Education Research International The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Determinants of Secondary School Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Tanzania Wed, 01 Feb 2017 07:26:51 +0000 This study examined teachers’ job satisfaction in Tanzania. It addressed one research question: what factors determine secondary school teachers’ job satisfaction? The study was conducted in eight secondary schools in two regions of Tanzania. It used focus group discussion as the data collection tool. Results show that teachers were satisfied by both monetary and nonmonetary incentives such as community support. They were pleased with fair remuneration packages that related to their labour input, opportunities for career development, a well-defined individual appraisal system, timely promotion, and requisite workplace conditions. The study also showed that teachers’ friendship and cooperation with coworkers and students as well as the respect of community members also enhanced their satisfaction in teaching. Also important to their satisfaction is their students’ success in and after school, which reveals the teachers’ sense of duty and responsibility. Teachers’ job dissatisfaction can lead to their search for other means to gain economically. It is recommended that care should be given to address teachers’ pertinent issues, especially salaries, workplace conditions, and timely promotion, to enhance teachers’ physical and mental attachment to their workplaces. Gilman Jackson Nyamubi Copyright © 2017 Gilman Jackson Nyamubi. All rights reserved. What Is Driving Gender Equality in Secondary Education? Evidence from 57 Developing Countries, 1970–2010 Tue, 27 Dec 2016 07:58:54 +0000 Despite global efforts to expand educational opportunities for women, gender inequalities persist in many developing countries. Addressing the root causes of gender inequalities in secondary education we ask whether such disparities persist because of low state capacity or low willingness. Based on gender- and age-specific educational attainment data for 57 developing countries in 1970–2010, our analysis indicates that willingness factors are central to understanding gender equality in education: ethnically heterogeneous countries and countries where Islam is the primary religion experience lower levels of equality. However, key capacity factors like a country’s income level are unrelated to gender differences in education. Gudrun Østby, Henrik Urdal, and Ida Rudolfsen Copyright © 2016 Gudrun Østby et al. All rights reserved. Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Guided Lesson Study: Effects on Teacher Competence and Students’ Achievement in Chemistry Tue, 29 Nov 2016 14:08:00 +0000 This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of Pedagogical Content Knowledge-Guided Lesson Study (PCKLS) as an intervention to develop PCK competencies among teachers and consequently enhance student achievement in terms of conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Using quasi-experimental design, teacher competencies and student achievement in the PCKLS group and the conventional group were compared. In the PCKLS group, the intervention involved planning the lesson by the research team, teaching the planned lesson while PCK observations were made by the researcher and another teacher from the group, including a feedback meeting, implementing the improvements in the reteach stage of the lesson study cycle by another teacher from the research team, and, finally, revising lesson plans based on the consolidated suggestions for improvement. Analyses of data showed that there was a significant difference in the science teacher competencies of the PCKLS group teacher respondents compared to those of the conventional group. Also, student respondents showed a significant increase on mean scores in terms of conceptual understanding and problem-solving skills. Therefore, it was concluded that PCKLS was an effective method to develop the teachers’ PCK competencies and student achievement in terms of conceptual understanding and problem solving. This study recommends that this intervention be used across chemistry topics and in other science classes such as Biology, Earth and Environmental Science, Physics, and Mathematics. John Lou S. Lucenario, Rosanelia T. Yangco, Amelia E. Punzalan, and Allen A. Espinosa Copyright © 2016 John Lou S. Lucenario et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Emotional Intelligence Levels of Students Receiving Education in Different Fields Tue, 29 Nov 2016 12:46:53 +0000 Aim. This descriptive study was conducted to determine and compare the emotional intelligence levels of senior students receiving education in different fields of Ataturk University. Methods. The population of the study consisted of senior students receiving education in different fields of Atatürk University. The sample group of study consisted of 305 senior students receiving education in different fields (health, social, and natural) and they were selected by using the simple random sampling method. Three faculties from three different fields were selected. Data of the study were obtained by using the personal information form, which was prepared by researchers in the light of the literature and involved sociodemographic characteristics and the “Emotional Intelligence Evaluation Scale.” Results. It was determined that while natural science students had the lowest total mean score of emotional intelligence scale, students of social sciences had the highest total mean score according to departments. Examining the difference between the mean scores of three different educational fields, it was determined that this difference was statistically significant. Conclusion. Consequently, the emotional intelligence level was determined to be lower in natural science students and moderate in students of health and social sciences. Zeynep Karaman Özlü, Gülçin Avşar, Kübra Gökalp, Serap Ejder Apay, Özlem Şahın Altun, and Afife Yurttaş Copyright © 2016 Zeynep Karaman Özlü et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Time Perspective, Motivation, Attitude, and Preparation in Educational Choice and Study Progress Thu, 24 Nov 2016 15:42:07 +0000 The present study examined the relation between study progress in the first year of education and different aspects of the process of study choice of 89 students of higher professional education. This study consists of three parts. Firstly, we explored which concepts are important in open interviews concerning choice of study and study progress. Secondly, we examined the relations between future time perspective and motivation on the one hand and study success on the other hand. Students who focus on the here and now generally continued their studies while students focusing on the future and the ulterior profession, presenting an extended future time perspective, drop out more frequently. Intrinsic motivation is strongly related to positive study progress, and extrinsic controlled motivation is strongly related to dropout. Extrinsic autonomous motivation is in between. Furthermore, students’ attitudes towards their future studies were examined in relation to their study progress. The results show that students with an attitude characterized by doubt have the highest risk to drop out. Finally, comparing different orientation programs, we show that students who prepare themselves more intensively before making their choice show less dropout. Jeany Slijper, E. Saskia Kunnen, Jeroen Onstenk, and Paul van Geert Copyright © 2016 Jeany Slijper et al. All rights reserved. Patients’ Perception toward Medical Students’ Involvement in Their Surgical Care: Single Center Study Wed, 23 Nov 2016 09:59:04 +0000 Objectives. To investigate patients’ perception regarding medical students’ role in the operating theatre. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a randomly selected sample at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Results. 131 participated in this study. 77 of the participants were females and 50 participants were males. 46.4% think that it was important for the future doctors to be in theater during surgery. 60.2% thought that medical students only observed surgeons in the theatre and 39% thought that medical students performed minor procedures in the theatre. Conclusion. Patients underestimated the importance of medical students’ attendance and involvement in theatre compared to bedside teaching and outpatient clinics. Patients believed that medical students should obtain their consent prior to observing them in the theatre. Talal Al-Khatib, Sanaa Bin Othman, and Basem El-Deek Copyright © 2016 Talal Al-Khatib et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Individualized Instruction System on the Academic Achievement Scores of Students Thu, 03 Nov 2016 14:03:47 +0000 A web-based learning portal offering individualized learning was developed by utilizing rule-based knowledge representation and artificial intelligence techniques of expert systems in order to reduce the uncertainties of learning to minimum and to construct an intelligent tutoring system. This portal offers individualized learning content based on the individual’s level of cognitive knowledge. In order to determine the effects of the developed system on the student achievement, the system was tested in an 8-week-long study on the students of Software Engineering Department of Technology Faculty. The pretest-posttest control group experimental design was used in the study. The experimental group received education with Individualized Instruction Portal while the control group received education in traditional learning environment. Academic achievement test was used as the data collection tool. In order to test the research hypotheses, data obtained from the data collection tools were analysed in terms of frequency, percentages, and dependent-independent -test with statistical software program. Based on the results, no significant differences were found between the groups in terms of the pretest. On the other hand, significant differences were found between experimental and control group in terms of the posttest. It was concluded that individualized learning portal had positive effect on the students’ learning when used in combination with traditional learning environment. Ferhat Bahçeci and Mehmet Gürol Copyright © 2016 Ferhat Bahçeci and Mehmet Gürol. All rights reserved. Demystifying the Effect of Narrow Reading on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Recall and Retention Wed, 19 Oct 2016 11:14:12 +0000 The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of narrow reading on English as foreign language (EFL) learners’ vocabulary recall and retention. To this end, 60 senior high school students studying at Tarbiyat High School in Mahshahr, Iran, were selected from four intact classes. The participants were then divided into two equal groups, experimental and control. Ten words which were unknown to the participants were selected as target words. The experimental group received thematically related passages while the control group was given reading passages of different topics. The immediate posttest was given to the participants two days after the treatment. Afterwards, two delayed posttests were administered with two week intervals. The scores were analyzed through two-way repeated measures ANOVA, Bonferroni pairwise comparisons, and independent samples -tests. The results revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group in all posttests. The implications arising from the findings and suggestions for future research were explained. Marziyeh Abdollahi and Mohammad Taghi Farvardin Copyright © 2016 Marziyeh Abdollahi and Mohammad Taghi Farvardin. All rights reserved. Identification of the Most Commonly Used Laboratory Techniques in Regenerative Medicine: A Roadmap for Developing a Competency Based Education Curriculum Thu, 13 Oct 2016 08:39:52 +0000 Here, we are proposing and testing the use of literature reviews as a method to identify essential competencies for specific fields. This has implications in how educators develop and structure both traditional and competency based curricula. Our focus will be on utilizing this method to identify the most relevant and commonly used techniques in the field of regenerative medicine. This publication review method may be used to develop competency based education (CBE) programs that focus on commonly utilized skills. CBE is an emerging trend in higher education that will greatly enhance student learning experiences. CBE works by providing students with field specific skills and knowledge; thus, it is imperative for educators to identify the most essential competencies in a given field. Therefore, we reason that a literature review of the techniques performed in studies published in prevalent peer reviewed journals for a given field offers an ideal method to identify and rank competencies that should be delivered to students by a respective curriculum. Here, we reviewed recent articles published on topics in the field of regenerative medicine as a proof of concept for the use of literature reviews as a guide for the development of a regenerative medicine CBE curriculum. Stephen L. Rego, Cheryl Burrell, Melissa Nielsen, Tatjana Grove, Amritha Kidiyoor, Vatashea Flournoy, Cheri Silverman, Shawn Hill, Grady Beard, Dwaine Davis, Mehrdad Tajkarimi, Courtney Harrington, Janice Byrum, and Michael Ayers Copyright © 2016 Stephen L. Rego et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Positive Well-Being and Academic Assessment: Results from a Prospective Study on Dental Students Wed, 05 Oct 2016 08:47:13 +0000 Background. Presumably, the academic stress that builds throughout the academic year has a negative effect on dental students’ psychological well-being and may have a relationship with academic performance. This research aimed to analyse the variation of positive well-being in second-year dental students, across the academic semester, in relation to consecutive examinations as part of academic assessment system (1) and to observe the relationship between academic performance during semester evaluation period and dental students’ positive well-being (2). Methods. A prospective study was conducted on second-year dental students, data on positive well-being being collected with WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), at the beginning of the semester and after three consecutive mandatory examinations. Results. One hundred and forty-six dental students were included (77% response rate). Repeated ANOVA showed a significant progressive decline of positive well-being over the semester, which was clinically significant for an important part of them. Students who performed better in the semester evaluation period registered higher well-being levels at the beginning of the semester but a more pronounced decline of it until the semester evaluation period. Conclusion. Based on this research, a relationship between positive well-being, academic assessments, and academic performance is suggested, when evaluating them in a prospective frame. Cristina Teodora Preoteasa, Anca Axante, Anca Diana Cristea, and Elena Preoteasa Copyright © 2016 Cristina Teodora Preoteasa et al. All rights reserved. Suitability of the RIPLS and IEPS for Discriminating Attitude Differences towards Interprofessional Education among Students of Healthcare Profession Wed, 28 Sep 2016 14:04:11 +0000 Background. Interprofessional education provides students of healthcare programme an opportunity to collaborate with students from other disciplines and help them to get a training prior to entering the healthcare workforce. This study may help to select a suitable tool to discriminate attitude differences of healthcare professional students towards interprofessional education. Methods. A study, which was cross-sectional, was conducted at a private university in Malaysia to explore the two scales (RIPLS and IEPS) and their psychometric properties. Study participants comprised students from four different professions with at least one exposure or no previous exposure to IPE. Results. Both the scales (RIPLS and IEPS) have their own ability to detect differences in students’ attitude towards IPE in their own way. However, the IEPS scale was able to detect differences within the gender, professions (both junior and senior students), and prior exposure to IPE. Conclusions. This study revealed that though both scales can be used to follow the impact of IPE in curricula, IEPS scale is more suitable than RIPLS to discriminate attitude differences among healthcare students. Educators may develop various strategies to observe students’ behaviours and perceptions qualitatively and conduct longitudinal study to assess the outcomes of including IPE in curricula. Kingston Rajiah, Mari Kannan Maharajan, Suan Phaik Khoo, Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Ranjit De Alwis, Hui Cing Chui, Lui Lee Tan, Yee Ning Tan, and Shin Yee Lau Copyright © 2016 Kingston Rajiah et al. All rights reserved. How Environmental Attitudes Interact with Cognitive Learning in a Science Lesson Module Wed, 28 Sep 2016 13:38:13 +0000 As cognitive knowledge plays a major role in supporting proenvironmental behavior, identification of individual aspects related to knowledge acquisition is essential. Our study monitored knowledge levels before and after a science-based lesson set in relation to self-reported behavior and attitudinal preferences (attitudes towards environmental Preservation and Utilization) of 190 students (  ± SD: 15.96 ± 0.55; 51.1% female). A knowledge questionnaire was completed once before and twice after participation. Additionally, (i) the 2-MEV (two Major Environmental Values) and (ii) the GEB (General Ecological Behavior) were applied. Girls showed higher Preservation but lower Utilization attitudes than boys did. Learning success was positively related to Preservation preferences (for girls) as well as to behavior-based scores (for girls and boys). For boys, high preferences in Utilization were negatively correlated with learning achievement. Maximiliane F. Schumm and Franz X. Bogner Copyright © 2016 Maximiliane F. Schumm and Franz X. Bogner. All rights reserved. An International Reading Literacy Study: Factor Structure of the Chinese Version of the Student Questionnaire (PIRLS-SQCV 2011) Mon, 22 Aug 2016 09:12:03 +0000 The student questionnaire (PIRLS-SQ 2011) of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) was designed to gather information from pupils on reading literacy development as to aspects of pupils’ self-lives, home, and school lives across countries/districts. In order to serve the purposes of research and international comparison, the questionnaire was translated into various languages. Using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the current study investigates the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the student questionnaire (PIRLS-SQCV 2011) and identifies its underlying factor structure among Chinese fourth-grade pupils in Hong Kong. A 10-factor structure model was identified and much resemblance could be drawn to the original PIRLS structure. While the similarity allows international comparisons of studies in different places following the PIRLS strategy, the findings of this study add to extant literature on the relationship between student factors and reading achievement. Joseph W. I. Lam, W. M. Cheung, Doreen W. H. Au, Hector W. H. Tsang, Wendy W. Y. So, and Yue Zhu Copyright © 2016 Joseph W. I. Lam et al. All rights reserved. Anger Management among Medical Undergraduate Students and Its Impact on Their Mental Health and Curricular Activities Mon, 08 Aug 2016 13:35:43 +0000 Background. This study was intended to determine the practice of students in good anger management skills and to what extent their anger can affect their studies, work, and social interactions. In this study the relationship between anger management and the effects on the mental health of medical students was evaluated. A survey was also done to determine duration of the feeling of anger which lasts among medical students and its consequences. Materials and Methods. A newly developed questionnaire was utilized which included a simplified version of the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory and the modified Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (to measure the mental health). Results. The data suggests that although students with high anger tendencies display poor mental health, there is no lowering of the mental health/PHQ-9 score as the anger management technique’s effectiveness rises. “Friends” was cited as the major triggering factor for anger, whereby the feelings can last for up to a day and somewhat affect their concentration on normal activities. Conclusion. When anger is suppressed and not let out, it can be an underlying factor for anxiety and depression. Therefore, more emphasis needs to be placed on educating students on how to manage their anger especially in a stressful environment away from home. Gayathri S. Prabhu, Joanne Tam Min Yen, Jonas John Posko Amalaraj, Eugene Tan Yie Jone, and Naveen Kumar Copyright © 2016 Gayathri S. Prabhu et al. All rights reserved. Preferences of Dental Students towards Teaching Strategies in Two Major Dental Colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Mon, 08 Aug 2016 13:09:24 +0000 Objectives. To explore and compare undergraduate dental students’ views and preferences towards various teaching strategies. Methods. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 345 male and female undergraduate dental students from the two major dental schools in Riyadh (College of Dentistry, King Saud University [KSU], and Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy [RCsDP]). Students’ preferences for various components of the lecture courses were investigated. Descriptive and crosstab analyses were used to compare the students’ preferences for each school and between genders; the chi-square test was used to measure the significance level (). Results. The majority of students preferred having the lecture schedule announced in advance. Females preferred morning lectures, whereas male students preferred afternoon lectures. Nearly half of the students thought that attending lectures should be mandatory; most of them were from KSU. Most of the students reported preferring a PowerPoint presentation lecture. The students, particularly female students, also preferred to receive lecture handouts and study materials before the session and to have practical demonstrations after the lecture. Conclusion. Teachers should consider students’ opinions when constructing courses because this feedback would have a positive impact on the teaching environment and students’ performance. Eman M. AlHamdan, Huda I. Tulbah, Ghaida A. AlDuhayan, and Lamees S. AlBedaiwi Copyright © 2016 Eman M. AlHamdan et al. All rights reserved. Recall of Theoretical Pharmacology Knowledge by 6th Year Medical Students and Interns of Three Medical Schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Thu, 28 Jul 2016 12:21:59 +0000 The aim of this research is to provide some insights into the ability of the sixth year medical students and interns to recall theoretical knowledge of pharmacology. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students who graduated from three different medical schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to male and female students in 3 different colleges of medicine. The questionnaire included demographic information and ten multiple choice questions (MCQs) on basic pharmacology. Out of the 161 students, there were 39 females (24%) and 122 males (76%). A total of 36 (22%) students studied at a traditional learning school whereas 125 (78%) students studied at problem based learning (PBL) schools. The students were recruited from three universities: KSU, KSAU-HS, and KFMC-COM. In general, 31 students (19%) of the participants scored ≥ 7 out of 10, 77 students (48%) of them obtained a correct score of (4–6) out of 10, and 53 students (33%) scored less than 4. The study showed no statistically significant difference in recalling pharmacology between traditional school and problem based learning school except for those who prepared for exams. Results suggest that pharmacology is a difficult subject. Reevaluations are needed in the way of teaching pharmacology. A. A. Mustafa, H. A. Alassiry, A. Al-Turki, N. Alamri, N. A. Alhamdan, and Abdalla Saeed Copyright © 2016 A. A. Mustafa et al. All rights reserved. An Audit of the Medical Students’ Perceptions regarding Objective Structured Clinical Examination Mon, 25 Jul 2016 10:19:44 +0000 Objective. To record the perceptions of the final year MBBS students of Khyber Medical College (KMC) Peshawar regarding Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) conducted in the year 2016. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted in April 2016 which is in fact a reaudit of our similar survey done back in 2015. A total of 250 final year MBBS students participated by filling in a validated and pretested questionnaire already used by Russel et al. and Khan et al. in similar but separate studies including questions regarding exam content, quality of performance, OSCE validity and reliability, and so forth. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results. The study group comprised 160 (64%) males and 90 (36%) females. 220 (88%) stated that exam was fair and comprehensive; 94% believed OSCE was more stressful and mentally tougher. 96% of the students considered OSCE as valid and reliable and 87% were happy with its use in clinical competence assessment. Conclusion. Majority of students declared their final year OSCE as fair, comprehensive, standardized, less biased, and reliable format of examination but believed it was more stressful and mentally tougher than traditional examination methods. Abidullah Khan, Maimoona Ayub, and Zakir Shah Copyright © 2016 Abidullah Khan et al. All rights reserved. Examining Factor Structure of the Chinese Version of the PIRLS 2011 Home Questionnaire Mon, 18 Jul 2016 13:27:13 +0000 The home questionnaire of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS-HQ 2011) was designed to gather information from parents or primary caregivers of fourth-grade pupils on their reading literacy development related to aspects of pupils’ home lives across countries/districts. The questionnaire was translated into different languages for international comparison and research purposes. This study aims to assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the PIRLS 2011 home questionnaire (PIRLS-HQCV 2011) and identify the underlying factor structure using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) among Chinese fourth-grade pupils in Hong Kong. A 7-factor structure model has been identified by EFA and confirmed to resemble much to the original PIRLS structure by CFA. Additional conceptually important domains have been identified which add further insights into the inconclusive results in the literature regarding the relationship between home factors and reading achievement. Implications for further studies are discussed. Wai Ming Cheung, Joseph W. I. Lam, Doreen W. H. Au, Hector W. H. Tsang, and Stephanie W. Y. Chan Copyright © 2016 Wai Ming Cheung et al. All rights reserved. What Is Known about Elementary Grades Mathematical Modelling Tue, 28 Jun 2016 09:51:16 +0000 Mathematical modelling has often been emphasized at the secondary level, but more research is needed at the elementary level. This paper serves to summarize what is known about elementary mathematical modelling to guide future research. A targeted and general literature search was conducted and studies were summarized based on five categories: content of mathematical modelling intervention, assessment data collected, unit of analysis studied, population, and effectiveness. It was found that there were three main units of analysis into which the studies could be categorized: representational and conceptual competence, models created, and student beliefs. The main findings from each of these units of analysis are discussed along with future research that is needed. Micah S. Stohlmann and Lluís Albarracín Copyright © 2016 Micah S. Stohlmann and Lluís Albarracín. All rights reserved. Flipping a Dental Anatomy Course: A Retrospective Study Over Four Years Thu, 23 Jun 2016 05:51:21 +0000 Flipped classrooms have been successfully used to increase student engagement and support student learning in a range of educational fields, including health education. These advantages for student learning supported implementation of the flipped classroom in introductory sciences and preclinical courses in dental education. We report on a 4-year retrospective study which compared two methods of delivery of a first-year dental anatomy course. The first method used the traditional method, consisting of face to face contact teaching hours, which was compared to a partial flipped classroom, where lecture contact was maintained but practical classes were flipped. A series of online videos demonstrating different practical tasks such as wax carving and tooth identification. An online digital library and online quizzes for self-reflected learning were developed and trialled. Students’ Evaluations of Course (SEC) and students’ overall performance in practical and theoretical assessments were used to evaluate the impact on student engagement and success, respectively, after implementation of the modified course offerings. This study evidences the success of the transition to a partially flipped course design. Careful design and consideration of implementation of the flipped classroom method in dental education are recommended to ensure that there is reliable availability of online resources and dedicated teaching staff for construction of resources and delivery of relevant in-class activities. Mahmoud M. Bakr, Ward L. Massey, and Helen M. Massa Copyright © 2016 Mahmoud M. Bakr et al. All rights reserved. Digital Cadavers: Online 2D Learning Resources Enhance Student Learning in Practical Head and Neck Anatomy within Dental Programs Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:18:24 +0000 Head and neck anatomy provides core concepts within preclinical dental curricula. Increased student numbers, reduced curricula time, and restricted access to laboratory-based human resources have increased technology enhanced learning approaches to support student learning. Potential advantages include cost-effectiveness, off-campus access, and self-directed review or mastery opportunities for students. This study investigated successful student learning within a first-year head and neck anatomy course at the School of Dentistry and Oral Health, Griffith University, Australia, taught by the same teaching team, between 2010 and 2015. Student learning success was compared, for cohorts before and after implementation of a supplementary, purpose-designed online digital library and quiz bank. Success of these online resources was confirmed using overall students’ performance within the course assessment tasks and Student Evaluation of Course surveys and online access data. Engagement with these supplementary 2D online resources, targeted at improving laboratory study, was positively evaluated by students (mean 85%) and significantly increased their laboratory grades (mean difference 6%, ), despite being assessed using cadaveric resources. Written assessments in final exams were not significantly improved. Expanded use of supplementary online resources is planned to support student learning and success in head and neck anatomy, given the success of this intervention. Mahmoud M. Bakr, Ward L. Massey, and Helen M. Massa Copyright © 2016 Mahmoud M. Bakr et al. All rights reserved. A Cross-National Study of Students’ Understanding of Genetics Concepts: Implications from Similarities and Differences in England and Turkey Wed, 06 Apr 2016 13:41:51 +0000 This research is aimed at exploring 16- to 19-year-old students’ understanding of fundamental genetics concepts, which has considerable importance for developing conceptual understanding of genetics related phenomena. A cross-national descriptive research method was used to explore English and Turkish students’ understandings of genetics concepts. Data were collected by a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument, The Two-Tier Genetics Concept Test, which required students to justify their choice of option by giving a reason. The results indicate that there are some differences between the English students’ and Turkish students’ understanding of fundamental concepts of genetics; however, there are some notable similarities between the alternative conceptions held by students in the two samples. The common alternative conceptions seen in both of the groups indicate that understanding the concepts occurred regardless of contextual factors. Nevertheless different proportions of the common alternative conceptions and different levels of understanding suggest that conceptualisations develop under the influence of different educational contexts. Didem Kılıç, Keith S. Taber, and Mark Winterbottom Copyright © 2016 Didem Kılıç et al. All rights reserved. Factors That Promote/Inhibit Teaching Gifted Students in a Regular Class: Results from a Professional Development Program for Chemistry Teachers Thu, 14 Jan 2016 14:16:55 +0000 The current study aims at better understanding the factors that promote and hinder chemistry teachers in teaching a gifted student in their regular chemistry class. In addition, it provides evidence of ways that teachers perceive a professional development course dealing with a gifted student in a mixed-abilities science classroom. Eighty-four photonarratives were collected from 14 chemistry teachers that participated in the course about teaching a gifted student in a regular classroom (41 promoting, 43 hindering factors). Factors that concern chemistry education specifically as well as general practices were raised by the teachers. The teachers were asked to “take a picture” (namely, of an external object or person); they considered most of the factors to be internal factors that are dependent on themselves and therefore concluded that they have the power to influence them. The internal factors can be addressed in the PD course; however the external factors should be managed by the school principal and district educational administration. Naama Benny and Ron Blonder Copyright © 2016 Naama Benny and Ron Blonder. All rights reserved. Self-Efficacy, Learner Satisfaction, and Associated Factors of Simulation Based Education among Midwifery Students: A Cross-Sectional Study Tue, 22 Dec 2015 07:36:39 +0000 Introduction. Midwifery training needs intensive skill practice. Simulation based teaching is found to be a good alternative to fill skill teaching gaps and to safeguard human patients. Objective. To assess self-efficacy, learner satisfaction, and associated factors of simulation based education among Midwifery students in Gondar University, 2015. Methods. Cross-sectional study was conducted among Midwifery students. A total of 144 students participated in the study. SPSS version 20 statistical software was used for analysis. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis were done to assess associations of explanatory variables with outcome variables. Finally the strength of association was determined by adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and value < 0.05. Result. In this study the proportion of satisfaction and confidence in simulation learning was 54.2% and 50.7% among participants, respectively. Students who perceived instructors’ assistance during skill practice as “good” showed statistically significant satisfaction, while those students who were satisfied and perceived instructors’ assistance as “good” showed statistically significant confidence during skill practice. Conclusion and Recommendation. levels of satisfaction and self-efficacy of simulation based teaching among Midwifery students are low. Designing a mechanism to improve instructors’ assistance at simulation based teaching is recommended. Temesgen Worku Gudayu, Marta Berta Badi, and Mengstu Melkamu Asaye Copyright © 2015 Temesgen Worku Gudayu et al. All rights reserved. Students’ and Teachers’ Perceptions of Factors Leading to Poor Clinical Skill Development in Medical Education: A Descriptive Study Tue, 10 Nov 2015 12:28:18 +0000 Background. Our study was taken up to explore the possible factors influencing poor performance of undergraduate students in clinical skill demonstration. Aims. Identification of factors leading to poor clinical skill development in undergraduate medical students. Settings and Design. This is an observational study. Methods and Material. The study population comprised the undergraduate students and teachers of the Department of Medicine. All were provided with structured questionnaires who responded anonymously which were then interpreted with the help of software statistical calculator. Results. Of the 145 students, only 57 (39.3%) actually attended medicine ward. The major factors that the students reported were large groups of students around a patient (94.74%  ± 4.67), inadequacy of information in books of clinical medicine (78.9%  ± 8.53), overcrowded unclean wards (73.7%  ± 9.2), lack of practice of clinical methods at home (50.8%  ± 10.4), and timing of classes (42.1%  ± 10.3). Teachers cited poor attendance of students to wards (76.2%  ± 17.1), poor condition of wards and lack of separate enclosures to teach (100%), and large groups around a single patient (66.67%  ± 17.9). Conclusions. Absenteeism of students, overcrowding of wards, and lack of uniformity of study materials were prime factors. Chatterjee Nandini, Das Suvajit, Mukhopadhyay Kaushik, and Chatterjee Chandan Copyright © 2015 Chatterjee Nandini et al. All rights reserved. Leadership Style: School Perspective in Cameroon Mon, 19 Oct 2015 12:32:59 +0000 This paper examines leadership styles of secondary school principals in Cameroon, in terms of transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles. This paper discusses the leadership styles in Cameroon and puts forward ideas for continuous improvement. A qualitative approach, using a semistructured interview, was adopted. It was conducted on ten principals, ten teachers, and ten students. Majority of respondents from schools described their principals as transformational leaders. Doubts are cast on the nature of transformational leadership in schools in Cameroon, since there is less training and development for leadership in schools. Asan Vernyuy Wirba Copyright © 2015 Asan Vernyuy Wirba. All rights reserved. Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Lessons Learned from Intervention Studies Thu, 13 Aug 2015 09:49:43 +0000 Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is generally accepted as positively impacting teaching quality and student learning. Therefore, research on PCK development in (prospective) teachers is highly relevant. Based on a search in three databases (ERIC, PsycInfo, and Web of Science), a systematic review is conducted on intervention studies aiming at PCK development. The research questions are threefold: (1) How are the studies designed? (2) How are the interventions designed? and (3) What elements of interventions contribute to PCK development? The results show that most intervention studies are conducted in math and science education and use a qualitative methodology. Reflection, PCK courses, contact with other teachers, and experiences in educational practice are typically part of effective interventions. The review enables the identification of clear guidelines that may strengthen future research on stimulating PCK. Marie Evens, Jan Elen, and Fien Depaepe Copyright © 2015 Marie Evens et al. All rights reserved. Motives of Masters for the Teaching Profession: Development of the MMTP Questionnaire Thu, 09 Jul 2015 08:58:52 +0000 Increasing teacher shortages provide incentives for conducting research into the motives of future teachers aspiring to work in education. The present study builds on previous research into motivation for entering the teaching profession. Given the shortage of studies carried out with direct empirical foundations, multiphase factor analyses, and large respondent groups, the present research focuses on developing the questionnaire Motives of Masters for the Teaching Profession (MMTP) while meeting these methodological criteria. Master’s students described their motivations for entering the teaching profession. Confirmatory factor analysis was carried out in order to confirm the factor structure produced by the exploratory factor analysis . On the basis of content and statistical arguments, a 7-factor solution was obtained and a 35-item questionnaire was produced. Future cross-contextual research on the MMTP should attempt to improve the generalizability of the questionnaire. Wil Meeus, Marlies Baeten, and Liesje Coertjens Copyright © 2015 Wil Meeus et al. All rights reserved. The Correlation Study of Interest at Physics and Knowledge of Mathematics Basic Concepts towards the Ability to Solve Physics Problems of 7th Grade Students at Junior High School in Ambon Maluku Province, Indonesia Tue, 07 Apr 2015 12:50:32 +0000 The purpose of the study is to determine the relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with the ability to solve Physics problems. The populations are all students in the 7th grade at the junior high school in Ambon, Maluku, Indonesia. The used sample schools are Junior High Schools 8, 9, and 10 during 2013/2014 academic year with 44 students per school. Two independent variables and one dependent variable are studied. The independent variables are the interest at Physics (X1) and the knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts (X2), while the dependent variable is the ability to solve Physics problems (Y). Data collection technique for X1 is an interview with questionnaire instrument, while for the X2 and Y is using the test technique with test items instrument. The obtained data from the measurements were analyzed with descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. The results show that there is a positive relation between interest at Physics and knowledge of Mathematics basic concepts with students’ ability to solve Physics problems. Izaak Hendrik Wenno Copyright © 2015 Izaak Hendrik Wenno. All rights reserved. Korean-Origin Kindergarten Children’s Response to African-American Characters in Race-Themed Picture Books Mon, 06 Apr 2015 08:53:08 +0000 In spite of the contributions of previous studies about multicultural education, children’s literature, and teaching for social justice, no study had investigated their intersection. This qualitative case study explores how kindergarten-age Korean children respond to African-American characters in picture books during read-alouds. The data were collected by audio-recordings, open-ended interviews, children’s artifacts, and observational field notes. One of the findings was that the children exhibited resistance to black characters, and their resistance was shaped within their larger social and cultural surroundings such as the parents’ racial views towards black people and the dominant racial discourse of Korean community. Findings suggest that the goal of a literacy program in bilingual children’s classrooms has to be that students learn not only about biliteracy skills but also about the value and meaning of the human experience in our pluralistic society. So Jung Kim Copyright © 2015 So Jung Kim. All rights reserved.