Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Emergency Medicine International
Volume 2012, Article ID 161630, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/161630
Review Article

Measuring Quality in Emergency Medical Services: A Review of Clinical Performance Indicators

EMS and Prehospital Care Program, Department of Emergency Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 110 72020, Lebanon

Received 8 August 2011; Accepted 15 August 2011

Academic Editor: Stephen H. Thomas

Copyright © 2012 Mazen J. El Sayed. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Callaham, “Quantifying the scanty science of prehospital emergency care,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 785–790, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. H. Brice, H. G. Garrison, and A. T. Evans, “Study design and outcomes in out-of-hospital emergency medicine research: a ten-year analysis,” Prehospital Emergency Care, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 144–150, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. A. Donabedian, Explorations in Quality Assessment and Monitoring, vol. 1 of The Definition of Quality and Approaches to Its Assessment, Health Administration Press, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 1980.
  4. American Medical Association, “Council of Medical Service. Quality of care,” JAMA, vol. 256, pp. 1032–1034, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  5. Institute of Medicine, Emergency Medical Services at a Crossroads, The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2006.
  6. M. N. Shah, “The formation of the emergency medical services system,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 414–423, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. D. M. Williams, “2006 JEMS 200-city survey. EMS from all angles,” JEMS, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 38–46, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. J. Sobo, S. Andriese, C. Stroup, D. Morgan, and P. Kurtin, “Developing indicators for emergency medical services (EMS) system evaluation and quality improvement: a statewide demonstration and planning project,” The Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 138–154, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. W. Spaite, E. A. Criss, T. D. Valenzuela, and J. Guisto, “Emergency medical service systems research: problems of the past, challenges of the future,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 146–152, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. F. Maio, H. G. Garrison, D. W. Spaire et al., “Emergency medical services outcomes project I (EMSOP I): prioritizing conditions for outcomes research,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 423–432, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. W. Spaite, R. Maio, H. G. Garrison et al., “Emergency medical services outcomes project (EMSOP) II: developing the foundation and conceptual models for out-of-hospital outcomes research,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 657–663, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. G. Laffel and D. Blumenthal, “The case for using industrial quality management science in health care organizations,” JAMA, vol. 262, no. 20, pp. 2869–2873, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. D. M. Berwick, “Continuous improvement as an ideal in the health care,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 320, no. 1, pp. 53–56, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. J. Mattera, “The evolving change in paradigm from quality assurance to continuous quality improvement in prehospital care,” Journal of Emergency Nursing, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 46–52, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Dunford, R. M. Domeier, T. Blackwell et al., “Performance measurements in emergency medical services,” Prehospital Emergency Care, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 92–98, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Dagher and R. J. Lloyd, “Developing EMS quality assessment indicators,” Prehospital and disaster medicine : the official journal of the National Association of EMS Physicians and the World Association for Emergency and Disaster Medicine in association with the Acute Care Foundation, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 69–74, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. A. Swor, S. I. Rottman, R. G. Pirrallo, and E. Davis, Eds., Quality Management in Prehospital Care, Mosby, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 1993.
  18. R. H. Brook, E. A. Mcglynn, and P. D. Cleary, “Part 2: measuring quality of care,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 335, no. 13, pp. 966–970, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  19. L. Moore, “Measuring quality and effectiveness of prehospital EMS,” Prehospital Emergency Care, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 325–331, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. B. Myers, C. M. Slovis, M. Eckstein et al., “Evidence-based performance measures for emergency medical services systems: a model for expanded EMS benchmarking,” Prehospital Emergency Care, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 141–151, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  21. The Department of Health. Office of Strategic Health Authorities. Emergency Services Review: A comparative review of international ambulance service best practice, 2009, http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/documents/digitalasset/dh_107335.pdf .
  22. J. Fitch, “Response times: myths, measurement & management,” JEMS, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 47–56, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  23. J. S. Sampalis, A. Lavoie, J. I. Williams, D. S. Mulder, and M. Kalina, “Impact of on-site care, prehospital time, and level of in-hospital care on survival in severely injured patients,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 252–261, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  24. R. W. Petri, A. Dyer, and J. Lumpkin, “The effect of prehospital transport time on the mortality from traumatic injury,” Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  25. C. D. Newgard, R. H. Schmicker, J. R. Hedges et al., “Emergency medical services intervals and survival in trauma: assessment of the “Golden Hour” in a North American prospective cohort,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 235–246, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  26. H. C. Abrams, P. H. Moyer, and K. S. Dyer, “A model of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest using the Boston EMS arrest registry,” Resuscitation, vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 999–1003, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  27. V. J. De Maio, I. G. Stiell, G. A. Wells, and D. W. Spaite, “Optimal defibrillation response intervals for maximum out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival rates,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 242–250, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. L. Price, “Treating the clock and not the patient: ambulance response times and risk,” Quality and Safety in Health Care, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 127–130, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  29. H. R. Rubin, P. Pronovost, and G. B. Diette, “The advantages and disadvantages of process-based measures of health care quality,” International Journal for Quality in Health Care, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 469–474, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. J. Mant, “Process versus outcome indicators in the assessment of quality of health care,” International Journal for Quality in Health Care, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 475–480, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. D. W. Spaite, “Outcome analysis in EMS systems,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 1310–1311, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  32. S. A. McLean, R. F. Maio, D. W. Spaite, and H. G. Garrison, “Emergency medical services outcomes research: evaluating the effectiveness of prehospital care,” Prehospital Emergency Care, vol. 6, no. 2, supplement, pp. S52–S56, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  33. K. L. Koenig, “Quo vadis: “scoop and run,” “stay and treat,” or “;treat and street”?” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 477–479, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  34. H. G. Garrison, R. F. Maio, D. W. Spaite et al., “Emergency Medical Services Outcomes Project III (EMSOP III): the role of risk adjustment in out-of-hospital outcomes research,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 79–88, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. R. O. Cummins, D. A. Chamberlain, N. S. Abramson et al., “Recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of data from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: the utstein style: a statement for health professionals from a task force of the American Heart Association, the European Resuscitation Council, and Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, and the Australian Resuscitation Council,” Circulation, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 960–975, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  36. National Fire Protection Association. Standard for the Organization and Deployment of Fire Suppression, Emergency Medical Administration Operations, and Special Operations to the Public by Career Fire Departments. National Fire Protection Association, Document No. 1710, http://www.nfpa.org.
  37. National Association of EMS Officials. EMS Performance Measures Project Report EMS Performance Measures: Recommended Attributes and Indicators for System and Service Performance, http://www.nasemso.org/Projects/PerformanceMeasures/.
  38. P. O’Meara, “A generic performance framework for ambulance services: an Australian health services perspective,” Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care, vol. 3, no. 3, Article ID 990132, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  39. D. M. Kessner and C. E. Kalk, A Strategy for Evaluating Health Services, Institute of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA, 1973.
  40. D. M. Kessner, C. E. Kalk, and J. Singer, “Assessing health quality—the case for tracers,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 288, no. 4, pp. 189–194, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  41. I. G. Stiell, G .A. Wells, and B. J. Field, “Improved out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survival through the inexpensive optimization of an existing defibrillation program: opals study phase ii. Ontario prehospital advanced life support,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 351, no. 7, pp. 647–656, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  42. E. A. McGlynn and S. M. Asch, “Developing a clinical performance measure,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 14–21, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. A. N. Siriwardena, D. Shaw, R. Donohoe, S. Black, and J. Stephenson, “Development and pilot of clinical performance indicators for English ambulance services,” Emergency Medicine Journal, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 327–331, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  44. R. Grol, “Improving the quality of medical care: building bridges among professional pride, payer profit, and patient satisfaction,” JAMA, vol. 286, no. 20, pp. 2578–2585, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Blumenthal, “Part 1: quality of care—what is it?” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 335, no. 12, pp. 891–894, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. L. A. Martin, E. C. Nelson, R. C. Lloyd, and T. W. Nolan, Whole System Measures, IHI Innovation Series White Paper, Institute for Healthcare Improvement, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2007.