Education Research International / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Metacognitive Instruction: Global and Local Shifts in Considering Listening Input

Table 1

Lesson plan in metacognitive instruction.

WeeksStages
(1) Unpacking metacognitive strategy—a simplified definition (first verification)(2) Practise strategies through the classroom listening activities (second verification)(3) Emphasizing metacognitive strategy use and missing points in listening (final verification)(4) Reflection (teacher’s log)
Issues the teacher encountered during metacognitive instructionTeacher’s suggestion, particularly on the encountered issueResearcher’s recommendation on the encountered issue

1Planning (going on a trip)Planning to “make cookies for a trip”Highlighting the purpose of planning and reiterating available informationStudents were confused with the metacognitive strategy definitionInvolving students with the listening tasksUse a simplified definition and emphasize the purpose of metacognitive strategies in learning

2Directed attention (gift giving)“Choosing a gift for his wife”—why and what kind of gift given to a wifeEmphasizing associative learning and linkage informationSome students were in doubt while others appreciated Lack of students’ familiarity with the concepts—need more emphasis on the importance of metacognitionIncrease students’ metacognitive awareness

3Selective attention (having a party)“Party”—encourage students to focus on the words related to the topicHelp students find key words and activate their existing knowledge Little issue with key words identificationHelp students distinguish between content and function wordsStudents might not know which words carry on the bulk of meaning

4Self-management (nice weather!)“Weather advisory”—working in pairs/group to increase confidence in listeningIncreasing students’ knowledge of this strategy Trying to manage their learning Essential to brush up on the metacognitive conceptsHelpful for students to be briefed on the concepts taught previously

5Monitoring and comprehension monitoring (health issues)“Headache clinic”—involve students with potential advice received in a similar situationIncreasing comprehension through monitoring oral inputSome students complain about the speed of oral input and little time to monitorHelp students on how to monitor—does not need to monitor all inputProvide students with some instances and help them practise monitoring strategy

6Auditory monitoring (friends series)“Script from a TV series”—engage students in finding sounds similar to their first language Reiterate the significance of this strategy to improve their listening outcomeProblems with vowels in English—short and long vowels, for example, “sun” and “son”Provide some remedial materials to cope with vowel problem betterHelp students know some vowels that are in their first language but not in the target language

7Double checking (job hunting)“A job interview in the United States”—check out their comprehension in pairs/groups Emphasize the importance of this strategy and increase the accuracy of their understandingMost students in doubt of their comprehension for the first timeMore practise with word identification because it has more effect on the double checkingIntentionally ask students to underline key words in their classroom activities to highlight the importance of double checking

8Evaluation (call from a bank)“Telephone conversation”—students check out their understandings at the end of the conversation to see how close they were Reiterate the power of evaluating their listening outcomeChallenging for some students to use in their listeningThe more they practise the more promising their use of evaluation would beNeeds more practice of monitoring their use of evaluation in the classroom

9Strategy evaluation (family talks)“Conversation between Kenny and her mom”—using strategy before and during listeningEmphasize strategy evaluation and use it when neededA few students were unsure of their progress and were less confident in using strategy evaluationTold my students mastery of metacognitive strategy use takes some time and practiceThe purpose is to help them be aware of metacognitive strategies used in listening

10Problem identification (tips for writing)“Speech on a writing assignment”—help students identify where they lack understandingProviding enough practice to identify understanding problemsA few students got less motivated as they consider too much of their problemsTry to motivate them through providing further exercisesStudents need more care while learning new learning stuff

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