Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Education Research International
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 986342, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/986342
Research Article

Korean-Origin Kindergarten Children’s Response to African-American Characters in Race-Themed Picture Books

Department of Teacher Education, The University of Texas at El Paso, Education Building, Room 801B, 100 University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79912, USA

Received 3 April 2014; Revised 1 July 2014; Accepted 15 August 2014

Academic Editor: Stephen P. Heyneman

Copyright © 2015 So Jung Kim. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Augoustinos and D. L. Rosewarne, “Stereotype knowledge and prejudice in children,” British Journal of Developmental Psychology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 143–156, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. Sorin, “Validating young childrens feelings and experiences of fear,” Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 80–89, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  3. A. Vuckovic, “Making the multicultural learning environment flourish: the importance of the child-teacher relationship in educating young children about diversity,” Australian Journal of Early Childhood, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 9–16, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. V. D. van Ausdale and J. R. Feagin, The First R: How Children Learn Race and Racism, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Md, USA, 2001.
  5. R. A. Eder, “Uncovering young children's psychological selves: individual and developmental differences,” Child Development, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 849–863, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. A. Banks, “History, characteristics, and goals,” in Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education, J. A. Banks and C. A. M. Banks, Eds., pp. 3–29, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  7. R. S. Bishop, “Multicultural literature for children: making informed choices,” in Teaching Multicultural Literature in Grade K-8, pp. 37–54, Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Norwood, Mass, USA, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Cai, Multicultural Literature for Children and Young Adults: Reflections on Critical Issues, Greenwood, Westport, Conn, USA, 2002.
  9. V. J. Harris, “Children's literature depicting blacks,” in Using Multiethnic Literature in the K-8 Classroom, V. J. Harris, Ed., pp. 21–58, Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Norwood, Mass, USA, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. S. MacPhee, ““That's not fair”: the white teacher's reports on white first graders’ responses to multicultural literature,” Language Arts, vol. 74, pp. 255–265, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  11. S. Nieto, Affirming Diversity: The Sociopolitical Context of Multicultural Education, Pearson, Boston, Mass, USA, 4th edition, 2004.
  12. G. S. Boutte, J. Lopez-Robertson, and E. Powers-Costello, “Moving beyond colorblindness in early childhood classrooms,” Early Childhood Education Journal, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 335–342, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Copenhaver-Johnson, “Talking to children about race: the importance of inviting difficult conversations,” Childhood Education, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 12–22, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. C. Martiínez-Roldaàn, “Bilingual children's responses to multicultural literature on discrimination,” The Dragon Lode, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 17–23, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  15. K. J. Moller, “Providing support for dialogue in literature discussions about social justice,” Language Arts, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 467–477, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  16. J. Cummins, Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society, California Association for Bilingual Education, Ontario, Calif, USA, 1996.
  17. A. Darder, “Buscando America: the contributions of critical Latino educators to the academic development and empowerment of Latino students in the U.S,” in Multicultural Education, Critical Pedagogy, and Politics of Difference, C. E. Sleeter and P. L. McLaren, Eds., pp. 310–318, State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  18. S. Fitts, L. Winstead, E. M. Weisman, S. Flores, and C. Valenciana, “Coming to voice: preparing bilingual-bicultural teachers for social justice,” Equity & Excellence in Education, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 357–371, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. O. Garcia and J. A. Kleifgen, Educating Emergent Bilinguals, Teachers College, New York, NY, USA, 2010.
  20. L. H. Quach, O. Ji-Yeon, and L. Urrieta, “Understanding the racialized identities of Asian students in predominantly white schools,” in Race, Culture, and Identities in Second Language Education, R. Kubota and A. Lin, Eds., pp. 101–107, Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  21. S. Marx, “‘It's not them; it's not their fault’: manifestations of racism in the schooling of Latinas/os and ELLs,” in Race, Culture, and Identities in Second Language Education, R. Kubota and A. Lin, Eds., pp. 81–98, Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  22. S. Brown, M. Souto-Manning, and T. T. Laman, “Seeing the strange in the familiar: unpacking racialized practices in early childhood settings,” Race Ethnicity and Education, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 513–532, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. Rogers and M. Mosley, “Racial literacy in a second-grade classroom: Critical race theory, whiteness studies, and literacy research,” Reading Research Quarterly, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 462–495, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. Hu and M. Commeyras, “A case study: emergent biliteracy in english and Chinese of a 5-year-old Chinese child with wordless picture books,” Reading Psychology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–30, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. I. Reyes and P. Azuara, “Emergent biliteracy in young Mexican immigrant children,” Reading Research Quarterly, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 374–398, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. B. Yaden Jr. and J. Tardibuono, “The emergent writing development of urban, Latino preschoolers: developmental perspectives and instructional environments for second language learners,” Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 29–62, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. C. Park, Myth of Pure-Blood Nationalism Blocks Multi-Ethnic Society, 2006, http://rosesnchaos.livejournal.com/244176.html.
  28. Korean Statistical Information Service, “Population and household,” 2010, http://kosis.kr/.
  29. J. Twomey, “Koreans and Blacks in America: a brief pre-riot history to the 1992 Los Angeles Riot,” in Socio-Cultural Conflicts between African American and Korean American, M. K. Asante and E. Min, Eds., pp. 25–34, University Press of America, Lanham, Md, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  30. E. Min, “Blues and Haan: discourses of despair and lamentation of African American and Korean American: an introduction,” in Socio-Cultural Conflicts between African American and Korean American, M. K. Asante and E. Min, Eds., pp. 1–12, University Press of America, Lanham, Md, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  31. H.-W. Kim, “Public opinions and current situations concerning early study-abroad,” in Proceedings of the 26th KEDI Educational Policy Forum, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2005.
  32. Korean Joong-ang Daily, “English teacher assaults 61-year-old man on bus,” http://koreajoongangdaily.joinsmsn.com/news/article/html/934/2940934.html.
  33. D. D. Han, “An African American English teacher at an English village in Daejeon posts a sex video online,” 2010, http://news.hankooki.com/lpage/society/201010/h2010100817233621950.htm.
  34. M. Hoffman, Original: Amazing Grace (1991), Si-gong Junior, Seoul, South Korea, 2005.
  35. E. Levin, Original: Henry’s Freedom Box (2007), D-in-dol Children, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2008.
  36. J. Lester, Original: Let's Talk about Race (2005), Four Season, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2007.
  37. T. Diggs, Chocolate Me!, Feiwel and Friends, New York, NY, USA, 2011.
  38. W. Miller, Original: The Bus Ride (2001), Four Season, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2004.
  39. F. Ringgold, Tar Beach, Random House, New York, NY, USA, 1991.
  40. M. H. Kang, The Song of Freedom, Yangchulbook, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 2009.
  41. M. F. Asante, “African American and Korean Americans: modeling the American dream,” in Socio-Cultural Conflicts between African American and Korean American, M. K. Asante and E. Min, Eds., pp. 13–24, University Press of America, Lanham, Md, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  42. K. Park, The Korean American Dream: Immigrants and Small Business in New York City, Cornell University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  43. R. Kubota and A. Lin, “Introduction,” in Race, Culture, and Identities in Second Language Education, R. Kubota and A. Lin, Eds., pp. 1–23, Routledge, New York, NY, USA, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  44. R. Beach, “Constructing cultural models through response to literature,” The English Journal, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 87–94, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  45. D. Bleich, “Reading as membership,” ADE Bulletin, vol. 102, pp. 6–10, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  46. J. Culler, Literacy Theory, Sterling Publishing, New York, NY, USA, 1997.
  47. R. Beach, “New direction in research on response to literature,” in Transactions with Literature: A Fifty-Year Perspective, E. J. Farrell and J. R. Squire, Eds., pp. 65–77, National Council of Teachers of English, Urbana, Ill, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  48. C. Compton-Lilly, “Counting the uncounted: African American students in reading recovery,” Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 3–24, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. D. Gillborn, “Critical race theory and education: racism and anti-racism in educational theory and praxis,” Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 11–32, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. T. Liggett, “The mapping of a framework: critical race theory and TESOL,” Urban Review, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 112–124, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. D. Goodman and C. A. West-Olatunji, “Educational hegemony, traumatic stress, and african american and latino american students,” Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 176–186, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. G. Shuck, “Racializing the nonnative english speaker,” in Journal of Language, Identity, and Education, T. Ricento and T. G. Wiley, Eds., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  53. A. Curtis and M. Romney, Eds., Color, Race, and English Language Teaching: Shades of Meaning, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2006.
  54. R. Kubota, “Critical multiculturalism and second language education,” in Critical Pedagogies and Language Learning, B. Norton and K. Toohey, Eds., pp. 30–52, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  55. C. Prendergast, Literacy and Racial Justice: The Politics of Learning after Brown v Board of Education, Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, Ill, USA, 2003.
  56. G. van de Kleut, “The whiteness of literacy practice in Ontario,” Race Ethnicity and Education, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 699–726, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Creswell, Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Traditions, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 1998.
  58. R. Emerson, R. Fretz, and L. Shaw, Writing Ethnographic Fieldnotes, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1996.
  59. C. Y. Park, Maintaining Korean as a heritage language [unpublished doctoral dissertation], Arizona State University, Phoenix, Ariz, USA, 2007.
  60. L. R. Sipe and C. E. McGuire, “Young children's resistance to stories,” Reading Teacher, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 6–13, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. R. Sipe, Storytime: Young Children's Literary Understanding in the Classroom, Teachers College, New York, NY, USA, 2008.
  62. S. Hughes-Hassell, H. A. Barkley, and E. Koehler, “Promoting equity in children’s literacy instruction: using a critical race theory framework to examine transitional books,” School Library Media Research, vol. 12, 2009, http://www.ala.org/aasl/sites/ala.org.aasl/files/content/aaslpubsandjournals/slr/vol12/SLMR_PromotingEquity_V12.pdf. View at Google Scholar
  63. H. A. Giroux, “Rewriting the discourse of racial identity: towards a pedagogy and politics of whiteness,” Harvard Educational Review, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 285–320, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Z. Leonardo, “The race for class: reflections on a critical raceclass theory of education,” Educational Studies, vol. 48, pp. 427–449, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  65. M. Fix and J. S. Passel, “U.S. immigration-trends and implications for schools,” in Paper Presented at the Meeting of the National Association for Bilingual Education NCLB Implementation Institute, New Orleans, La, USA, 2003.
  66. J. Duckitt, C. Wall, and B. Pokroy, “Color bias and racial preference in White South African preschool children,” The Journal of Genetic Psychology, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 143–154, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. L. T. Fishman, “The black bogeyman and white self-righteousness,” in Images of Color Images of Crime, C. R. Mann and M. S. Zatz, Eds., pp. 177–191, Roxbury Publishing Company, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  68. Common Sense Media, Super Street Fighter IV: Arcade Edition, 2012, http://www.commonsensemedia.org/game-reviews/super-street-fighter-iv-arcade-edition.
  69. I. M. Young, Justice and the Politics of Difference, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1990.
  70. R. Beach and K. Freedman, “Responding as a cultural act: adolescents' responses to magazine ads and short stories,” in Reader Stance and Literary Understanding, J. Many and C. Cox, Eds., pp. 162–190, Alex, Norwood, NJ, USA, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  71. L. M. Burton, E. Bonilla-Silva, V. Ray, R. Buckelew, and E. H. Freeman, “Critical race theories, colorism, and the decade's research on families of color,” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 440–459, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. L. Lei, “Teaching and learning with Asian American and Pacific Islander students,” Race Ethnicity and Education, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 85–101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Minami, “Crossing borders: the politics of schooling Asian students,” in The Politics of Multiculturalism and Bilingual Education: Students and Teachers Caught in the Cross Fire, C. J. Ovando and P. McLaren, Eds., pp. 188–207, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  74. A. C. Willig, “Special education and the culturally and linguistically different child: an overview of issues and challenges,” in Bilingualism and Learning Disabilities, A. C. Willig and H. F. Greeberg, Eds., pp. 191–210, American Library Publishing, Asbury Park, NJ, USA, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  75. V. A. Moore, “The collaborative emergence of race in children's play: a case study of two summer camps,” Social Problems, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 58–78, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. E. Probst, “Reader-Response theory and the English curriculum,” English Journal, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 37–44, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  77. K. J. Möller and J. Allen, “Connecting, resisting, and searching for safer places: students respond to Mildred Taylor's the friendship,” Journal of Literacy Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 145–186, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. B. Corcoran, “Reader stance: from willed aesthetic to discursive construction,” in Reader Stance and Literary Understanding, J. Many and C. Cox, Eds., pp. 49–74, Alex Publishing Corporation, Norwood, NJ, USA, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  79. C. Genishi and A. Dyson, Children, Language, and Literacy: Diverse Learners in Diverse Times, Teachers College Press, 2009.
  80. T. J. Guess, “The social construction of whiteness: racism by intent, racism by consequence,” Critical Sociology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 649–673, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus