Education Research International http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Suitability of the RIPLS and IEPS for Discriminating Attitude Differences towards Interprofessional Education among Students of Healthcare Profession Wed, 28 Sep 2016 14:04:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/5946154/ Background. Interprofessional education provides students of healthcare programme an opportunity to collaborate with students from other disciplines and help them to get a training prior to entering the healthcare workforce. This study may help to select a suitable tool to discriminate attitude differences of healthcare professional students towards interprofessional education. Methods. A study, which was cross-sectional, was conducted at a private university in Malaysia to explore the two scales (RIPLS and IEPS) and their psychometric properties. Study participants comprised students from four different professions with at least one exposure or no previous exposure to IPE. Results. Both the scales (RIPLS and IEPS) have their own ability to detect differences in students’ attitude towards IPE in their own way. However, the IEPS scale was able to detect differences within the gender, professions (both junior and senior students), and prior exposure to IPE. Conclusions. This study revealed that though both scales can be used to follow the impact of IPE in curricula, IEPS scale is more suitable than RIPLS to discriminate attitude differences among healthcare students. Educators may develop various strategies to observe students’ behaviours and perceptions qualitatively and conduct longitudinal study to assess the outcomes of including IPE in curricula. Kingston Rajiah, Mari Kannan Maharajan, Suan Phaik Khoo, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Ranjit De Alwis, Hui Cing Chui, Lui Lee Tan, Yee Ning Tan, and Shin Yee Lau Copyright © 2016 Kingston Rajiah et al. All rights reserved. How Environmental Attitudes Interact with Cognitive Learning in a Science Lesson Module Wed, 28 Sep 2016 13:38:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/6136527/ As cognitive knowledge plays a major role in supporting proenvironmental behavior, identification of individual aspects related to knowledge acquisition is essential. Our study monitored knowledge levels before and after a science-based lesson set in relation to self-reported behavior and attitudinal preferences (attitudes towards environmental Preservation and Utilization) of 190 students (  ± SD: 15.96 ± 0.55; 51.1% female). A knowledge questionnaire was completed once before and twice after participation. Additionally, (i) the 2-MEV (two Major Environmental Values) and (ii) the GEB (General Ecological Behavior) were applied. Girls showed higher Preservation but lower Utilization attitudes than boys did. Learning success was positively related to Preservation preferences (for girls) as well as to behavior-based scores (for girls and boys). For boys, high preferences in Utilization were negatively correlated with learning achievement. Maximiliane F. Schumm and Franz X. Bogner Copyright © 2016 Maximiliane F. Schumm and Franz X. Bogner. All rights reserved. An International Reading Literacy Study: Factor Structure of the Chinese Version of the Student Questionnaire (PIRLS-SQCV 2011) Mon, 22 Aug 2016 09:12:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/4165089/ The student questionnaire (PIRLS-SQ 2011) of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) was designed to gather information from pupils on reading literacy development as to aspects of pupils’ self-lives, home, and school lives across countries/districts. In order to serve the purposes of research and international comparison, the questionnaire was translated into various languages. Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the current study investigates the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the student questionnaire (PIRLS-SQCV 2011) and identifies its underlying factor structure among Chinese fourth-grade pupils in Hong Kong. A 10-factor structure model was identified and much resemblance could be drawn to the original PIRLS structure. While the similarity allows international comparisons of studies in different places following the PIRLS strategy, the findings of this study add to extant literature on the relationship between student factors and reading achievement. Joseph W. I. Lam, W. M. Cheung, Doreen W. H. Au, Hector W. H. Tsang, Wendy W. Y. So, and Yue Zhu Copyright © 2016 Joseph W. I. Lam et al. All rights reserved. Anger Management among Medical Undergraduate Students and Its Impact on Their Mental Health and Curricular Activities Mon, 08 Aug 2016 13:35:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/7461570/ Background. This study was intended to determine the practice of students in good anger management skills and to what extent their anger can affect their studies, work, and social interactions. In this study the relationship between anger management and the effects on the mental health of medical students was evaluated. A survey was also done to determine duration of the feeling of anger which lasts among medical students and its consequences. Materials and Methods. A newly developed questionnaire was utilized which included a simplified version of the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory and the modified Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (to measure the mental health). Results. The data suggests that although students with high anger tendencies display poor mental health, there is no lowering of the mental health/PHQ-9 score as the anger management technique’s effectiveness rises. “Friends” was cited as the major triggering factor for anger, whereby the feelings can last for up to a day and somewhat affect their concentration on normal activities. Conclusion. When anger is suppressed and not let out, it can be an underlying factor for anxiety and depression. Therefore, more emphasis needs to be placed on educating students on how to manage their anger especially in a stressful environment away from home. Gayathri S. Prabhu, Joanne Tam Min Yen, Jonas John Posko Amalaraj, Eugene Tan Yie Jone, and Naveen Kumar Copyright © 2016 Gayathri S. Prabhu et al. All rights reserved. Preferences of Dental Students towards Teaching Strategies in Two Major Dental Colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Mon, 08 Aug 2016 13:09:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/4178471/ Objectives. To explore and compare undergraduate dental students’ views and preferences towards various teaching strategies. Methods. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 345 male and female undergraduate dental students from the two major dental schools in Riyadh (College of Dentistry, King Saud University [KSU], and Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy [RCsDP]). Students’ preferences for various components of the lecture courses were investigated. Descriptive and crosstab analyses were used to compare the students’ preferences for each school and between genders; the chi-square test was used to measure the significance level (). Results. The majority of students preferred having the lecture schedule announced in advance. Females preferred morning lectures, whereas male students preferred afternoon lectures. Nearly half of the students thought that attending lectures should be mandatory; most of them were from KSU. Most of the students reported preferring a PowerPoint presentation lecture. The students, particularly female students, also preferred to receive lecture handouts and study materials before the session and to have practical demonstrations after the lecture. Conclusion. Teachers should consider students’ opinions when constructing courses because this feedback would have a positive impact on the teaching environment and students’ performance. Eman M. AlHamdan, Huda I. Tulbah, Ghaida A. AlDuhayan, and Lamees S. AlBedaiwi Copyright © 2016 Eman M. AlHamdan et al. All rights reserved. Recall of Theoretical Pharmacology Knowledge by 6th Year Medical Students and Interns of Three Medical Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Thu, 28 Jul 2016 12:21:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/5374653/ The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs) on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24%) and 122 males (76%). A total of 36 (22%) students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78%) students studied at problem based learning (PBL) schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19%) of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48%) of them obtained a correct score of (4–6) out of 10, and 53 students (33%) scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology. A. A. Mustafa, H. A. Alassiry, A. Al-Turki, N. Alamri, N. A. Alhamdan, and Abdalla Saeed Copyright © 2016 A. A. Mustafa et al. All rights reserved. An Audit of the Medical Students’ Perceptions regarding Objective Structured Clinical Examination Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:19:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/4806398/ Objective. To record the perceptions of the final year MBBS students of Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar regarding Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) conducted in the year 2016. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted in April 2016 which is in fact a reaudit of our similar survey done back in 2015. A total of 250 final year MBBS students participated by filling in a validated and pretested questionnaire already used by Russel et al. and Khan et al. in similar but separate studies including questions regarding exam content, quality of performance, OSCE validity and reliability, and so forth. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The study group comprised 160 (64%) males and 90 (36%) females. 220 (88%) stated that exam was fair and comprehensive; 94% believed OSCE was more stressful and mentally tougher. 96% of the students considered OSCE as valid and reliable and 87% were happy with its use in clinical competence assessment. Conclusion. Majority of students declared their final year OSCE as fair, comprehensive, standardized, less biased, and reliable format of examination but believed it was more stressful and mentally tougher than traditional examination methods. Abidullah Khan, Maimoona Ayub, and Zakir Shah Copyright © 2016 Abidullah Khan et al. All rights reserved. Examining Factor Structure of the Chinese Version of the PIRLS 2011 Home Questionnaire Mon, 18 Jul 2016 13:27:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/7574107/ The home questionnaire of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS-HQ 2011) was designed to gather information from parents or primary caregivers of fourth-grade pupils on their reading literacy development related to aspects of pupils’ home lives across countries/districts. The questionnaire was translated into different languages for international comparison and research purposes. This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the PIRLS 2011 home questionnaire (PIRLS-HQCV 2011) and identify the underlying factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) among Chinese fourth-grade pupils in Hong Kong. A 7-factor structure model has been identified by EFA and confirmed to resemble much to the original PIRLS structure by CFA. Additional conceptually important domains have been identified which add further insights into the inconclusive results in the literature regarding the relationship between home factors and reading achievement. Implications for further studies are discussed. Wai Ming Cheung, Joseph W. I. Lam, Doreen W. H. Au, Hector W. H. Tsang, and Stephanie W. Y. Chan Copyright © 2016 Wai Ming Cheung et al. All rights reserved. What Is Known about Elementary Grades Mathematical Modelling Tue, 28 Jun 2016 09:51:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/5240683/ Mathematical modelling has often been emphasized at the secondary level, but more research is needed at the elementary level. This paper serves to summarize what is known about elementary mathematical modelling to guide future research. A targeted and general literature search was conducted and studies were summarized based on five categories: content of mathematical modelling intervention, assessment data collected, unit of analysis studied, population, and effectiveness. It was found that there were three main units of analysis into which the studies could be categorized: representational and conceptual competence, models created, and student beliefs. The main findings from each of these units of analysis are discussed along with future research that is needed. Micah S. Stohlmann and Lluís Albarracín Copyright © 2016 Micah S. Stohlmann and Lluís Albarracín. All rights reserved. Flipping a Dental Anatomy Course: A Retrospective Study Over Four Years Thu, 23 Jun 2016 05:51:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/7097398/ Flipped classrooms have been successfully used to increase student engagement and support student learning in a range of educational fields, including health education. These advantages for student learning supported implementation of the flipped classroom in introductory sciences and preclinical courses in dental education. We report on a 4-year retrospective study which compared two methods of delivery of a first-year dental anatomy course. The first method used the traditional method, consisting of face to face contact teaching hours, which was compared to a partial flipped classroom, where lecture contact was maintained but practical classes were flipped. A series of online videos demonstrating different practical tasks such as wax carving and tooth identification. An online digital library and online quizzes for self-reflected learning were developed and trialled. Students’ Evaluations of Course (SEC) and students’ overall performance in practical and theoretical assessments were used to evaluate the impact on student engagement and success, respectively, after implementation of the modified course offerings. This study evidences the success of the transition to a partially flipped course design. Careful design and consideration of implementation of the flipped classroom method in dental education are recommended to ensure that there is reliable availability of online resources and dedicated teaching staff for construction of resources and delivery of relevant in-class activities. Mahmoud M. Bakr, Ward L. Massey, and Helen M. Massa Copyright © 2016 Mahmoud M. Bakr et al. All rights reserved. Digital Cadavers: Online 2D Learning Resources Enhance Student Learning in Practical Head and Neck Anatomy within Dental Programs Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:18:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/8506251/ Head and neck anatomy provides core concepts within preclinical dental curricula. Increased student numbers, reduced curricula time, and restricted access to laboratory-based human resources have increased technology enhanced learning approaches to support student learning. Potential advantages include cost-effectiveness, off-campus access, and self-directed review or mastery opportunities for students. This study investigated successful student learning within a first-year head and neck anatomy course at the School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Australia, taught by the same teaching team, between 2010 and 2015. Student learning success was compared, for cohorts before and after implementation of a supplementary, purpose-designed online digital library and quiz bank. Success of these online resources was confirmed using overall students’ performance within the course assessment tasks and Student Evaluation of Course surveys and online access data. Engagement with these supplementary 2D online resources, targeted at improving laboratory study, was positively evaluated by students (mean 85%) and significantly increased their laboratory grades (mean difference 6%, ), despite being assessed using cadaveric resources. Written assessments in final exams were not significantly improved. Expanded use of supplementary online resources is planned to support student learning and success in head and neck anatomy, given the success of this intervention. Mahmoud M. Bakr, Ward L. Massey, and Helen M. Massa Copyright © 2016 Mahmoud M. Bakr et al. All rights reserved. A Cross-National Study of Students’ Understanding of Genetics Concepts: Implications from Similarities and Differences in England and Turkey Wed, 06 Apr 2016 13:41:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/6539626/ This research is aimed at exploring 16- to 19-year-old students’ understanding of fundamental genetics concepts, which has considerable importance for developing conceptual understanding of genetics related phenomena. A cross-national descriptive research method was used to explore English and Turkish students’ understandings of genetics concepts. Data were collected by a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument, The Two-Tier Genetics Concept Test, which required students to justify their choice of option by giving a reason. The results indicate that there are some differences between the English students’ and Turkish students’ understanding of fundamental concepts of genetics; however, there are some notable similarities between the alternative conceptions held by students in the two samples. The common alternative conceptions seen in both of the groups indicate that understanding the concepts occurred regardless of contextual factors. Nevertheless different proportions of the common alternative conceptions and different levels of understanding suggest that conceptualisations develop under the influence of different educational contexts. Didem Kılıç, Keith S. Taber, and Mark Winterbottom Copyright © 2016 Didem Kılıç et al. All rights reserved. Factors That Promote/Inhibit Teaching Gifted Students in a Regular Class: Results from a Professional Development Program for Chemistry Teachers Thu, 14 Jan 2016 14:16:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2016/2742905/ The current study aims at better understanding the factors that promote and hinder chemistry teachers in teaching a gifted student in their regular chemistry class. In addition, it provides evidence of ways that teachers perceive a professional development course dealing with a gifted student in a mixed-abilities science classroom. Eighty-four photonarratives were collected from 14 chemistry teachers that participated in the course about teaching a gifted student in a regular classroom (41 promoting, 43 hindering factors). Factors that concern chemistry education specifically as well as general practices were raised by the teachers. The teachers were asked to “take a picture” (namely, of an external object or person); they considered most of the factors to be internal factors that are dependent on themselves and therefore concluded that they have the power to influence them. The internal factors can be addressed in the PD course; however the external factors should be managed by the school principal and district educational administration. Naama Benny and Ron Blonder Copyright © 2016 Naama Benny and Ron Blonder. All rights reserved. Self-Efficacy, Learner Satisfaction, and Associated Factors of Simulation Based Education among Midwifery Students: A Cross-Sectional Study Tue, 22 Dec 2015 07:36:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/346182/ Introduction. Midwifery training needs intensive skill practice. Simulation based teaching is found to be a good alternative to fill skill teaching gaps and to safeguard human patients. Objective. To assess self-efficacy, learner satisfaction, and associated factors of simulation based education among Midwifery students in Gondar University, 2015. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among Midwifery students. A total of 144 students participated in the study. SPSS version 20 statistical software was used for analysis. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis were done to assess associations of explanatory variables with outcome variables. Finally the strength of association was determined by adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and value < 0.05. Result. In this study the proportion of satisfaction and confidence in simulation learning was 54.2% and 50.7% among participants, respectively. Students who perceived instructors’ assistance during skill practice as “good” showed statistically significant satisfaction, while those students who were satisfied and perceived instructors’ assistance as “good” showed statistically significant confidence during skill practice. Conclusion and Recommendation. levels of satisfaction and self-efficacy of simulation based teaching among Midwifery students are low. Designing a mechanism to improve instructors’ assistance at simulation based teaching is recommended. Temesgen Worku Gudayu, Marta Berta Badi, and Mengstu Melkamu Asaye Copyright © 2015 Temesgen Worku Gudayu et al. All rights reserved. Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of Factors Leading to Poor Clinical Skill Development in Medical Education: A Descriptive Study Tue, 10 Nov 2015 12:28:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/124602/ Background. Our study was taken up to explore the possible factors influencing poor performance of undergraduate students in clinical skill demonstration. Aims. Identification of factors leading to poor clinical skill development in undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design. This is an observational study. Methods and Material. The study population comprised the undergraduate students and teachers of the Department of Medicine. All were provided with structured questionnaires who responded anonymously which were then interpreted with the help of software statistical calculator. Results. Of the 145 students, only 57 (39.3%) actually attended medicine ward. The major factors that the students reported were large groups of students around a patient (94.74%  ± 4.67), inadequacy of information in books of clinical medicine (78.9%  ± 8.53), overcrowded unclean wards (73.7%  ± 9.2), lack of practice of clinical methods at home (50.8%  ± 10.4), and timing of classes (42.1%  ± 10.3). Teachers cited poor attendance of students to wards (76.2%  ± 17.1), poor condition of wards and lack of separate enclosures to teach (100%), and large groups around a single patient (66.67%  ± 17.9). Conclusions. Absenteeism of students, overcrowding of wards, and lack of uniformity of study materials were prime factors. Chatterjee Nandini, Das Suvajit, Mukhopadhyay Kaushik, and Chatterjee Chandan Copyright © 2015 Chatterjee Nandini et al. All rights reserved. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon Mon, 19 Oct 2015 12:32:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/439345/ This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools. Asan Vernyuy Wirba Copyright © 2015 Asan Vernyuy Wirba. All rights reserved. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Lessons Learned from Intervention Studies Thu, 13 Aug 2015 09:49:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/790417/ Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is generally accepted as positively impacting teaching quality and student learning. Therefore, research on PCK development in (prospective) teachers is highly relevant. Based on a search in three databases (ERIC, PsycInfo, and Web of Science), a systematic review is conducted on intervention studies aiming at PCK development. The research questions are threefold: (1) How are the studies designed? (2) How are the interventions designed? and (3) What elements of interventions contribute to PCK development? The results show that most intervention studies are conducted in math and science education and use a qualitative methodology. Reflection, PCK courses, contact with other teachers, and experiences in educational practice are typically part of effective interventions. The review enables the identification of clear guidelines that may strengthen future research on stimulating PCK. Marie Evens, Jan Elen, and Fien Depaepe Copyright © 2015 Marie Evens et al. All rights reserved. Motives of Masters for the Teaching Profession: Development of the MMTP Questionnaire Thu, 09 Jul 2015 08:58:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/318734/ Increasing teacher shortages provide incentives for conducting research into the motives of future teachers aspiring to work in education. The present study builds on previous research into motivation for entering the teaching profession. Given the shortage of studies carried out with direct empirical foundations, multiphase factor analyses, and large respondent groups, the present research focuses on developing the questionnaire Motives of Masters for the Teaching Profession (MMTP) while meeting these methodological criteria. Master’s students described their motivations for entering the teaching profession. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out in order to confirm the factor structure produced by the exploratory factor analysis . On the basis of content and statistical arguments, a 7-factor solution was obtained and a 35-item questionnaire was produced. Future cross-contextual research on the MMTP should attempt to improve the generalizability of the questionnaire. Wil Meeus, Marlies Baeten, and Liesje Coertjens Copyright © 2015 Wil Meeus et al. All rights reserved. The Correlation Study of Interest at Physics and Knowledge of Mathematics Basic Concepts towards the Ability to Solve Physics Problems of 7th Grade Students at Junior High School in Ambon Maluku Province, Indonesia Tue, 07 Apr 2015 12:50:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/396750/ The purpose of the study is to determine the relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with the ability to solve Physics problems. The populations are all students in the 7th grade at the junior high school in Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia. The used sample schools are Junior High Schools 8, 9, and 10 during 2013/2014 academic year with 44 students per school. Two independent variables and one dependent variable are studied. The independent variables are the interest at Physics (X1) and the knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts (X2), while the dependent variable is the ability to solve Physics problems (Y). Data collection technique for X1 is an interview with questionnaire instrument, while for the X2 and Y is using the test technique with test items instrument. The obtained data from the measurements were analyzed with descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The results show that there is a positive relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with students’ ability to solve Physics problems. Izaak Hendrik Wenno Copyright © 2015 Izaak Hendrik Wenno. All rights reserved. Korean-Origin Kindergarten Children’s Response to African-American Characters in Race-Themed Picture Books Mon, 06 Apr 2015 08:53:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/986342/ In spite of the contributions of previous studies about multicultural education, children’s literature, and teaching for social justice, no study had investigated their intersection. This qualitative case study explores how kindergarten-age Korean children respond to African-American characters in picture books during read-alouds. The data were collected by audio-recordings, open-ended interviews, children’s artifacts, and observational field notes. One of the findings was that the children exhibited resistance to black characters, and their resistance was shaped within their larger social and cultural surroundings such as the parents’ racial views towards black people and the dominant racial discourse of Korean community. Findings suggest that the goal of a literacy program in bilingual children’s classrooms has to be that students learn not only about biliteracy skills but also about the value and meaning of the human experience in our pluralistic society. So Jung Kim Copyright © 2015 So Jung Kim. All rights reserved. Patterns, Consequences, and Possible Causes of Dropout in Upper Secondary Education in Mexico Wed, 18 Mar 2015 08:55:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/676472/ The present study provides a detailed analysis of upper secondary education dropout patterns in Mexico, exploring its consequences and possible causes. To perform the analysis we combine different databases and statistical methods ranging from the use of surveys with information on specific individuals to data aggregated at the municipal and state level. The main value added is the simultaneous analysis of the influence of individual-family, community, and macroaggregate factors, on school dropout in the country. Raja Bentaouet Kattan and Miguel Székely Copyright © 2015 Raja Bentaouet Kattan and Miguel Székely. All rights reserved. Developing an Algorithm Learning Tool for High School Introductory Computer Science Sun, 15 Mar 2015 14:16:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/840217/ This paper presents the initial stage of developing an algorithm learning tool for the students of the Information Systems course at Tokyo Tech High School of Science and Technology in Japan. The tool applies the concept of Algorithm Visualization (AV) technology and was used as an aid for learning basic algorithms such as searching and sorting. Two AV types were included in the tool, one with more input options and control and the other with less. Previously proposed AV evaluation properties and the Categories of Algorithm Learning Objectives (CALO) were considered in designing the tool’s evaluation questionnaire. Written tests based on CALO were also designed. Posttest results indicate moderate improvement in the performance of the students. Test results also show that student abilities match some of the algorithm learning objectives. The students who used the AV with more options have a slightly higher gain score average in the posttest compared with those who used the AV with limited control. Overall assessment indicates a positive evaluation of the tool and signifies the students’ preferred AV characteristics. After factor analysis of the evaluation questionnaire, three factors were extracted which correspond to the suggested AV evaluation properties. These results may be used in improving the learning tool and the evaluation questionnaire. Aimee Theresa Avancena, Akinori Nishihara, and Chika Kondo Copyright © 2015 Aimee Theresa Avancena et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Mathmatics Courses in the Assessment Process of Engineering ABET-Outcomes Mon, 02 Mar 2015 10:59:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/735325/ This paper deals with the mathematics courses offered to the engineering students at the United Arab Emirates University (UAEU). The paper focuses essentially on the level of achievement by the students of the outcomes of the mathematics and how this reflects on the satisfaction of the engineering ABET-outcomes. Mapping between the course outcomes of the different math courses offered at UAEU to engineering students and the engineering ABET criteria ((a)–(k)) was made. It is found that most of the ABET-outcomes are to a great extent in-line with the outcomes of our mathematics courses. This encourages us to use the achievement of the courses outcomes as an assessment tool for the engineering ABET-outcomes. We considered both direct and indirect assessment tools to assess the level of satisfaction of the math courses outcomes. The performances of the students according to both methods are then used to assess the achievements of the ABET-outcomes. The results generally show very good level of achievement of the outcomes, although few ABET-outcomes were not achieved well according to our performance criteria. Accordingly, we provide some comments and recommendations aiming at the improvement of the program. Salah-Addin B. Al-Omari, Qasem M. Al-Mdallal, Youssef El-Khatib, and Basim Abu-Jdayil Copyright © 2015 Salah-Addin B. Al-Omari et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Primary School Teacher and Student Attitudes towards Science and Technology Mon, 23 Feb 2015 16:33:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/534690/ This study focuses on the effects of teachers’ attitudes towards teaching about science and technology on student attitudes towards science and technology. A one-year longitudinal study involving 91 teachers and 1822 students from the higher years of Dutch primary schools showed that students develop less positive attitudes towards science and technology during their primary school years and that girls showed less positive attitudes than boys. Female teachers showed less positive attitudes towards teaching about science and technology than male teachers. Girls appeared to be susceptible of their teacher’s attitudes and especially developed less positive attitudes when their female teacher showed less enthusiasm for teaching science and technology. Implications for teacher education and teacher recruitment are discussed. Eddie Denessen, Nienke Vos, Fred Hasselman, and Monika Louws Copyright © 2015 Eddie Denessen et al. All rights reserved. International Student’s Challenge and Adjustment to College Mon, 23 Feb 2015 08:06:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/202753/ International students’ enrollment in higher education in the US has expanded considerably in the last decades. In this study, international students’ experiences were examined in academic and sociocultural settings. Through qualitative interviews, the findings revealed that international students deal with academic challenges, social isolation, and cultural adjustment. Specifically, academic challenges included communication with professors, classmates, and staff. Consequently, they have to deal with social isolation when engaging in different group activities. Culturally, they need to confront the different ways of thinking and doing in the US. In order to overcome these challenges, students have adopted resources that mainly are derived from the university to overcome these challenges. Thus, as demonstrated in this study, having a better understanding of these students’ academic challenges, university faculty and staff can recognize students’ needs and effectively offer supportive campus resources and services. The university needs to be prepared to meet students not only academically but also socially and culturally. This study also suggests that some preparations need to be made by the university that will embrace international students upon their arrival. Hsiao-ping Wu, Esther Garza, and Norma Guzman Copyright © 2015 Hsiao-ping Wu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Students’ Effort Scores in a Structured Inquiry Unit on Long-Term Recall Abilities of Content Knowledge Wed, 18 Feb 2015 06:20:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/826734/ The influence of students’ investment and perception during participation in structured inquiry-based learning on their long-term retention was analyzed to gain more insights into the underlying reasons for long-term retention through structured inquiry learning. Therefore achievement was correlated to effort, lesson rating and perceived competence for learning (PCL), and subject grades. 126 ninth graders participating in a structured inquiry-based interdisciplinary Biology and Physics module were analyzed. Students’ knowledge was even measured four times: 2 weeks before, directly after, and six and 12 weeks after module participation. Effort, usefulness, and PCL were observed once, directly after module participation. The invested effort during the lesson correlated positively with the knowledge score measured six weeks and twelve weeks after the lesson. Thus, high effort individuals achieved high knowledge scores at the medium and the long-term measurement. Therefore, effort is a variable that seems to be linked to long-term achievement. Furthermore, Biology and Physics grades reflected individual abilities to acquire long-term knowledge, while a high preknowledge level did not. This result indicates learning strategies as possible core concept underlying individual achievement levels. Sarah Schmid and Franz X. Bogner Copyright © 2015 Sarah Schmid and Franz X. Bogner. All rights reserved. South Korean Teachers’ Perceptions of Integrating Information and Communication Technologies into Literacy Instruction Mon, 02 Feb 2015 08:46:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/783593/ We investigated South Korean literacy and language arts teachers’ perceptions about integrating interactive communication technologies (ICTs) into instruction. The survey addressed their access to various applications and technologies associated with ICTs, access to technological support, frequency and importance of use, and obstacles to and conceptions of integrating ICTs. Descriptive and correlational data are reported suggesting that although classroom use of ICTs is mandated at the national level, South Korean teachers perceive access to some tools and applications, as well as the availability of technical assistance at both the school and district level, to be limited. We compare data from this study to our findings from a similar study conducted in the USA and discuss what the findings reveal about integration of ICTs into literacy instruction in South Korea. The implications for education policy in South Korea and for continued research to clarify findings across national and cultural boundaries are discussed. For example, despite reporting greater impact of obstacles and less technical support than their US counterparts, South Korean teachers reported using ICTs more frequently than teachers from the USA. Sangho Pang, David Reinking, Amy Hutchison, and Deanna Ramey Copyright © 2015 Sangho Pang et al. All rights reserved. A Study on the Relationship between English Reading Comprehension and English Vocabulary Knowledge Wed, 28 Jan 2015 09:33:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/209154/ The present study aimed to investigate the overall and relative contribution of four subcomponents of vocabulary knowledge to reading comprehension. The four vocabulary subcomponents were vocabulary size, word association knowledge, collocation knowledge, and morphological knowledge. The participants were 124 college students from a university in Taipei, Taiwan. Six instruments were employed: (1) a reading comprehension test, (2) a vocabulary size test, (3) a test on word association knowledge and collocation knowledge, (4) a test of morphological knowledge, (5) motivation attitude scale, and (6) a self-efficacy scale. The results can be summarized as follows. First, after the effects of motivation and self-efficacy have been controlled, the four vocabulary subcomponents altogether contributed significantly (20%) to reading comprehension performance. Moreover, depth of vocabulary knowledge (including word association knowledge, collocation knowledge, and morphological knowledge) provided an additional explained variance (6%) in reading comprehension performance over and above vocabulary size. Finally, among the three subcomponents of depth of vocabulary knowledge, collocation knowledge explained the most proportion of variance (5.6%) in contributing to performance on reading comprehension. Based on these findings, some implications and suggestions for future research were provided. Yu-han Ma and Wen-ying Lin Copyright © 2015 Yu-han Ma and Wen-ying Lin. All rights reserved. A Survey on the Permanence of Finnish Students’ Arithmetical Skills and the Role of Motivation Mon, 26 Jan 2015 06:52:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/213429/ This study concerns the permanence of the basic arithmetical skills of Finnish students by investigating how a group () of the eighth and eleventh year students and the university students of humanities perform in problems that are slightly modified versions of certain PISA 2003 mathematics test items. The investigation also aimed at finding out what the impact of motivation-related constructs, for example, students’ achievement goal orientations, is and what their perceived competence beliefs and task value on their performance in mathematics are. According to our findings, the younger students’ arithmetical skills have declined through the course of ten years but the older students’ skills have become generic to a greater extent. Further, three motivational clusters could be identified accounting for 7.5 per cent of students’ performance in the given assignments. These results are compatible with the outcomes of the recent assessments of the Finnish students’ mathematical skills and support the previous research on the benefits of learning orientation combined with the high expectation of success and the valuing of mathematics learning. Timo Tossavainen, Pertti Väisänen, Jorma K. Merikoski, Tuija Lukin, and Hannele Suomalainen Copyright © 2015 Timo Tossavainen et al. All rights reserved. Increasing Trends in Orthopedic Fellowships Are Not due to Inadequate Residency Training Tue, 20 Jan 2015 08:56:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/edri/2015/191470/ Orthopedic residents have one of the highest fellowship participation rates among medical specialities and there are growing concerns that inadequate residency training may be contributing to this trend. Therefore, a mixed-exploratory research survey was distributed to all 148 graduating Canadian orthopedic residents to investigate their perceptions and attitudes for pursuing fellowships. A response rate of 33% () was obtained with the majority of residents undertaking one (27%) or two (60%) fellowships. Surgical-skill development was reported as the most common motivating factor, followed by employment and marketability; malpractice protection and financial reasons were the least relevant. The overwhelming majority of residents (94%, ) felt adequately prepared by their residency training for independent general practice, and 84% () of respondents did not feel that current fellowship trends were due to poor residency training. Three common themes were expressed in their comments: the growing perceived expectation by healthcare professionals and employers to be fellowship-certified, the integration of fellowship training into the surgical education hierarchy, and the failure of residency training curriculums to accommodate for this trend. In conclusion, Canadian orthopedic residents are confident of their residency training and are increasingly pursuing fellowships to primarily develop their surgical skills and expertise. K. A. Almansoori and M. Clark Copyright © 2015 K. A. Almansoori and M. Clark. All rights reserved.