Education Research International The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Hands-On Math and Art Exhibition Promoting Science Attitudes and Educational Plans Wed, 18 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The current science, technology, engineering, art, math education (STEAM) approach emphasizes integration of abstract science and mathematical ideas for concrete solutions by art. The main aim was to find out how experience of learning mathematics differed between the contexts of school and an informal Math and Art Exhibition. The study participants () were 12-13 years old from Finland. Several valid questionnaires and tests were applied (e.g., SRQ-A, RAVEN) in pre- and postdesign showing a good reliability. The results based on General Linear Modeling and Structural Equation Path Modeling underline the motivational effects. The experience of the effectiveness of hands-on learning at school and at the exhibition was not consistent across the subgroups. The lowest achieving group appreciated the exhibition alternative for math learning compared to learning math at school. The boys considered the exhibition to be more useful than the girls as it fostered their science and technology attitudes. However, for the girls, the attractiveness of the exhibition, the experienced situation motivation, was much more strongly connected to the attitudes on science and technology and the worthiness of mathematics. Interestingly, the pupils experienced that even this short informal learning intervention affected their science and technology attitudes and educational plans. Helena Thuneberg, Hannu Salmi, and Kristof Fenyvesi Copyright © 2017 Helena Thuneberg et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Heart-Centered, Gratitude-Meditation Intervention to Increase Well-Being among Adolescents Mon, 16 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Population studies paint a dismal picture of the mental health status of adolescents, in the US and worldwide. Positive psychology, which takes a preventative approach to keeping individuals in higher states of well-being, is being implemented increasingly among youth, with the goal of avoiding future mental health and psychological problems. In this study, a novel intervention, which fused the practice of meditation with gratitude visualizations, was tested among adolescents. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the extent to which the intervention affected life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and measured gratitude, among a culturally diverse cohort of adolescents. Instrumentation consisted of three positive psychology measures—the Student Life Satisfaction Scale, the School Satisfaction Subscale, and the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six-Item Form. Participants were randomly assigned either to the delayed-intervention, no-treatment control group or to the experimental group. The four-week intervention was manualized primarily from the heart-centered gratitude visualizations outlined in a happiness and positive emotions handbook, The Jewels of Happiness: Inspiration and Wisdom to Guide Your Life-Journey. The intervention significantly affected life satisfaction, school satisfaction, and gratitude of the experimental group, when compared to the control group. Medium to large effect sizes were detected using the ANCOVA statistical test. Lunthita M. Duthely, Sandra G. Nunn, and John T. Avella Copyright © 2017 Lunthita M. Duthely et al. All rights reserved. Complex Problems in Entrepreneurship Education: Examining Complex Problem-Solving in the Application of Opportunity Identification Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In opening up the black box of what entrepreneurship education (EE) should be about, this study focuses on the exploration of relationships between two constructs: opportunity identification (OI) and complex problem-solving (CPS). OI, as a domain-specific capability, is at the core of entrepreneurship research, whereas CPS is a more domain-general skill. On a conceptual level, there are reasons to believe that CPS skills can help individuals to identify potential opportunities in dynamic and nontransparent environments. Therefore, we empirically investigated whether CPS relates to OI among 113 masters students. Data is analyzed using multiple regressions. The results show that CPS predicts the number of concrete ideas that students generate, suggesting that having CPS skills supports the generation of detailed, potential business ideas of good quality. The results of the current study suggest that training CPS, as a more domain-general skill, could be a valuable part of what should be taught in EE. Yvette Baggen, Jakob Mainert, André Kretzschmar, Thomas Lans, Harm J. A. Biemans, Christoph Niepel, and Samuel Greiff Copyright © 2017 Yvette Baggen et al. All rights reserved. Teacher Informal Collaboration for Professional Improvement: Beliefs, Contexts, and Experience Thu, 12 Oct 2017 06:45:14 +0000 The article presents results of a study on teachers’ views, beliefs, and experience on school-based informal collaboration for professional improvement. It explores the relationship of teacher beliefs in the collective efficacy of their colleagues and school’s capital and culture with their beliefs and experience in school-based collaborative learning. The key source of evidence used is a survey of 1025 primary and secondary teachers in three geographical regions of Chile. Main results show that teachers hold positive beliefs about the collective efficacy of their colleagues and students in their schools but more negative ones regarding the contribution of parents. In terms of collaboration, teachers hold positive beliefs in general about its role for professional learning but indeed engage more in the “weaker” types of collaboration such as “sharing ideas” and “talking about teaching problems” and less in the more demanding ones such as “mutual lesson observation” and “team teaching.” Differences in teachers’ views, beliefs, and experience were examined in terms of level of teaching (primary/secondary), urban/rural location, school type (public and private), and school size. Beatrice Avalos-Bevan and Martín Bascopé Copyright © 2017 Beatrice Avalos-Bevan and Martín Bascopé. All rights reserved. Coexisting Needs: Paradoxes in Collegial Reflection—The Development of a Pragmatic Method for Reflection Thu, 28 Sep 2017 13:34:11 +0000 This paper addresses a feasibility study of a method for recurrent collegial reflection. A qualitative approach, using a participatory research design, was adopted. The collegial reflection was implemented in a school, in a middle-sized municipality in southern Sweden, with 21 teachers participating in the intervention. Data collection included digital recordings of collegial reflection, open questions by mail, and individual interviews. Findings indicated one major theme, paradoxes in the design of the collegial reflection, and three categories: wanting to decide and wanting to be guided; meeting each other as teachers and/or as persons; and looking for the safe and/or looking for the new. Before implementing the method in another context, management needs to appreciate these contradictory experiences, allow for voluntary participation, address participants’ expectations, and allocate time and tasks. This study implicates that collegial reflection may contribute to teachers’ professional development, and it is thereby relevant to teachers’ classroom practice and pupils’ learning. We conclude that, by creating a structure which supports teachers’ collegial reflection, the school may function as a supportive environment, which may contribute to teacher retention. Marie Nilsson, Ingemar Andersson, and Kerstin Blomqvist Copyright © 2017 Marie Nilsson et al. All rights reserved. In Search of Alignment: A Review of Impact Studies in Entrepreneurship Education Wed, 27 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This study uses the concept of alignment as a framework to examine empirical research on the impact of entrepreneurship education interventions on students. Alignment assumes that effective instruction requires congruence between three instructional components: intended outcomes, instructional processes, and assessment criteria. Given the extant diversity and complexity of entrepreneurship education impact, scholars have not been able to explain how teaching approaches and methods are being adjusted to the variety of expected outcomes. In order to address this gap, we critically reviewed the published empirical studies on entrepreneurship education impact in 20 journals over a 15-year period (2000–2015). We found 16 empirical studies that met our inclusion criteria. Our findings revealed that teaching objectives, teaching methods, and teaching content receive scant attention from researchers. This study will be of value to scholars researching the impact of heterogeneous entrepreneurship education practices and approaches on individuals. Our analytical framework could contribute to less contradictory findings of entrepreneurship education impact studies. We also identify research limitations and suggest avenues for future research. Uladzimir Kamovich and Lene Foss Copyright © 2017 Uladzimir Kamovich and Lene Foss. All rights reserved. Threshold Effects of Creative Problem-Solving Attributes on Creativity in the Math Abilities of Taiwanese Upper Elementary Students Tue, 19 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 This study aimed to help determine what the typology of math creative problem-solving is. Different from studies that have discussed the threshold effect between creativity and intelligence, this research investigated the threshold effect between creativity and other attributes. The typology of the math creative problem-solving abilities of 409 fifth- and sixth-grade Taiwanese students was identified and compared in this study. A Creative Problem-Solving Attribute Instrument was devised for this study, with the aim of measuring students’ perceptions on their motivation, knowledge, and skills, both in general and in specific domains. Divergent and convergent thinking were also measured. Cluster analyses yielded three creative problem-solving typologies: High, Medium, and Low. The High Attribute group scored significantly higher in the Math Creative Problem-Solving Ability Test than did the Medium Attribute and Low Attribute groups. The results suggest a threshold effect from several attributes—divergent thinking, convergent thinking, motivation, general knowledge and skills, domain-specific knowledge and skills, and environment—on students’ creative problem-solving abilities. Balanced development of attributes may be an important consideration in nurturing creativity in children. Chia-Yi Lin Copyright © 2017 Chia-Yi Lin. All rights reserved. Development of Emotional Skills through Interdisciplinary Practices Integrated into a University Curriculum Mon, 28 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The emotional profile of university students has been related to both academic performance and professional success. Such evidence has led higher education professionals to ask whether students can be trained in emotional skills at university stage. However, learning specific emotional skills requires a considerable investment of time from students. This paper presents an intervention aimed at developing emotional skills through interdisciplinary teamwork, without adding specific courses that could decrease the time that students devote to their core studies. The results indicated that working in interdisciplinary teams improved the level of emotional skills without hindering the attainment of academic objectives. M. L. Pertegal-Felices, D. Marcos-Jorquera, R. Gilar-Corbí, and A. Jimeno-Morenilla Copyright © 2017 M. L. Pertegal-Felices et al. All rights reserved. Preparing Students for Global Citizenship: The Effects of a Dutch Undergraduate Honors Course Sun, 27 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Using a mixed method approach, this case study investigates effects on the participating students () of an undergraduate honors course in the Netherlands, aimed at global justice citizenship. Knowledge about effects of global citizenship courses is still limited. The Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire and the Global Citizenship Scale were used in a pre- and posttest design to measure possible development in the moral and civic domain among the participants of the course. In the qualitative part, deductive content analyses of students’ work and students’ written reflection on the course, utilizing the theory-based curriculum guidelines Global Justice Citizenship Education, were performed. In addition, a follow-up blog and interview were analyzed to learn students’ perception on the effects of the course after half a year. Quantitative results show increased ethical sensitivity as well as global civic engagement and global competence among the participants. Qualitative results point in the same direction and provide deeper insights in the content of students’ learning and the perceived impact of the course on their attitudes and behavior. Results are discussed in relation to theory on justice-oriented global citizenship and honors pedagogies. Ingrid W. Schutte, Elanor Kamans, Marca V. C. Wolfensberger, and Wiel Veugelers Copyright © 2017 Ingrid W. Schutte et al. All rights reserved. Competence Models as a Tool for Conceptualizing the Systematic Process of Entrepreneurship Competence Development Sun, 13 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Entrepreneurship Education (EE) is believed to be an important key to supporting learners to become entrepreneurial, which means it needs to be approached systematically. Competence models provide a platform to meaningfully embed varying interpretations, learning outcomes, and roles of EE and allow educators and other stakeholders to apply EE systematically throughout all education levels. The aim of this study was to understand how systematic entrepreneurship competence development throughout the education levels is conceptualized in different EE competence models. In other words, what are the critical aspects to consider while constructing systematic competence models for EE purposes? The results of the analysis of the competence models help educators, school boards, policymakers, local municipalities, researchers, and other relevant stakeholders to obtain a clearer understanding of how EE learning outcomes can be systematically achieved at all education levels. However, lacking empirical proof regarding the impact of the models’ application, these models represent the “optimal set” of expected competencies for specific education levels and types. In its original form, a competence model established for a specific education system is unlikely to fit the needs and aims of other education systems. Thus, it is recommended that any model be adapted to a specific need and with a focus on learning outcomes. Uku Lilleväli and Marge Täks Copyright © 2017 Uku Lilleväli and Marge Täks. All rights reserved. How Do School Children and Adolescents Perceive the Nature of Talent Development? A Case Study from Finland Mon, 07 Aug 2017 09:40:21 +0000 This article examines how school children and adolescents () perceive the nature of talent development. More particularly it is investigated whether students perceive intelligence and giftedness as developing or as inherent and how students’ perspectives on talent development are related to their learning outcomes. Participants were students in elementary (), lower secondary (), and upper secondary school (). The results showed that students perceived the nature of intelligence as more malleable than giftedness. Along with this domain-specific variance, there were also age and gender related differences in students’ perceptions. By examining the relation between implicit beliefs and students’ academic achievements, it was found that growth-oriented views about intelligence, but fixed ideas about giftedness, indicated higher math grades. The results suggest that the relationship between implicit beliefs and academic outcomes might not be as straightforward as previous studies have suggested. Elina Kuusisto, Sonja Laine, and Kirsi Tirri Copyright © 2017 Elina Kuusisto et al. All rights reserved. The Better You Feel the Better You Learn: Do Warm Colours and Rounded Shapes Enhance Learning Outcome in Multimedia Learning? Sun, 06 Aug 2017 08:58:35 +0000 The aim of the present study was to examine whether fostering positive activating affect during multimedia learning enhances learning outcome. University students were randomly assigned to either a multimedia learning environment designed to induce positive activating affect through the use of “warm” colours and rounded shapes () or an affectively neutral environment that used achromatic colours and sharp edges (). Participants learned about the topic of functional neuroanatomy for 20 minutes and had to answer several questions for comprehension and transfer afterwards. Affective states as well as achievement goal orientations were investigated before and after the learning phase using questionnaires. The results show that participants in the affectively positive environment were superior in comprehension as well as transfer when initial affect was strong. Preexperimental positive affect was therefore a predictor of comprehension and a moderator for transfer. Goal orientations did not influence these effects. The findings support the idea that positive affect, induced through the design of the particular multimedia learning environment, can facilitate performance if initial affective states are taken into account. Hannes Münchow, Christoph Mengelkamp, and Maria Bannert Copyright © 2017 Hannes Münchow et al. All rights reserved. Opportunities to Learn for Teachers’ Self-Efficacy and Enthusiasm Sun, 06 Aug 2017 08:37:18 +0000 The aim of this study was to identify opportunities to learn for teachers’ motivational orientations. Motivational orientations are relevant characteristics of psychological functioning, which are important for the behavior of a teacher and mandatory for effective teaching. We focus on three domains: self-efficacy, subject-specific enthusiasm, and enthusiasm for teaching the subject. Self-efficacy covers the belief of an individual that he or she is capable of performing required behaviors to produce a desired outcome. Teacher enthusiasm is an affective teacher orientation that is related to a specific subject and to teaching this specific subject. Different opportunities to learn are considered for teachers’ motivational orientations. Since teacher education particularly focuses on the acquisition of professional knowledge, we added a further exploratory focus to the study and investigated the relationships between motivational orientations and professional knowledge (content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge). 134 biology teachers participated in the study. The results reveal that teacher education at university, the attendance in professional development courses, and self-study provide opportunities to learn for self-efficacy and enthusiasm for teaching the subject. Moreover, we found self-efficacy and subject-specific enthusiasm to be positively related to pedagogical content knowledge. Daniela Mahler, Jörg Großschedl, and Ute Harms Copyright © 2017 Daniela Mahler et al. All rights reserved. Creativity as a Stepping Stone towards Developing Other Competencies in Classrooms Tue, 01 Aug 2017 06:04:52 +0000 Creativity, as a 21st-century skill, has gained more interest these past years and has become one of the key competencies to be implemented in classrooms. However, some studies highlight teachers’ difficulties to integrate it in a classroom context. For instance, introducing creativity in overloaded school curricula may be a hindrance to developing it. Teachers have to implement other 21st-century competencies (the 4Cs) at the same time as well. These educational objectives can be considerable in terms of time and means for teachers and thus do not encourage them to develop these competencies. The purpose of this article is to present links, essentially theoretical, made by researchers between creativity and other 21st-century skills (e.g., critical thinking, metacognition, and collaboration). We considered that if creativity shares some characteristics with other competencies, it can be possible that, by applying only a teaching-for-creativity approach in classroom, we can also contribute to developing the other “C” as well. So choosing only creativity can be a way for teachers to develop their pupils’ skills without falling behind in their curriculum. In this article, we will also discuss our hypothesis taking into account limits from teachers’ classroom practices. Teachers’ training, evaluation, and everyday practices will be considered. Niluphar Ahmadi and Maud Besançon Copyright © 2017 Niluphar Ahmadi and Maud Besançon. All rights reserved. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Arabic Academic Performance Rating Scale Mon, 31 Jul 2017 11:23:27 +0000 Aim. To validate the Arabic version of Academic Performance Rating Scale. Method. Translation and test-retest reliability were computed. Exploratory factor analysis and Rasch analysis were conducted to report on the validity. EFA factor structures were evaluated using a Scree plot and the standard multiple criteria included eigenvalue greater than 1. Average measures and step measures were ordered and the mean-square outfit statistic for each category was also evaluated. Results. Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.90 was obtained. No differences across category of educational levels were seen (). Pattern matrix analysis revealed items to be significantly correlated with each other with a chi square goodness of fit value 0.02. Results supported the interpretation of adequate fit of items, since the infit ZSTD (1.55–0.46), outfit ZSTD (1.59–0.99), infit MNSQ (0.74–1.47), and outfit MNSQ (0.50–1.37) for the items were within acceptable ranges. Conclusion. Valid and reliable A-APRS-15 can be used in future studies to see its relation with other variables such as general health and oral health. M. F. A. Q. Quadri, M. S. El-Kordy, M. E. Moukhyer, A. Mukhayer, and B. Ahmad Copyright © 2017 M. F. A. Q. Quadri et al. All rights reserved. Teacher Learning within a Multinational Project in an Upper Secondary School Tue, 18 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 In this case study, we investigated teachers’ professional learning within a multinational project in an upper secondary school. The aim of the study was to investigate how the participating teachers adopted and applied the trialogical approach (TLA) in their pedagogical practices and their challenges in doing that. The mixed method approach was used for data collection and analysis. About one-fourth of the teachers participated in the activities, ten females and three males. Three groups were identified, based on their activity in the project: pilot teachers, active adopters, and adopters. Altogether 79 students (38 males and 41 females) answered a questionnaire concerning the pedagogical practices. The pedagogical revisions were well in line with TLA; the revised courses as well as new iterations and new ideas were indicators of the teachers’ creative implementation processes. However, some of the TLA ideas were more difficult to apply in an upper secondary school context; for example, the implementation of ideas involving cross-fertilization with other organizations and cultures was rare. In order to learn new pedagogical practices, teachers need organized time for collaborative planning, for reflecting, and for sharing. Liisa Ilomäki, Minna Lakkala, Auli Toom, and Hanni Muukkonen Copyright © 2017 Liisa Ilomäki et al. All rights reserved. Training Online Physical Educators: A Phenomenological Case Study Sun, 16 Jul 2017 09:35:23 +0000 Online physical education (OLPE) presents a unique set of challenges in translating traditional physical education to a digital space, all while meeting the same benchmarks, curriculum, and assessment standards of traditional courses. Currently, limited research exists investigating how physical educators are formally trained to deliver content online. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the experiences and perceptions of students and instructor of a graduate-level OLPE teacher education (OLPETE) methods course. A phenomenographic research design was employed to examine the social phenomenon of one OLPETE methods course at a midwest midmajor college. Participants in this study were an instructor of OLPETE methods course and former students who had completed the course. Data for the case study were collected through semistructured interviews and inductive content analysis was employed to analyze the qualitative data. Results revealed four categories describing the lived experiences of those involved: (1) Modeling Online Instructional Practices, (2) Instructor and Student Interactions, (3) Transitioning Pedagogical and Content Knowledge Online, and (4) Navigating Instructional Tools and Technology. Tyler Goad and Emily Jones Copyright © 2017 Tyler Goad and Emily Jones. All rights reserved. Moodle: Teaching Strategies in Distance Education in Oral Medicine Wed, 05 Jul 2017 10:19:37 +0000 Objective. The current model of education has been suffering changes, undergoing renovations, and seeking using and enjoying increasingly technological resources, as, for example, the Learning Management System (LMS). One of the most used LMS platforms is the Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment (Moodle). This article proposes to demonstrate how Moodle platform was introduced in the subject of Stomatology through a clear and objective methodology. Study Design. In six months, 49 undergraduate students enrolled in stomatology subject accessed Moodle platform 2067 times and performed 02 evaluation exams at Discipline of Stomatology. Statistical analysis was performed by paired t-test (comparison between number of access times before the first evaluation and number of access times before the second evaluation), Wilcoxon test (student’s grade on the first and second evaluation), and Pearson correlation test (correlation between the number of access times before the first evaluation and the first grade, correlation between the number of access times before the second evaluation and the second grade, and correlation between the variation of the number of access times and the variation of the student’s grade). Results and Conclusion. The digital platform Moodle was associated with better grade for those students who access it for more times () and was able to supply the needs of the students and help them to obtain information about the subject during the entire semester (6 months). Rubens Cardozo de Castro Junior, Tuana Caruso Medeiros, Heitor Marques Honório, Eduardo Sant’Ana, and Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos Copyright © 2017 Rubens Cardozo de Castro Junior et al. All rights reserved. Teachers’ Experiences with Networked Classrooms in Norway Tue, 04 Jul 2017 09:47:44 +0000 The aim of this study, based on response on a questionnaire from 65 teachers in upper secondary schools, is to gain insight into how teachers experience and practice their role as leaders in the digital classroom. Research shows that teachers seldom are asked about their opinions concerning use of technical device. From 2007 all Norwegian students in upper secondary schools were given a computer from the authorities. Politicians argued for pedagogical use of ICT, for example, through interactive device like social networking sites. However, recent national reports show that teachers mainly use ICT for administrative and not for pedagogical purposes. Findings from the current study show that teachers adjust the technology to their existing pedagogy and continue their existing practice. To a small extent the technology’s interactive abilities are utilized. Technological device is powerful. Possible consequences of placing technology on every student’s desk are discussed. The teachers’ future concern is to control Internet and to have possibilities to develop and discuss pedagogical use of technology in classrooms with their colleagues. Ingrid Helleve and Aslaug Grov Almås Copyright © 2017 Ingrid Helleve and Aslaug Grov Almås. All rights reserved. Stressors and Coping Strategies of the Saudi Nursing Students in the Clinical Training: A Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 14 Jun 2017 06:17:31 +0000 Nursing students often encounter high levels of stress through clinical practice that may cause psychological or emotional problems during their professional life eventually affecting the quality of patient care they provide. The aims of the current study were to identify the level and types of stress perceived by nursing students in their clinical practice and to identify the coping strategies that students used to relieve their stress. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used in this study. A total of 200 students who were enrolled in the nursing program were taken as study respondents. Research data were collected using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the Coping Behavior Inventory (CBI). Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA test, Pearson’s test, and independent sample -test on SPSS version 22. Findings indicated that nursing students experienced a high level of stress. The most common coping strategy utilized by the students was problem solving, while avoidance was the least frequently used one. Saudi nursing students experienced stress levels above the mean in clinical training. The most common stressors were related to assignments and workload. The study recommends that clinical curriculum requirements and the workload of nursing students should be reviewed. Salman H. Alsaqri Copyright © 2017 Salman H. Alsaqri. All rights reserved. Cross-Cultural Competences and International Entrepreneurial Intention: A Study on Entrepreneurship Education Mon, 29 May 2017 09:27:25 +0000 To identify and foster potential international entrepreneurs are important goals for entrepreneurship education. Based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), we argue that International entrepreneurial intention (IEI) is a predictor of international entrepreneurship (IE). In addition, cross-cultural competences are hypothesized as antecedents to IEI and moderators of the relationship between TPB elements and IEI. We integrate two elements of cross-cultural competences (global mindset and cultural intelligence) in a TPB-framework to identify the drivers of students’ IEI. We analyze a sample of 84 students with OLS regression and moderation analysis. OLS regression results reveal no significant direct effects from cultural intelligence and global mindset on IEI. Moderation analyses suggest a negative, significant moderating effect of cultural intelligence on the relationship between personal attitude and IEI and on subjective norms and IEI. Therefore, simply enhancing global mindset and cultural intelligence does not contribute to students’ IEI. More is required from entrepreneurship education, such as improving the perception of international entrepreneurship as a valuable career choice. Shuijing Jie and Rainer Harms Copyright © 2017 Shuijing Jie and Rainer Harms. All rights reserved. Personality Traits as Predictor of Emotional Intelligence among the University Teachers as Advisors Sun, 14 May 2017 09:11:52 +0000 The focus of the present study was to investigate personality traits as the predictor of emotional intelligence (EI) among the university teachers working as student advisors. A sample of the study comprised 100 student advisors (male = 50; female = 50). The age range of the sample was 21–40 years. Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and Big Five Inventory (BFI) were used to measure emotional intelligence (EI) and personality traits. For the statistical analysis of the data, -test and regression analysis were computed. The findings revealed that three personality traits, extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience, emerged as significant predictors of EI. The findings also revealed that conscientiousness and neuroticism have no impact on EI. -tests indicated that there are no gender differences in EI. Considering the implication of personality traits on EI among university teachers/student advisors, the current research may assist in augmenting the organizational behavior in general and boost the productivity in particular which are both essential ingredients for the deliverance of services to all the stakeholders linked with the educational system in Saudi Arabia. Nawal G. Alghamdi, Muhammad Aslam, and Khushnoor Khan Copyright © 2017 Nawal G. Alghamdi et al. All rights reserved. Measuring Student Transformation in Entrepreneurship Education Programs Tue, 18 Apr 2017 10:01:15 +0000 This article describes how to measure student transformation primarily within a university entrepreneurship degree program. Student transformation is defined as changes in knowledge (“Head”), skills (“Hand”), and attitudinal (“Heart”) learning outcomes. Following the institutional impact model, student transformation is the primary goal of education and all other program goals and aspects of quality desired by stakeholders are either input factors (professors, courses, facilities, support, etc.) or output performance (number of startups, average starting salary, % employment, etc.). This goal-setting framework allows competing stakeholder quality expectations to be incorporated into a continuous process improvement (CPI) model when establishing program goals. How to measure these goals to implement TQM methods is shown. Measuring student transformation as the central focus of a program promotes harmony among competing stakeholders and also provides a metric on which other program decisions (e.g., class size, assignments, and pedagogical technique) may be based. Different stakeholders hold surprisingly different views on defining program quality. The proposed framework provides a useful way to bring these competing views into a CPI cycle to implement TQM requirements of accreditation. The specific entrepreneurial learning outcome goals described in the tables in this article may also be used directly by educators in nonaccredited programs and single courses/workshops or for other audiences. Steven A. Gedeon Copyright © 2017 Steven A. Gedeon. All rights reserved. Student Academic Performance: The Role of Motivation, Strategies, and Perceived Factors Hindering Liberian Junior and Senior High School Students Learning Mon, 20 Mar 2017 08:18:17 +0000 The nature of motivation and learning strategy use is vital to improving student learning outcomes. This study was intended to explore the motivational beliefs and learning strategy use by Liberian junior and senior high school students in connection with their academic performance. It also solicited students’ self-reports about presumed factors hindering their learning. Utilizing a cross-sectional quantitative research design, 323 participants took part in the study from 2 counties. Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was adapted and 12 potential learning hindrances were identified and used as instruments. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. The results showed the motivational belief component of extrinsic goal orientation as the most preferred belief and test anxiety was the least possessed belief. Rehearsal strategies were found to be the most frequently used, while help seeking was reported to be the least strategy considered. The result also showed significant relationships between the two constructs. In addition, the study found some learning hindrances. A number of conclusions as well as some practical recommendations for action relative to the improvement of student performance have been advanced. Charles Gbollie and Harriett Pearl Keamu Copyright © 2017 Charles Gbollie and Harriett Pearl Keamu. All rights reserved. Determinants of Secondary School Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Tanzania Wed, 01 Feb 2017 07:26:51 +0000 This study examined teachers’ job satisfaction in Tanzania. It addressed one research question: what factors determine secondary school teachers’ job satisfaction? The study was conducted in eight secondary schools in two regions of Tanzania. It used focus group discussion as the data collection tool. Results show that teachers were satisfied by both monetary and nonmonetary incentives such as community support. They were pleased with fair remuneration packages that related to their labour input, opportunities for career development, a well-defined individual appraisal system, timely promotion, and requisite workplace conditions. The study also showed that teachers’ friendship and cooperation with coworkers and students as well as the respect of community members also enhanced their satisfaction in teaching. Also important to their satisfaction is their students’ success in and after school, which reveals the teachers’ sense of duty and responsibility. Teachers’ job dissatisfaction can lead to their search for other means to gain economically. It is recommended that care should be given to address teachers’ pertinent issues, especially salaries, workplace conditions, and timely promotion, to enhance teachers’ physical and mental attachment to their workplaces. Gilman Jackson Nyamubi Copyright © 2017 Gilman Jackson Nyamubi. All rights reserved. What Is Driving Gender Equality in Secondary Education? Evidence from 57 Developing Countries, 1970–2010 Tue, 27 Dec 2016 07:58:54 +0000 Despite global efforts to expand educational opportunities for women, gender inequalities persist in many developing countries. Addressing the root causes of gender inequalities in secondary education we ask whether such disparities persist because of low state capacity or low willingness. Based on gender- and age-specific educational attainment data for 57 developing countries in 1970–2010, our analysis indicates that willingness factors are central to understanding gender equality in education: ethnically heterogeneous countries and countries where Islam is the primary religion experience lower levels of equality. However, key capacity factors like a country’s income level are unrelated to gender differences in education. Gudrun Østby, Henrik Urdal, and Ida Rudolfsen Copyright © 2016 Gudrun Østby et al. All rights reserved. Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Guided Lesson Study: Effects on Teacher Competence and Students’ Achievement in Chemistry Tue, 29 Nov 2016 14:08:00 +0000 This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Guided Lesson Study (PCKLS) as an intervention to develop PCK competencies among teachers and consequently enhance student achievement in terms of conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Using quasi-experimental design, teacher competencies and student achievement in the PCKLS group and the conventional group were compared. In the PCKLS group, the intervention involved planning the lesson by the research team, teaching the planned lesson while PCK observations were made by the researcher and another teacher from the group, including a feedback meeting, implementing the improvements in the reteach stage of the lesson study cycle by another teacher from the research team, and, finally, revising lesson plans based on the consolidated suggestions for improvement. Analyses of data showed that there was a significant difference in the science teacher competencies of the PCKLS group teacher respondents compared to those of the conventional group. Also, student respondents showed a significant increase on mean scores in terms of conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Therefore, it was concluded that PCKLS was an effective method to develop the teachers’ PCK competencies and student achievement in terms of conceptual understanding and problem solving. This study recommends that this intervention be used across chemistry topics and in other science classes such as Biology, Earth and Environmental Science, Physics, and Mathematics. John Lou S. Lucenario, Rosanelia T. Yangco, Amelia E. Punzalan, and Allen A. Espinosa Copyright © 2016 John Lou S. Lucenario et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Emotional Intelligence Levels of Students Receiving Education in Different Fields Tue, 29 Nov 2016 12:46:53 +0000 Aim. This descriptive study was conducted to determine and compare the emotional intelligence levels of senior students receiving education in different fields of Ataturk University. Methods. The population of the study consisted of senior students receiving education in different fields of Atatürk University. The sample group of study consisted of 305 senior students receiving education in different fields (health, social, and natural) and they were selected by using the simple random sampling method. Three faculties from three different fields were selected. Data of the study were obtained by using the personal information form, which was prepared by researchers in the light of the literature and involved sociodemographic characteristics and the “Emotional Intelligence Evaluation Scale.” Results. It was determined that while natural science students had the lowest total mean score of emotional intelligence scale, students of social sciences had the highest total mean score according to departments. Examining the difference between the mean scores of three different educational fields, it was determined that this difference was statistically significant. Conclusion. Consequently, the emotional intelligence level was determined to be lower in natural science students and moderate in students of health and social sciences. Zeynep Karaman Özlü, Gülçin Avşar, Kübra Gökalp, Serap Ejder Apay, Özlem Şahın Altun, and Afife Yurttaş Copyright © 2016 Zeynep Karaman Özlü et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Time Perspective, Motivation, Attitude, and Preparation in Educational Choice and Study Progress Thu, 24 Nov 2016 15:42:07 +0000 The present study examined the relation between study progress in the first year of education and different aspects of the process of study choice of 89 students of higher professional education. This study consists of three parts. Firstly, we explored which concepts are important in open interviews concerning choice of study and study progress. Secondly, we examined the relations between future time perspective and motivation on the one hand and study success on the other hand. Students who focus on the here and now generally continued their studies while students focusing on the future and the ulterior profession, presenting an extended future time perspective, drop out more frequently. Intrinsic motivation is strongly related to positive study progress, and extrinsic controlled motivation is strongly related to dropout. Extrinsic autonomous motivation is in between. Furthermore, students’ attitudes towards their future studies were examined in relation to their study progress. The results show that students with an attitude characterized by doubt have the highest risk to drop out. Finally, comparing different orientation programs, we show that students who prepare themselves more intensively before making their choice show less dropout. Jeany Slijper, E. Saskia Kunnen, Jeroen Onstenk, and Paul van Geert Copyright © 2016 Jeany Slijper et al. All rights reserved. Patients’ Perception toward Medical Students’ Involvement in Their Surgical Care: Single Center Study Wed, 23 Nov 2016 09:59:04 +0000 Objectives. To investigate patients’ perception regarding medical students’ role in the operating theatre. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a randomly selected sample at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Results. 131 participated in this study. 77 of the participants were females and 50 participants were males. 46.4% think that it was important for the future doctors to be in theater during surgery. 60.2% thought that medical students only observed surgeons in the theatre and 39% thought that medical students performed minor procedures in the theatre. Conclusion. Patients underestimated the importance of medical students’ attendance and involvement in theatre compared to bedside teaching and outpatient clinics. Patients believed that medical students should obtain their consent prior to observing them in the theatre. Talal Al-Khatib, Sanaa Bin Othman, and Basem El-Deek Copyright © 2016 Talal Al-Khatib et al. All rights reserved.