Table 2: Laboratory and diagnostic testing considerations for the acute pediatric stroke patient.

Additional laboratory tests to considerAdditional tests to consider

Liver functionBrain MRI
CRP (i) Intracranial vessels
Pregnancy (ii) Extracranial great vessels (neck)
Lupus anticoagulantDiffusion weighted imaging (DWI)
Anticardiolipin antibodyCT angiogram
Beta-2 glycoprotein-1 antibody (i) Intracranial vessels
Activated protein C resistance (ii) Extracranial great vessels (neck)
Factor V Leiden mutationContrast transthoracic echo (TTE)
Protein S/C functionCerebral angiogram
Antithrombin IIIContrast transesophageal echo (TEE)
Prothrombin gene mutationElectroencephalogram (EEG)
Homocysteine levelLumbar puncture
Methyltetrahydrofolate reductase allele (MTHFR)Holter monitoring
Fibrinogen disorderTranscranial doppler
Plasminogen activator inhibitor disorder
Factor VII/VIII elevation
Factor XII deficiency
Plasma amino acids/urine amino and organic acids
Serum and CSF lactate/pyruvate
Hemoglobin electrophoresis
Lipoprotein (a)
Miscellaneous bacterial, fungal, spirochetal, parasitic,
viral, and rickettsial tests (i.e., Lyme, PPD, VDRL)
Serum and CSF varicella titers
HIV titers

Adapted from Younkin [23] and Deveber [92].