HepG2 Cells Mon, 13 Feb 2017 07:37:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2017/7359806/ In the past few decades, the incidence of liver cancer has been rapidly rising across the world. Rosemary is known to possess antioxidant activity and is used as natural antioxidant food preservative. It is proposed to have anticancer activity in treating different tumor models. In this study, we try to explore the impact of rosemary extracts on upregulating the level of Nrf2 and Nrf2-regulatory proteins, Sestrin2 and MRP2 in HepG2 cells, and to speculate its potential mechanism. The anticancer activity of rosemary extract, including its polyphenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, was evaluated to understand the potential effect on HepG2 cells. Rosemary extract, carnosic acid, and carnosol induced the expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 associate with enhancement of Nrf2 protein level in HepG2 cells, in which carnosic acid showed most obvious effect. Although the activation pathway of Nrf2/ARE was not exactly assessed, it can be assumed that the enhancement of expression of Sestrin2 and MRP2 may result from upregulation of Nrf2. Xiao-pei Tong, Yan-xia Ma, Dan-ni Quan, Ling Zhang, Miao Yan, and Xin-rong Fan Copyright © 2017 Xiao-pei Tong et al. All rights reserved.