Table 2: Questions of the evaluation of the phantom. All questions except no. 16 had to be answered via a visual analogue scale (VAS).

No.Type of questionQuestion

1Visualization of structures in short-axisHow well can a pericardium be recognized in the phantom?
2How well can a heart be recognized in the phantom?

3Visualization of structures in long-axisHow well can a pericardium be recognized in the phantom?
4How well can a heart be recognized in the phantom?

5Visibility and identification of a pericardial effusionHow well can free fluid be seen in the phantom?
6How well can the fluid be distinguished from the surrounding tissue?

7Ultrasound-guided punctureHow well is the puncture of the pericardium feasible?
8How well is the needle tip visible?

9Aspiration of fluid from the pericardial spaceHow well is the decrease of fluid visible?
10How well can a pigtail catheter be inserted?

11General judgement of the phantomIs the phantom realistic?
12How well does the heart correspond to a real heart?
13Training on this phantom makes me more confident in ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis.
14I am experienced in pericardiocentesis…
15I have already accomplished pericardiocentesis…
16Profession