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Enzyme Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 128676, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/128676
Research Article

Structural and Functional Analysis of the Complex between Citrate and the Zinc Peptidase Carboxypeptidase A

1Departament de Bioquímica i Biologia Molecular, Facultat de Biociències, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
2Institut de Biotecnologia i de Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain

Received 5 April 2011; Accepted 30 May 2011

Academic Editor: John J. Tanner

Copyright © 2011 Daniel Fernández et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A high-resolution carboxypeptidase-Zn2+-citrate complex was studied by X-ray diffraction and enzyme kinetics for the first time. The citrate molecule acts as a competitive inhibitor of this benchmark zinc-dependent peptidase, chelating the catalytic zinc ion in the active site of the enzyme and inducing a conformational change such that carboxypeptidase adopts the conformation expected to occur by substrate binding. Citrate adopts an extended conformation with half of the molecule facing the zinc ion, while the other half is docked in the S1′ hydrophobic specificity pocket of the enzyme, in contrast with the binding mode expected for a substrate like phenylalanine or a peptidomimetic inhibitor like benzylsuccinic acid. Combined structural and enzymatic analysis describes the characteristics of the binding of this ligand that, acting against physiologically relevant zinc-dependent proteases, may serve as a general model in the design of new drug-protecting molecules for the oral delivery of drugs of peptide origin.