Table 4

Independent variableRobust standard errors Estimate VCE Weighted OLSInstrumental variables (IV)IV with control for migration

Results ENLACE USE −0.036−0.036−0.041
Instrumented ENLACE USE−0.053−0.043
% in Oportunidades −0.082−0.082−0.081−0.076−0.064
% houses with dirt floors −0.001 −0.001 −0.003 0.0070.011
Rate rurality 0.0520.0520.0570.0650.046
Infant mortality rate 0.1510.151 0.098 0.1760.162
Unemployment rate 0.2920.2920.2060.3450.351
% with electricity/water −0.222−0.222−0.215−0.327−0.301
% international migration0.028
Constant −0175 −0175 −0.160 −0.198−0.144
0.3470.2230.2280.3240.328
No. Obs.2,4562,4562,4562,4562,456

Statistically representative at 10 per cent level; statistically representative at 5 per cent level; statistically representative at 1 per cent level.